Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.587
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846428

RESUMO

The immune system of ectotherms, particularly non-avian reptiles, remains poorly characterized regarding the genes involved in immune function, and their function in wild populations. We used RNA-Seq to explore the systemic response of Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) gene expression to three levels of Mycoplasma infection to better understand the host response to this bacterial pathogen. We found over an order of magnitude more genes differentially expressed between male and female tortoises (1,037 genes) than differentially expressed among immune groups (40 genes). There were 8 genes differentially expressed among both variables that can be considered sex-biased immune genes in this tortoise. Among experimental immune groups we find enriched GO biological processes for cysteine catabolism, regulation of type 1 interferon production, and regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response. Sex-biased transcription involves iron ion transport, iron ion homeostasis, and regulation of interferon-beta production to be enriched. More detailed work is needed to assess the seasonal response of the candidate genes found here. How seasonal fluctuation of testosterone and corticosterone modulate the immunosuppression of males and their susceptibility to Mycoplasma infection also warrants further investigation, as well as the importance of iron in the immune function and sex-biased differences of this species. Finally, future transcriptional studies should avoid drawing blood from tortoises via subcarapacial venipuncture as the variable aspiration of lymphatic fluid will confound the differential expression of genes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/imunologia , Tartarugas/genética , Tartarugas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , California , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Clima Desértico , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Transporte de Íons/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Nevada , Fatores Sexuais
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1020, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many species of mycoplasmas regard as normal flora, but some species causes serious genital disease. In Iran several epidemiological studies have documented the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital disorders. This meta-analysis is going to represent the prevalence of M. hominis, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum among Iranian couples and the correlation between mycoplasmas infection and infertility. METHODS: We search online databases from January 2000 to June 2019. We used following MeSH keywords (Prevalence, M. hominis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum, male, female, fertility, Infertility, genitourinary tract infection and Iran) with all possible combinations with "OR" and "AND". Finally, forty-four articles from 2670 were chosen for data extraction and analysis by software using STATA version 14.0. RESULTS: This meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of U. urealyticum was 17.53% in Iran and the prevalence of M. genitalium and M. hominis were 11.33 and 9.68% respectively. The rate of M. genitalium, M. hominis and U. urealyticum infection in women with symptoms of genitourinary tract infection was higher than men with genitourinary tract infection (6.46% vs 5.4, 7.67% vs 5.88 and 21.04% vs 12.13%, respectively). As expected, the prevalence of M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and M. hominis among infertile women (12.73, 19.58 and 10.81%) were higher than fertile women (3%, 10. 85% and 4. 35%). Similarly, the prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum among infertile men (14 and 21.18%) were higher than fertile men (4 and 3%). Based on this analysis, the rate of U. urealyticum was higher than M. genitalium and M. hominis among infertile men and women compared to the fertile group. The prevalence rate of M. genitalium, M. hominis and U. urealyticum in central provinces is higher than other parts of Iran. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis reemphasizes a significant relationship between the infertility rate and U. urealyticum, M. genitalium and M. hominis infections. Our finding help to plan the prevalence map of M. hominis, M. genitalium and U. urealyticum in Iran but further studies are needed to suggest routine screening of the pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma hominis , Infecções por Ureaplasma/epidemiologia , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Adulto , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/microbiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Ureaplasma/microbiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3535-3539, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681193

RESUMO

Parasites co-infecting hosts can interact directly and indirectly to affect parasite growth and disease manifestation. We examined potential interactions between two common parasites of house finches: the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum that causes conjunctivitis and the intestinal coccidian parasite Isospora sp. We quantified coccidia burdens prior to and following experimental infection with M. gallisepticum, exploiting the birds' range of natural coccidia burdens. Birds with greater baseline coccidia burdens developed higher M. gallisepticum loads and longer lasting conjunctivitis following inoculation. However, experimental inoculation with M. gallisepticum did not appear to alter coccidia shedding. Our study suggests that differences in immunocompetence or condition may predispose some finches to more severe infections with both pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Tentilhões , Isospora/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/parasitologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/patologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Tentilhões/microbiologia , Tentilhões/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia
4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717077

RESUMO

Developments of pulmonary diseases, often accompanied by infections of bacteria, severely affect the meat production and welfare of pigs. This study investigated 307 pigs at age of 240 d from an eight-breed cross reared under standardized housing conditions for associations among the extent of lung lesions, bacteria load inferred from 16S rRNA sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as 57 immune cells and 25 hematological traits. We showed that the pigs under study suffered substantial and varied lung lesions, and the Mycoplasma is the most associated bacteria genera. At a false discovery rate of 0.05 (FDR < 0.05), the severity of lung lesions were significantly associated with greater CD8+ to CD3+ cell ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and standard deviation of red blood cell volume distribution width (RDW-SD), and lower CD4-CD8-/CD3+, CD3+CD4-CD8-/PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and CD14-CD16-/PBMCs cell ratios, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage, reflecting an status of inflammation, immune suppression, and hypoxia of the pigs accompanying the progression of the lung lesions. The Mycoplasma abundance showed positive correlations with neutrophil count, neutrophil count percentage, NLR, monocyte count, coefficient of variation in red blood cell volume distribution width , and RDW-SD, and negative correlations with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage; these correlations are largely consistent with those of lung lesions, supporting the comorbidity of lung lesions and Mycoplasma infection. We also observed nonlinear associations that sharp increases in neutrophil count and neutrophil count percentage occurred only when Mycoplasma abundance raised above the population-average level. The results provide helpful insights into the changes of host immune status in response to Mycoplasma relevant lung diseases in pigs.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pulmão/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Linfócitos , Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Neutrófilos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722712

RESUMO

The human vagina harbor a rich microbiota. The optimal state is dominated by lactobacilli that help to maintain health and prevent various diseases. However, the microbiota may rapidly change to a polymicrobial state that has been linked to a number of diseases. In the present study, the temporal changes of the vaginal microbiota in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial vaginosis (BV) and in untreated controls were studied for 26 days. The patients included 52 women treated with azithromycin, tetracyclines or moxifloxacin for present or suspected infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium. Women with concurrent BV were also treated with metronidazole. The controls were 10 healthy women of matching age. The microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing, specific qPCRs and microscopy. There was generally good correlation between Nugent score and community state type (CST) and qPCR confirmed the sequencing results. By sequencing, more than 600 different taxa were found, but only 33 constituted more than 1 ‰ of the sequences. In both patients and controls the microbiota could be divided into three different community state types, CST-I, CST-III and CST-IV. Without metronidazole, the microbiota remained relatively stable regarding CST although changes were seen during menstrual periods. Administration of metronidazole changed the microbiota from CST-IV to CST-III in approximately 50% of the treated patients. In contrast, the CST was generally unaffected by azithromycin or tetracyclines. In 30% of the BV patients, Gardnerella vaginalis was not eradicated by metronidazole. The majority of women colonized with Ureaplasma parvum remained positive after azithromycin while U. urealyticum was eradicated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 269-278, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327249

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis is an important component of the bovine respiratory disease complex and recent reports identified that other species are also affected by M bovis. Control of the disease caused by M bovis has been unsuccessful owing to many factors, including the capacity of M bovis to evade and modulate the immune system of the host; the lack of known virulence factors; the absence of a cell wall, which renders antibiotics targeting cell-wall synthesis unusable; and the failure of vaccines to control disease on the field. The current knowledge on virulence and pathogenesis is presented in this review.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/patogenicidade , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/imunologia , Bovinos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Virulência
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276983

RESUMO

Mycoplasma haemocanis is prevalent in the endangered Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in its main stronghold, Chiloé Island (Chile). The origin of the infection, its dynamics, its presence in other fox populations and the potential consequences for fox health remain unexplored. For 8 years, hemoplasmal DNA was screened and characterized in blood from 82 foxes in Chiloé and two other fox populations and in 250 free-ranging dogs from Chiloé. The prevalence of M. haemocanis in foxes was constant during the study years, and coinfection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" was confirmed in 30% of the foxes. Both hemoplasma species were detected in the two mainland fox populations and in Chiloé dogs. M. haemocanis was significantly more prevalent and more genetically diverse in foxes than in dogs. Two of the seven M. haemocanis haplotypes identified were shared between these species. Network analyses did not show genetic structure by species (foxes versus dogs), geographic (island versus mainland populations), or temporal (years of study) factors. The probability of infection with M. haemocanis increased with fox age but was not associated with sex, season, or degree of anthropization of individual fox habitats. Some foxes recaptured years apart were infected with the same haplotype in both events, and no hematological alterations were associated with hemoplasma infection, suggesting tolerance to the infection. Altogether, our results indicate that M. haemocanis is enzootic in the Darwin's fox and that intraspecific transmission is predominant. Nevertheless, such a prevalent pathogen in a threatened species represents a concern that must be considered in conservation actions.IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma haemocanis is enzootic in Darwin's foxes. There is a higher M. haemocanis genetic diversity and prevalence in foxes than in sympatric dogs, although haplotypes are shared between the two carnivore species. There is an apparent tolerance of Darwin's foxes to Mycoplasma haemocanis.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Raposas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 139-143, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182439

RESUMO

MALDI-TOF MS is a fast and accurate tool to identify Mycoplasma species in liquid media. However, when trying to identify presumptive Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) colonies from solid medium (the "direct transfer method") a surprisingly high occurrence of M. arginini and M. alkalescens identification was observed. It was hypothesized that agar medium components are associated with false positive identification with Mycoplasma spp., as M. bovis colonies are very small and grow into the agar. The objective of this study was to determine whether complete modified pleuropneumonia-like organism (PPLO) agar (supplemented with horse serum, sodium pyruvate, technical yeast extract, ampicillin sodium salt and colistin) and the separate components, result in false identification as Mycoplasma spp. by MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 33% of the modified PPLO agar spots were identified as M. alkalescens (16%) and M. arginini (17%)), albeit with relatively low score values (< 1.85). No false identification of M. bovis was obtained. Several medium components (unsupplemented PPLO agar, horse serum and colistin) resulted in spectra with peaks showing close matches with peaks present in the M. alkalescens and M. arginini database spectra. This study shows that the direct transfer method should be interpreted with caution, and one should strive to pick as little as possible agar when sampling Mycoplasma-like colonies from solid medium containing PPLO agar, horse serum and/or colistin.


Assuntos
Ágar/química , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Meios de Cultura/química , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
9.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 46, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209128

RESUMO

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a pathogen involved in canine infectious respiratory disease complex, can be confirmed using culture or qPCR. Studies about the canine lung microbiota (LM) are recent, sparse, and only one paper has been published in canine lung infection. In this study, we aimed to compare the LM between Bb infected and healthy dogs, and to correlate sequencing with culture and qPCR results. Twenty Bb infected dogs diagnosed either by qPCR and/or culture and 4 healthy dogs were included. qPCR for Mycoplasma cynos (Mc) were also available in 18 diseased and all healthy dogs. Sequencing results, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after DNA extraction, PCR targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing, showed the presence of Bb in all diseased dogs, about half being co-infected with Mc. In diseased compared with healthy dogs, the ß-diversity changed (P = 0.0024); bacterial richness and α-diversity were lower (P = 0.012 and 0.0061), and bacterial load higher (P = 0.004). Bb qPCR classes and culture results correlated with the abundance of Bb (r = 0.71, P < 0.001 and r = 0.70, P = 0.0022). Mc qPCR classes also correlated with the abundance of Mc (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Bb infection induced lung dysbiosis, characterized by high bacterial load, low richness and diversity and increased abundance of Bb, compared with healthy dogs. Sequencing results highly correlate with qPCR and culture results showing that sequencing can be reliable to identify microorganisms involved in lung infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Bordetella/veterinária , Bordetella bronchiseptica/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Bordetella/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cães , Microbiota , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
10.
Infect Immun ; 88(5)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122943

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the primary etiological agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens. Live attenuated vaccines are most commonly used in the field to control the disease, but current vaccines have some limitations. Vaxsafe MG (strain ts-304) is a new vaccine candidate that is efficacious at a lower dose than the current commercial vaccine strain ts-11, from which it is derived. In this study, the transcriptional profiles of the trachea of unvaccinated chickens and chickens vaccinated with strain ts-304 were compared 2 weeks after challenge with M. gallisepticum strain Ap3AS during the chronic stage of infection. After challenge, genes, gene ontologies, pathways, and protein classes involved in inflammation, cytokine production and signaling, and cell proliferation were upregulated, while those involved in formation and motor movement of cilia, formation of intercellular junctional complexes, and formation of the cytoskeleton were downregulated in the unvaccinated birds compared to the vaccinated birds, reflecting immune dysregulation and the pathological changes induced in the trachea by infection with M. gallisepticum Vaccination appears to protect the structural and functional integrity of the tracheal mucosa 2 weeks after infection with M. gallisepticum.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Traqueia/imunologia , Traqueia/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075244

RESUMO

Studies of the human microbiome have elucidated an array of complex interactions between prokaryotes and their hosts. However, precise bacterial pathogen-cancer relationships remain largely elusive, although several bacteria, particularly those establishing persistent intra-cellular infections, like mycoplasmas, can alter host cell cycles, affect apoptotic pathways, and stimulate the production of inflammatory substances linked to DNA damage, thus potentially promoting abnormal cell growth and transformation. Consistent with this idea, in vivo experiments in several chemically induced or genetically deficient mouse models showed that germ-free conditions reduce colonic tumor formation. We demonstrate that mycoplasma DnaK, a chaperone protein belonging to the Heath shock protein (Hsp)-70 family, binds Poly-(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-1, a protein that plays a critical role in the pathways involved in recognition of DNA damage and repair, and reduces its catalytic activity. It also binds USP10, a key p53 regulator, reducing p53 stability and anti-cancer functions. Finally, we showed that bystander, uninfected cells take up exogenous DnaK-suggesting a possible paracrine function in promoting cellular transformation, over and above direct mycoplasma infection. We propose that mycoplasmas, and perhaps certain other bacteria with closely related DnaK, may have oncogenic activity, mediated through the inhibition of DNA repair and p53 functions, and may be involved in the initiation of some cancers but not necessarily involved nor necessarily even be present in later stages.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Apoptose/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mycoplasma/patogenicidade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 719-724, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029157

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) represent the most important avian Mycoplasma species in the poultry industry, causing considerable economic losses. In Italy, the presence of MG or MS has been investigated especially in commercial poultry farms. To our knowledge, no systematic investigations on MG or MS presence using highly specific diagnostic assays have been performed in backyard poultry. The aim of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize MG and MS strains in 11 backyard poultry flocks located in different regions of Italy. Tracheal swabs were collected and DNA was extracted. For MS, a PCR targeting a vlhA gene fragment was performed, and typing and subtyping was attempted. The presence of MG was investigated by a screening PCR, then MG typing by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS). All the amplicons were sequenced, then MG and MS dendrograms were constructed. All the flocks examined resulted Mycoplasma positive: 5 out of 11 (45.45%) were MG and MS positive, 3 (27.27%) were MG positive, and the remaining 3 (27.27%) were MS positive. The MS detections were assigned to types C, D, and F. All strains of type D belonged to subtype D1 and 2 unknown subtypes were identified. A MS sequence showed peculiar characteristics, which did not allow assignment to a known MS type or subtype. MG GTS analysis identified 6 MG strains belonging to 5 subclusters circulating in Italian backyards chicken flocks. The results of this study provide evidence of a risk for commercial poultry farms, especially in areas where backyard and commercial farms are close, suggesting the implementation of biosecurity measures.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Itália , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 244-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958047

RESUMO

Introduction. Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism with high levels of resistance to the recommended first-line therapy, azithromycin. The ResistancePlus MG test concurrently detects M. genitalium, and the presence of macrolide-resistance mutations (MRM). European, UK and Australian guidelines recommend a diagnostic test that reports MRM to optimize treatment through resistance-guided therapy. Hence, for samples collected for use on other platforms, reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test would be beneficial.Aim. To validate the ResistancePlus MG assay using samples collected in Aptima buffer for testing on the Hologic Panther.Methodology. Positive (n=99) and negative (n=229) clinical samples collected in Aptima buffer were extracted on the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics), and tested with the ResistancePlus MG test on the LightCycler 480 II (Roche Diagnostics). Results were compared to matched samples collected using standard sample collection (urine or swab resuspended in PBS), with positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA) and Cohen's Kappa statistic.Results. The ResistancePlus MG test had high performance with a 200 µl input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 92.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 85.5-96.9]/100 % [95 % CI: 97.9-100], MRM detection, 96.9 % [95 % CI: 88.2-99.5]/85.7 % [95 % CI: 66.4-95.3]) and for 1 ml input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 95.9%/96.6%, MRM detection, 98.4%/90.3%). Samples remained positive after storage at room temperature beyond the manufacturer-recommended storage of <60 days (mean storage time for 1 ml extraction: 129 days).Conclusion. Samples collected using Aptima collection kits are suitable for reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test, allowing detection of macrolide resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 7, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma sp. are well recognized as etiological agents of respiratory and sexually transmitted disease. Mycoplasma penetrans, a species of Mycoplasma sp., has been frequently detected in HIV-positive patients and associated with the progression of HIV-associated disease. To date, there is only a single case report describing M. penetrans as the causative agent of a severe respiratory tract infection in a HIV-negative patient. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe the case of M. penetrans bacteremia in a HIV-negative, 38-year-old, female, immunocompromised, solid organ transplant patient (combined kidney and pancreas transplantation in 2016), who was admitted to our hospital with anemic uterine bleeding and fever of 38.3 °C. Several hours before her admission at our university hospital, a latex bladder catheter was inserted into her uterus and she complained about fatigue, dizziness and ongoing vaginal bleeding. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia, but microbiological examination was inconspicuous (culture negative vaginal and cervical smears, negative urine culture). Bacterial blood cultures showed a growth signal after 4 h, but microscopic examination with Gram staining and subcultures on different agar media did not identify bacterial pathogens. To identify the bacterial cause of malignancy in the patient, metagenomic sequencing of the blood culture was performed that identified M. penetrans. CONCLUSION: Metagenomic sequencing identified M. penetrans in an immunosuppressed patient with culture-negative bacteremia. Clinicians should be aware of the opportunistic potential of M. penetrans that may cause severe infections in certain vulnerable patient populations and the limitations of culture and Gram staining for confirming the presence of fastidious bacterial pathogens like Mycoplasma spp.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Metagenômica , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma penetrans , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Bacteriemia/genética , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma penetrans/genética , Mycoplasma penetrans/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Pâncreas , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e6, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933451

RESUMO

Cervids represent a mammal group which plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. Recent studies have highlighted the role of these species as reservoirs for several arthropods-borne pathogens. Globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are emerging or remerging bacteria that attach to red blood cells of several mammals species causing hemolytic anaemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning of Mycoplasma ovis in free-ranging deer from Brazil. Using a polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA region, 18 (40%) out of 45 sampled deer were positive to M. ovis. Among the nine sequences analysed, four distinct genotypes were identified. The sequences detected in the present study were closely related to sequences previously identified in deer from Brazil and the USA. On the other hand, the Neighbour-Net network analysis showed that the human-associated M. ovis genotypes were related to genotypes detected in sheep and goats. The present study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of M. ovis in Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama bororo deer species, expanding the knowledge on the hosts harbouring this haemoplasma species. Once several deer species have your population in decline, additional studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenicity of M. ovis among deer populations around the world and assess its potential as reservoir hosts to human infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genótipo , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18499, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the association between Mycoplasma fermentans (M. fermentans) and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the results were inconsistent. The present study aims to systematically review reported studies on M. fermentans and its association with HIV-1 infection, as well as to summarize the findings using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies meeting the inclusion criteria in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and Chongqing VIP databases up to March 2019 were identified. Cochran Q and I statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Additionally, pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and displayed by Forest plots. Also, the funnel plot, Begg test, and Egger test were used to evaluate potential publication bias. In addition, the source of heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies comprising 1028 HIV-1-positive patients and 1298 controls were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that M. fermentans could increase the risk of HIV-1 infection among humans (OR = 3.66, 95%CI 1.26-10.64). Subgroup analysis showed that the risk of HIV-1 infection associated with M. fermentans was, based on the geographical distribution, 1.19 (95%CI 0.33-4.33) in Europe, 2.83 (95%CI 0.94-8.52) in United States, 11.92 (95%CI 3.93-36.15) in Asia; based on the source of the sample, 2.97 (95%CI 0.89-9.95) in blood samples, 4.36 (95%CI 1.63-11.68) in urine samples; based on the detection method, 2.80 (95%CI 0.72-10.96) with the polymerase chain reaction method, 5.54 (95%CI 1.21-25.28) with other detection methods; based on the source of controls, 1.91 (95%CI 0.53-6.89) in sexually transmitted diseases individuals, and 8.25 (95%CI 2.16-31.60) in health individuals. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed evidence of the association between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection. Considering the heterogeneity, further studies are warranted to understand the relationship between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mycoplasma fermentans/metabolismo , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma fermentans/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108541, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902489

RESUMO

Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs and is closely related to M. hyorhinis, which can be isolated from the healthy mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract. In rare cases it can also cause arthritis and polyserositis. Since the innate immune system is an important first line of defense and promotes adaptive immune responses, we characterized the innate immune response of various antigen presenting cells (APCs) to M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis, which differ in their pathogenicity in vivo. Porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of live and inactivated porcine mycoplasmas. Both Mycoplasma species induced strong tumour necrosis factor (TNF) responses in monocytes, with a stronger activation by M. hyorhinis. This higher stimulatory activity was also confirmed for CD40 upregulation. Conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (cDC and pDC, respectively) did not or poorly respond to mycoplasmas in terms of TNF expression but more efficiently in terms of CD40 upregulation. Again, these responses were generally stronger with M. hyorhinis than with M. hyopneumoniae. Both Mycoplasma species also activated B cells in terms of CD25 upregulation, proliferation, and IgM secretion. Interestingly, while the induction of CD25 and in particular proliferation was higher with M. hyorhinis, the IgM secretion did not differ between the two species with the exception of the highest dose of M. hyopneumoniae,which appeared to suppress IgM responses. Taken together, our results provide a comparative analysis of innate immune response with different porcine APCs and demonstrate Mycoplasma species-dependent differences, which could relate to their different pathogenicity in vivo.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/imunologia , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/microbiologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/genética , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/patogenicidade , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 396-398, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence shows that patients using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have an increased rate of bacterial STIs, including syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Our study aimed to describe the acquisition and the susceptibility for macrolides of Mycoplasma genitalium in men who have sex with men (MSM) on PrEP. METHODS: We studied all MSM who started PrEP in the AZ Sint-Jan Hospital Bruges from 1 June 2017 to 31 March 2019 with at least one follow-up visit. Patients were screened for M. genitalium and other STIs with pooled rectal swabs, pharyngeal swabs and first-voided urine, and blood samples at baseline and quarterly intervals after initiating PrEP. TaqMan Array Card technology was used to detect M. genitalium and determine macrolide-resistance mediating mutations in region V of the 23S rRNA gene (A2058G, A2059G, A2058C and others). Patients with an STI were treated based on a national guideline. RESULTS: 131 MSM (median age 40 years, range 20-79) were included in the study. The median follow-up time was 12 months (IQR 6.1-17). Baseline prevalence of M. genitalium was 6.9% and incidence rate after PrEP initiation was 28.8 per 100 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 37.2), without significant differences in proportions between the first four quarterly intervals. All but one acquisitions were asymptomatic. Younger age and positivity for M. genitalium at baseline were significantly associated with incident M. genitalium acquisition. The observed proportion of macrolide resistance increased not significantly from 44% at baseline to 57%-86% after PrEP initiation. None of the 27 macrolide-resistant M. genitalium acquisitions could be linked to azithromycin exposure in the three preceding months. CONCLUSIONS: After initiation of PrEP, we found a stable incidence of almost exclusively asymptomatic M. genitalium. However, a non-significant trend of an increased percentage of macrolide-resistant strains was observed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bissexualidade , Cancroide/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA