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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18499, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the association between Mycoplasma fermentans (M. fermentans) and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the results were inconsistent. The present study aims to systematically review reported studies on M. fermentans and its association with HIV-1 infection, as well as to summarize the findings using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies meeting the inclusion criteria in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and Chongqing VIP databases up to March 2019 were identified. Cochran Q and I statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Additionally, pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and displayed by Forest plots. Also, the funnel plot, Begg test, and Egger test were used to evaluate potential publication bias. In addition, the source of heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies comprising 1028 HIV-1-positive patients and 1298 controls were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that M. fermentans could increase the risk of HIV-1 infection among humans (OR = 3.66, 95%CI 1.26-10.64). Subgroup analysis showed that the risk of HIV-1 infection associated with M. fermentans was, based on the geographical distribution, 1.19 (95%CI 0.33-4.33) in Europe, 2.83 (95%CI 0.94-8.52) in United States, 11.92 (95%CI 3.93-36.15) in Asia; based on the source of the sample, 2.97 (95%CI 0.89-9.95) in blood samples, 4.36 (95%CI 1.63-11.68) in urine samples; based on the detection method, 2.80 (95%CI 0.72-10.96) with the polymerase chain reaction method, 5.54 (95%CI 1.21-25.28) with other detection methods; based on the source of controls, 1.91 (95%CI 0.53-6.89) in sexually transmitted diseases individuals, and 8.25 (95%CI 2.16-31.60) in health individuals. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed evidence of the association between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection. Considering the heterogeneity, further studies are warranted to understand the relationship between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mycoplasma fermentans/metabolismo , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma fermentans/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108407, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585644

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) can target host cells and cause chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens that is characterized by pMGA and concomitant. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been manifested are crucial regulatory noncoding RNAs with important effects on microbial pathogenesis and inflammatory response, how miRNAs regulate MG-induced inflammation remains to be discovered. The results showed that gga-miR-21 was up-regulated in MG-infected chicken embryonic lungs and MG infection of chicken embryo fibroblast cells (DF-1) compared with the control group. Overexpression of gga-miR-21 increased the inflammatory cytokines production, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) after MG infection, knockdown of gga-miR-21 had thoroughly inverse effects. Gene expression data combined with bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1(MAP3K1) was a novel target of gga-miR-21. The inhibition of MAP3K1 by gga-miR-21 resulted in the accumulation of NF-κB in the nucleus, which in turn generate higher inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, upregulation of gga-miR-21 significantly inhibited MG propagation and promoted MG-infected DF-1 cells proliferation by increasing the cell cycle progression and suppressing cell apoptosis. Our study provides evidence for proinflammatory effects of gga-miR-21 which is mediated at least in part by targeting MAP3K1 in the MG-infected DF-1 cells. gga-miR-21 activates MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways via targeting MAP3K1, and then promotes the production of inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation by increasing the cell cycle progression and suppressing cell apoptosis to defend against MG infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Regulação para Cima
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 827, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worldwide expansion of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in cases of genital infections has led to an increased recurrence rate of these infections after first-line azithromycin treatment. By detecting the presence of azithromycin-resistant MG, the patient's antibiotic treatment can be targeted and the spread of resistance prevented. With this aim in mind, macrolide-resistance detection kits are helpful tools for the physician. METHODS: Azithromycin resistance mutations in MG are targeted using a four-color multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay. Tested targets include plasmid DNA (as positive controls) as well as macrolide-sensitive and macrolide-resistant genomic DNA from characterized cell lines and clinical samples. RESULTS: The analytical data presented here were generated from plasmid DNA and genomic RNA/DNA and include adaptation to an internal control, specificity between targets, specificity vs non-MG species, limit of detection (LoD) and interference studies (co-infection and endogenous substances). The clinical data were based on the application of the assay to clinical samples characterized by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: A new NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test) prototype has been developed in collaboration with the Diagenode s.a. company, this prototype targets MG and azithromycin-resistance mutations in that pathogen.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mutação , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Clin Nephrol ; 92(5): 263-272, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496514

RESUMO

Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) was previously thought to be due mostly to Streptococcus species, but is now known to be caused by a variety of other pathogens. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) was originally isolated from group A streptococci as the protein responsible for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and was shown to be identical to streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Here, we describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae IRGN presenting with acute nephritic syndrome. Laboratory data revealed a significant increase in serum anti-M. pneumoniae antibody titer. Renal biopsy revealed diffuse global endocapillary proliferation and cellular crescents in 5/43 glomeruli examined. Although antistreptolysin O antibody titer and serum complement C3 level were within the respective normal ranges, glomeruli showed positive staining for NAPlr and upregulation of plasmin activity. In addition, positive staining for NAPlr in the glomeruli was abolished by preabsorption of anti-NAPlr antibody with recombinant M. pneumoniae GAPDH. Western blotting analysis revealed anti-NAPlr antibody reactivity with a band at around the predicted size of GAPDH in the protein isolate of M. pneumoniae (37 kDa). Furthermore, immobilized M. pneumoniae GAPDH bound to anti-NAPlr antibody as well as plasmin in vitro. These data suggest that M. pneumoniae GAPDH has a function similar to streptococcal GAPDH (NAPlr) and may induce plasmin-related glomerular damage in M. pneumoniae IRGN. NAPlr could be a marker of glomerulonephritis related to infection not only by streptococci but also by &M. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias , Glomerulonefrite/microbiologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Doença Aguda , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/imunologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/enzimologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 216: 109920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446205

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis causes chronic arthritis in calves. Mycoplasma arthritis shows severe inflammatory reactions in joints that is commonly treated with antibiotics and results in significant economic losses in the calf industry. A previous study showed that inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by synovial cells promote progression of the pathophysiology of bacterial arthritis. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of bovine Mycoplasma arthritis has not been fully clarified. In this study, we examined the immunologic response of bovine synovial tissue to M. bovis. We observed significant increases in expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-3 mRNA in synovial tissue from Mycoplasma arthritis calves compared with tissues from normal calves. Expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 mRNA was also induced in cultured synovial cells stimulated with M. bovis, but not expression of IL-1ß and MMP-3 mRNA. In contrast, the culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with M. bovis induced marked increases in the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-3 mRNA in synovial cells. Our results indicate that inflammatory cytokines and MMPs produced by synovial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma arthritis. We suggest that interactions between synovial cells and mononuclear cells in the presence of M. bovis induce expression of these cytokines and MMPs in synovial cells, resulting in severe inflammatory reactions in the joints.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Mycoplasma bovis , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Metaloproteases/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/genética
7.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103635, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mycoplasma hominis (M.hominis) infections are sexually transmitted and usually associated with urogenital and respiratory diseases. The aim of our study was to (i) detect M. hominis in the vaginal and urine samples of sexually active women using three different detection methods and (ii) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and recurrence after the treatment. METHODS: Both vaginal and urine samples were collected from 110 sexually active women at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Baskent University Ankara Hospital, Turkey, between March 2015 and February 2016. The presence of M. hominis in the vaginal and urine samples was detected by in vitro culture, two biochemical diagnostics kits (Mycoplasma IES (Autobio, China) and Mycoplasma IST-2 (BioMérieux, France) and PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility of each sample was tested using the kits. The women positive for M. hominis were treated either singly or along with their sexual partners by tetracycline. RESULTS: M. hominis was detected in 72 of 220 (32.7%) samples (both vaginal and urine). Of which 37 showed contrary results with two different kits and then were confirmed by PCR. In 13 samples the IES kit identified M. hominis missed by IST-2, and in 8 samples the MIST-2 kit identified M. hominis missed by IES, while both kits missed 6 samples that were agar culture positive for M. hominis." The highest susceptibility rate was observed against pristinamycin (100%), followed by 91%, 83%, and 75% for doxycycline, tetracycline, and josamycin, respectively. Twenty-five patients treated with tetracycline were followed after one month. The recurrence of M. hominis was not observed in any of the 18 cases where both sexual partners were treated but recurred in 5 of the 7 singly treated women. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of M. hominis detection was significantly higher in the vaginal samples compared to the urine samples. The probability of detecting M. hominis by IST-2 kit was 1.18 times less than IES kit (p < 0.001). When the relationship between the samples was examined, the difference between IES and IST-2 for detecting M. hominis was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the tetracycline group of antibiotics was effective in eliminating M. hominis when given to both the sexual partners.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma hominis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Josamicina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma hominis/genética , Obstetrícia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Turquia , Vagina/microbiologia
8.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1880-1891, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of mycoplasmas in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of dogs is debated, because mycoplasmas can be isolated from both healthy and sick dogs. OBJECTIVES: To critically assess available data from controlled observational studies on the role of 4 mycoplasma species in LRT disease of dogs. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant publications. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses, stratified by mycoplasmal species, were performed using a random effects Bayesian model with noninformative priors to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma spumans, and Mycoplasma edwardii and LRT disease in dogs. RESULTS: Five studies were included from 1201 references identified. All studies dealt with M. cynos, whereas 3 dealt with the other mycoplasma species. A significant association was found between M. cynos and LRT disease (Bayesian OR, 3.60; CI, 1.31-10.29). Conversely, M. canis, M. spumans, and M. edwardii were not significantly associated with LRT signs (Bayesian OR, 1.06; CI, 0.10-14.63; Bayesian OR, 3.40; CI, 0.16-54.27; and Bayesian OR, 1.04; CI, 0.05-23.54, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Results support a pathogenic role of M. cynos and a commensal role of M. canis and M. edwardii in LRT in dogs. Although the association was not significant based on the CI, the point estimate of the Bayesian OR was relatively high for M. spumans, making its role less clear. Mycoplasma cynos-specific polymerase chain reaction should be considered on samples from dogs with LRT.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma/patogenicidade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
9.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 55, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324222

RESUMO

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis are two phylogenetically related species colonizing the respiratory tract of pigs but differing in pathogenicity, the basis of which is not well resolved. We hypothesize that genes belonging to the species-specific portion of the genome and being non-essential during ideal laboratory growth conditions encode possible virulent determinants and are the driver of interspecies differences. To investigate this, transposon mutant libraries were generated for both species and a transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) method for mycoplasmas was established to identify non-essential genes. Tn-seq datasets combined with bidirectional Blastp analysis revealed that 101 out of a total 678 coding sequences (CDS) are species-specific and non-essential CDS of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C, while 96 out of a total 751 CDS are species-specific and non-essential CDS in the M. hyorhinis strain JF5820. Among these species-specific and non-essential CDS were genes involved in metabolic pathways. In particular, the myo-inositol and the sialic acid pathways were found to be non-essential and therefore could be considered important to the specific pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis, respectively. Such pathways could enable the use of an alternative energy source providing an advantage in their specific niche and might be interesting targets to knock out in order to generate attenuated live vaccines.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/genética , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/microbiologia , Animais , Biblioteca Gênica , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/patogenicidade , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Suínos , Virulência/genética
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 766-769, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342882

RESUMO

Conjunctivitis is an uncommon finding in commercial swine herds, and the etiology of the disease is rarely studied. We investigated cases of conjunctivitis in 3 wean-to-finish swine farms. Eye swabs and tissues were obtained from clinically affected pigs (8-22 wk of age), from unaffected pigs in contact with affected pen-mates, and from age-matched pigs from an unaffected herd. Real-time PCR (rtPCR) testing for Mycoplasma hyorhinis demonstrated consistent detection and high bacterial load in samples from affected herds (clinically affected animals and non-clinical pen-mates). Ct values in affected pigs were 18.9-25.3; values were 36.4-38.6 in unaffected pigs from unaffected herds. Additionally, M. hyorhinis was identified within inflamed palpebral conjunctivae by in situ hybridization. The association of rtPCR and in situ detection of M. hyorhinis, along with the lack of detection of other potential pathogens and noninfectious causes, suggests the involvement of M. hyorhinis in the etiology and pathogenesis of the reported swine conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/microbiologia , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 378, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two hemoplasma species, Mycoplasma suis and M. parvum, previously known as Eperythrozoon suis and E. parvum, respectively, have been identified in pigs. Swine hemoplasmosis is a global problem, and M. suis infection results in economic losses to pig producers worldwide. This study investigated the frequency and distribution of hemotropic mycoplasmas in pig farms of Korea. As hemoplasmas can be transmitted by ticks, we also analyzed the presence of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. METHODS: We screened 1867 samples from 464 pig farms located in four regions of Korea over the period from 2014 to 2018. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of pathogen-specific markers for species identification. RESULTS: Of the 1867 pigs evaluated in the study, three (0.2%), 51 (2.7%), and one (0.1%) were found to be infected with M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis, respectively; Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. The 16S rRNA sequences of M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis were highly similar (99.3-100%, 99.6-100%, and 99.6-100%, respectively) to those of Mycoplasma spp. isolated from other countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nationwide, large-scale study of the molecular detection of Mycoplasma spp. in domestic pigs in Korea. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Mycoplasma infections are widespread in Korean domestic pigs, and that continuous monitoring and control strategies are required to prevent the spread of hemoplasmas, which, in addition to causing economic losses in the pig industry, pose a potential threat to public health. As transmission routes of hemoplasmas remain unelucidated, additional epidemiological studies are recommended to identify reservoirs and vectors of Mycoplasma spp. in Korea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Borrelia/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 494, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking apps (Apps) to seek partners. However, the relationship of app use with HIV risk is unknown. Further, the risks of some sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including Mycoplasma genitalium, have seldom been studied among MSM. METHODS: MSM were enrolled at a community-based HIV testing site in Shenyang, China. After completing a questionnaire survey, we collected rectal swabs and venous blood specimens. We then simultaneously tested for ten STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Neisseria gonorrhea [NG], Ureaplasma urealyticum [Uu], Ureaplasma parvum species [Up1, Up3, Up6, Up14), Mycoplasma hominis [Mh], Mycoplasma genitalium [Mg], and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) using multiple PCR. We also performed blood tests for HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis C antibody (HCV-Ab), Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), and Hepatitis A-IgM (HAV-IgM), etc. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three MSM participated in this study, of which 51.4% reported seeking partners through apps in the past year. The prevalence of HIV was 19.7%, Syphilis 12.0%, HAV 1.1%, rectal Mg 15.3% and Mh 7.1%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that HIV infection was independently correlated with app-using behavior (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] = 2.6), Mg infection (aOR = 3.2), Mh infection (aOR = 4.1) and Syphilis infection (aOR = 3.1) (each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: App use, Mg, Mh and Syphilis infection were correlated with higher HIV Risk in MSM. Geosocial networking apps should be utilized for HIV interventions targeting MSM. There is a need for more expansive STIs screening, particularly for Mg, Mh and Syphilis in MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , HIV , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/classificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238581

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been determined to be important regulators for pathogenic microorganism infection. However, it is largely unclear how miRNAs are triggered during pathogen infection. We previously reported that the up-regulation of gga-miR-451 negatively regulates the Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines via targeting tyrosine3-monooxygenase/tryptophan5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta (YWHAZ). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism regulating gga-miR-451 in MG infection in chickens. Analysis of gga-miR-451 precursor, pri-miR-451, and pre-miR-451 indicated that the regulation occurred transcriptionally. We also identified the transcriptional regulatory region of gga-miR-451 that contained consensus-binding motif for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) complex, which is known as the transcription factor that regulates gene expression. Luciferase reporter assays combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that AhR:Arnt bound directly to the promoter elements of gga-miR-451, which were responsible for gga-miR-451 transcription in the context of MG infection. Furthermore, upregulation of AhR:Arnt significantly induced gga-miR-451 and inhibited YWHAZ expression, suggesting that AhR:Arnt may play an anti-inflammatory role in MG infection. This discovery suggests that induced gga-miR-451 expression is modulated by AhR:Arnt in response to MG infection.


Assuntos
Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/metabolismo , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Fibroblastos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ativação Transcricional
18.
Infect Immun ; 87(9)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235640

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an avian respiratory and reproductive tract pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the poultry industry worldwide. Although membrane proteins of Mycoplasma spp. are thought to play crucial roles in host interactions, very few have had their biochemical function defined. In this study, we found that the GroEL protein (heat shock protein 60) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum could induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism was further determined. The GroEL gene from Mycoplasma gallisepticum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to facilitate the functional analysis of recombinant protein. The purified GroEL protein was shown to adhere to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and DF-1 cells and cause apoptosis in PBMCs. A protein pulldown assay coupled with mass spectrometry identified that annexin A2 possibly interacted with GroEL protein. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that GroEL proteins could bind to annexin A2, and confocal analysis further demonstrated that GroEL colocolized with annexin A2 in HEK293T cells and PBMCs. Moreover, annexin A2 expression was significantly induced by a recombinant GroEL protein in PBMCs, and knocking down annexin A2 expression resulted in significantly reduced apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that GroEL induces apoptosis in host cells by interacting with annexin A2, a novel virulence mechanism in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Our findings lead to a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis in Mycoplasma gallisepticum.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/fisiologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Chaperonina 60/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/patogenicidade , Animais , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
19.
Cornea ; 38(10): 1305-1308, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of pediatric respiratory infections, with a quarter having extrapulmonary complications, most commonly a mucocutaneous eruption involving the ocular surface. A detailed description of the ophthalmic manifestations in Mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis (MIRM) is currently lacking in the scientific literature. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive cases of MIRM at a tertiary referral children's hospital between October 1 and December 1, 2018, with up to 2 months of follow-up. Main outcomes and measures were demographic information, clinical examination findings including visual acuity, detailed anterior segment findings, and course of both ophthalmic and systemic disease. RESULTS: Five patients were included. Age range was 8 to 17 years (mean age 11.9 years, median 11 years), with a strong male preponderance (4:1). All patients had inflammatory conjunctivitis. One patient had recurrent conjunctival pseudomembrane formation, whereas 2 patients had lid margin and conjunctival ulceration. No cases had corneal involvement and visual outcomes were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: MIRM is associated with ocular involvement in almost all cases. Although this is generally mild, conjunctival epithelial defects and pseudomembrane formation can occur. We recommend that pediatric ophthalmologists follow children who are hospitalized with MIRM as closely as they would those diagnosed with other mucocutaneous syndromes, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Córnea/patologia , Exantema/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Mucosite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Exantema/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosite/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1219-1223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220405

RESUMO

AIMS: Mycoplasma genitalium causes a common, sexually transmitted bacterial infection. This study assessed the detection of M. genitalium in stored urine samples to understand the impact of sample storage on M. genitalium detection. METHODS: Aliquots of M. genitalium-positive urine (n = 20 patients) were stored at either room temperature (22°C) or 4°C, without a preservative. At weekly intervals, samples were tested using the commercial test ResistancePlus MG® (SpeeDx® , Australia). We report the analysis at 1 week, an acceptable collection-to-test turnaround time, with further analysis over 5 weeks to illustrate degradation trends. RESULTS: After storing at 4°C, the proportion of specimens that remained positive for M. genitalium was 100% after 1 week and 95% after 4 weeks. Storage at 22°C led to more rapid decline in detection in the first 4 weeks, with 95% detected after 1 week and 85% at 2 weeks onwards. At 5 weeks, samples stored at both temperatures had an 85% M. genitalium detection rate, with increase in crossing points (Cq) of 0·72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·01-1·43; P-trend = 0·027) at 4°C, and 1·75 ((95% CI 0·79-2·71), P-trend <0·001) at 22°C. CONCLUSIONS: Urine samples stored without preservative, and unfrozen, retained high M. genitalium detection levels over the short term (up to 5 weeks). To minimize degradation, storing at 4°C is recommended. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: There is little known about the stability of clinical samples for M. genitalium detection. This study found that a high proportion (85-100%) of samples are still suitable for M. genitalium detection after storage for up to 5 weeks.


Assuntos
Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma genitalium , Manejo de Espécimes , Urinálise , Austrália , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação
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