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2.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 252, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) suis mainly occurs via iatrogenic or zootechnical manipulations or due to ranking fights. Other transmission routes including ingestion of secretes/excretes; blood-sucking arthropods and intra-uterine transmission have thought to play an epidemiological role without being experimentally proven. To investigate a vertical transmission of M. suis under field conditions blood samples from pre-suckling piglets and their corresponding dam were examined for M. suis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 21 farms in Southern Germany. RESULTS: A total of 14.35% of the 474 blood samples from pre-suckling piglets reacted qPCR positive. Additionally, M. suis was detected in 65 (31.25%) of the 208 sows at farrowing. On farm level, 16 (76.2%) of the 21 farms had at least one M. suis positive animal. M. suis positive farms had an average of 0.41 more stillborn piglets per litter than M. suis negative farms (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The present study provides further insights into M. suis infection dynamics as it is the first detection of M. suis in piglets immediately after birth prior to colostrum intake and the first large scale investigation of M. suis in sows at farrowing.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Natimorto/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
4.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4492-4497, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180119

RESUMO

In ovo vaccination is currently being considered as a means of delivery for live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines. This study was performed to determine the transmissibility of strain F MG (FMG) from in ovo-vaccinated chicks to non-vaccinated pen mates. Eggs from an MG clean flock were incubated together for 18 D, at which point all live embryonated eggs were either not injected or administered a dilution of an FMG vaccine at 106 CFU per dose, 1 × 104 CFU per dose, 1 × 102 CFU per dose, or 1 CFU per dose. Non-injected eggs were hatched in a separate incubator. Ten non-injected, sentinel birds, and 1 in ovo-vaccinated FMG chick were placed in each of 32 isolation units located in 2 replicate rooms (8 replicates per dose). At 6 wk of age, surviving birds that had been vaccinated in ovo were removed, swabbed for FMG detection by PCR, and bled for serum plate agglutination (SPA) and ELISA testing for the presence of antibodies against MG (1, 2, 6, and all 8 in ovo-vaccinated chicks in the 106, 104, 102, and 1 CFU dosages). At 12 wk of age, the remaining sentinel birds were likewise sampled. No sentinel birds died. The in ovo-vaccinated birds that survived to 6 wk were serologically positive except for 5 birds in the 1 CFU treatment. The percentages of MG-positive sentinel birds and sentinel birds with antibody production against MG at 12 wk from each unit were not different between all MG dosages (P = 0.48, PCR; P = 0.77, SPA; P = 0.85, ELISA). Body weights of the in ovo-vaccinated chicks at 6 wk of age (P = 0.43) and the sentinel birds at 12 wk of age (P = 0.95) were each not affected by FMG treatment. These findings indicate that layer chickens in ovo vaccinated with a live-attenuated FMG vaccine were capable of transmitting FMG to other chicks with which they were in direct contact.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Galinhas , Feminino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Óvulo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
5.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1747-1752, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127669

RESUMO

A 2-year-old female intact pregnant Beagle was evaluated after the owner surrendered her to a shelter. Prepartum and 2 months postpartum at the time of routine spay, the dam was whole-blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Ehrlichia ewingii. She was also whole-blood PCR positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis prepartum and continuously for 5 months thereafter. The dam delivered 5 healthy puppies, 1 of which was whole-blood PCR positive for M. haemocanis. All 5 puppies had antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. at 1 month of age but not thereafter, and all puppies were Ehrlichia spp. PCR negative for 5 months of follow-up. Therefore, this study supports a potential role for vertical transmission in the maintenance of M. haemocanis in dogs as reservoir hosts. In contrast, in this case there was no evidence that E. ewingii was transmitted transplacentally or during the perinatal period.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Gravidez
6.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(5): 1220-1230, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141137

RESUMO

Host competence, or how well an individual transmits pathogens, varies substantially within and among animal populations. As this variation can alter the course of epidemics and epizootics, revealing its underlying causes will help predict and control the spread of disease. One host trait that could drive heterogeneity in competence is host tolerance, which minimizes fitness losses during infection without decreasing pathogen load. In many cases, tolerance should increase competence by extending infectious periods and enabling behaviors that facilitate contact among hosts. However, we argue that the links between tolerance and competence are more varied. Specifically, the different physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which hosts achieve tolerance should have a range of effects on competence, enhancing the ability to transmit pathogens in some circumstances and impeding it in others. Because tissue-based pathology (damage) that reduces host fitness is often critical for pathogen transmission, we focus on two mechanisms that can underlie tolerance at the tissue level: damage-avoidance and damage-repair. As damage-avoidance reduces transmission-enhancing pathology, this mechanism is likely to decrease host competence and pathogen transmission. In contrast, damage-repair does not prevent transmission-relevant pathology from occurring. Rather, damage-repair provides new, healthy tissues that pathogens can exploit, likely extending the infectious period and increasing host competence. We explore these concepts through graphical models and present three disease systems in which damage-avoidance and damage-repair alter host competence in the predicted directions. Finally, we suggest that by incorporating these links, future theoretical studies could provide new insights into infectious disease dynamics and host-pathogen coevolution.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Malária/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Tentilhões , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/patologia , Malária/transmissão , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Plasmodium/fisiologia
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882306

RESUMO

During 2016-2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Avaliação de Sintomas
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 60(1): 74, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significance of hemotrophic mycoplasma in cattle remains unclear. Especially in Europe, their epidemiological parameters as well as pathophysiological influence on cows are lacking. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') and Mycoplasma wenyonii (M. wenyonii) in Bavaria, Germany; (2) to evaluate their association with several blood parameters; (3) to explore the potential of vertical transmission in Simmental cattle; and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of acridine-orange-stained blood smears compared to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results to detect hemotrophic mycoplasma. A total of 410 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-blood samples from cows from 41 herds were evaluated by hematology, acridine-orange-stained blood smears, and real-time PCR. Additionally, blood samples were taken from dry cows of six dairy farms with positive test results for hemotrophic mycoplasma to investigate vertical transmission of infection. RESULTS: The period prevalence of both species was 60.24% (247/410), C. M. haemobos 56.59% (232/410), M. wenyonii 8.54% (35/410) and for coinfection 4.88% (20/410). Of the relevant blood parameters, only mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell count (WBC) showed differences between the groups of infected and non-infected individuals. There were lower values of MCV (P < 0.01) and MCH (P < 0.01) and higher values of WBC (P < 0.05) in 'C. M. haemobos'-infected cows. In contrast, co-infected individuals had only higher WBC (P < 0.05). In M. wenyonii-positive blood samples, MCH was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Vertical transmission of 'C. M. haemobos' was confirmed in two calves. The acridine-orange-method had a low sensitivity (37.39%), specificity (65.97%), positive predictive value (63.70%) and negative predictive value (39.75%) compared to PCR. CONCLUSIONS: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' was more prevalent than M. wenyonii in Bavarian Simmental cattle, but infection had little impact on evaluated blood parameters. Vertical transmission of the infection was rare. Real-time PCR is the preferred diagnostic method compared to the acridine-orange-method.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Feminino , Alemanha , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248128

RESUMO

Diseases in introduced broilers can possibly spill over to wild birds on the Galapagos. Knowledge about the current burden of exposure to pathogens in broilers on the Galapagos is very limited. The objective of the study reported here was to measure the burden of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and intestinal parasites in a sample of broiler chickens on 13 farms on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island in July 2017. Blood serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies to IBDV, IBV, NDV, and MG by using an IDEXX Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. In addition, fecal samples and pen bedding environmental samples were processed and analyzed for diagnosis of intestinal parasite eggs under a compound light microscope. The frequency of seropositive broilers to IBDV was 74/130 or 56% (95% CI = 48, 65%), to IBV was 27/130 or 20% (14, 28%), and to NDV was 1/130 or 0.7% (0.1, 4%). All broilers tested negative to MG antibodies. Eimeria spp. infection was common in study broilers. Finally, we observed interaction between broiler chickens and wild birds (finches) inside broiler pens, as well as the presence of backyard chickens inside property limits of study farms. This study produced evidence that exposure to IBDV, IBV, and intestinal parasites in broilers on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island is important. Study results are relevant because (i) they provide new baseline data on the burden of exposure to avian pathogens in broiler farms, (ii) justify the need to verify standard operating procedures in hatcheries that supply (non-vaccinated) day-old chicks to the Galapagos and (iii) to implement enhanced biosecurity standards on broiler chicken farms to mitigate risk of disease transmission between broilers, backyard poultry, and wild birds on the Galapagos.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Espécies Introduzidas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/virologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Equador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
11.
J Pregnancy ; 2018: 5037181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174955

RESUMO

Mycoplasma hominis is considered an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the lower urogenital tract; in females the infection is associated with severe pregnancy and postpartum complications, including abortion, endometritis, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence effectors remain poorly characterized. A number of studies in the last decade have demonstrated that M. hominis can establish an endosymbiotic relationship with Trichomonas vaginalis, a urogenital parasitic protozoon, also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recently, two bacterial genes (alr and goiB) associated with amniotic cavity invasion and a single gene (goiC) associated with intra-amniotic infections and high risk of preterm delivery have been identified in M. hominis isolated from a group of pregnant patients. In this work we demonstrate that a high number of M. hominis intracellularly associated with T. vaginalis have goiC gene, in association with alr and goiB. In addition, we demonstrate that metronidazole treatment of M. hominis-infected T. vaginalis allows delivering viable intracellular goiC positive M. hominis from antibiotic-killed protozoa and that free M. hominis can infect human cell cultures. Results suggest that molecular diagnostic strategies to identify both pathogens and their virulence genes should be adopted to prevent severe complications during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Membranas Extraembrionárias/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/microbiologia , Gravidez , Trichomonas vaginalis/imunologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Vagina/microbiologia
12.
Mol Ecol ; 27(18): 3714-3726, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074652

RESUMO

The way that some parasites and pathogens persist in the hostile environment of their host for long periods remains to be resolved. Here, longitudinal field surveys were combined with laboratory experiments to investigate the routes of transmission and infection dynamics of such a pathogen-a wild rodent haemotropic bacterium, specifically a Mycoplasma haemomuris-like bacterium. Fleaborne transmission, direct rodent-to-rodent transmission and vertical transmission from fleas or rodents to their offspring were experimentally quantified, and indications were found that the main route of bacterial transmission is direct, although its rate of successful transmission is low (~20%). The bacterium's temporal dynamics was then compared in the field to that observed under a controlled infection experiment in field-infected and laboratory-infected rodents, and indications were found, under all conditions, that the bacterium reached its peak infection level after 25-45 days and then decreased to low bacterial loads, which persist for the rodent's lifetime. These findings suggest that the bacterium relies on persistency with low bacterial loads for long-term coexistence with its rodent host, having both conceptual and applied implications.


Assuntos
Gerbillinae/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Animais , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Mycoplasma
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 216: 60-66, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519526

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds. Epidemiological analysis did not reveal an infection source other than semen. In both farms the primary clinical cases were M. bovis mastitis in cows inseminated with the semen of the same bull four weeks before the onset of the disease. One semen straw derived from the semen tank on the farm and other semen lots of this bull were positive for M. bovis. In contrast, semen samples were negative from other bulls that had been used for insemination in previous or later oestrus to those cows with M. bovis mastitis. Furthermore, cgMLST of M. bovis isolates supported the epidemiological results. To our knowledge this is the first study describing the introduction of M. bovis infection into a naive dairy herd via processed semen. The antibiotics used in semen extenders should be re-evaluated in order to provide farms with M. bovis-free semen or tested M. bovis-free semen should be available.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/etiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Sêmen/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/transmissão , Leite , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Mycoplasma bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531145

RESUMO

Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of garden bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naive, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviours at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behaviour and pathogen transmission. We found that pathogen transmission was significantly higher in groups with the highest density of bird feeders, despite a significantly lower rate of intraspecific aggressive interactions relative to the low feeder density groups. Conversely, among naive group members that never showed signs of disease, we saw significantly higher concentrations of Mg-specific antibodies in low feeder density groups, suggesting that birds in low feeder density treatments had exposure to subclinical doses of Mg. We discuss ways in which the density of garden bird feeders could play an important role in mediating the intensity of Mg epidemics.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Tentilhões/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Agressão , Ração Animal/provisão & distribução , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Tentilhões/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Virginia/epidemiologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 214: 75-80, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408036

RESUMO

Species of hemoplasmas have been described worldwide, but little information is available for wild felids. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 22 domestic cats (Felis catus) from the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. In all samples molecular tests were performed for Mycoplasma haemofelis/Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhf/Mhc), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt). Twenty-two (73.4%) jaguars and four domestic cats (18.2%) tested positive for infection with at least one feline hemoplasma: 73.4% jaguars from the three areas were positive for CMhm, 13.6% jaguars from the Pantanal and 50.0% from the Amazon were positive for Mhf/Mhc, and 9.1% of individuals from the Pantanal tested positive for CMt. Domestic cats from the Cerrado (28.6%) and the Pantanal (30.0%) were positive for feline hemoplasma. All but one jaguar from the three sites are healthy. One female adult jaguar showed low body weight and dehydration. This is the first record of feline hemoplasmas in free-ranging jaguars. The high prevalence of CMhm suggest the participation of jaguars in the maintenance of this hemoplasma in nature. Although susceptible to Mhf/Mhc and CMt, jaguars did not appear to participate in the maintenance of these agents in the environment. The involvement of domestic cats in the transmission of any of these hemoplasmas cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Panthera/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Feminino , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão
16.
J Feline Med Surg ; 20(3): 256-261, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478400

RESUMO

OVERVIEW: Haemoplasmas are haemotropic bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide range of mammalian species. Infection in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the three main feline haemoplasma species known to infect cats. ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and ' Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' are less pathogenic but can result in disease in immunocompromised cats. Male, non-pedigree cats with outdoor access are more likely to be haemoplasma infected, and ' Candidatus M haemominutum' is more common in older cats. All three haemoplasma species can be carried asymptomatically. Transmission: The natural mode of transmission of haemoplasma infection is not known, but aggressive interactions and vectors are possibilities. Transmission by blood transfusion can occur and all blood donors should be screened for haemoplasma infection. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: PCR assays are the preferred diagnostic method for haemoplasma infections. Treatment with doxycycline for 2-4 weeks is usually effective for M haemofelis-associated clinical disease (but this may not clear infection). Little information is currently available on the antibiotic responsiveness of ' Candidatus M haemominutum' and ' Candidatus M turicensis'.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Int J STD AIDS ; 29(2): 108-114, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198181

RESUMO

The European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease includes evidence-based advice on the investigation and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It has been updated to acknowledge the role of Mycoplasma genitalium as an important cause of PID with testing now recommended for women presenting with possible PID and for the male partners of women with confirmed M. genitalium infection. Recent evidence suggests that serious adverse events are uncommon when using moxifloxacin and its use is now recommended as a first-line therapy, especially in those women with M. genitalium PID. The potential utility of MRI scanning of the pelvis in excluding differential diagnoses has been highlighted. The use of doxycycline is now suggested as empirical treatment for male partners of women with PID to reduce exposure to macrolide antibiotics, which has been associated with increased resistance in M. genitalium.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
J Fish Dis ; 41(4): 569-579, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023774

RESUMO

Intestinal neoplasms are common in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research facilities. These tumours are most often seen in older fish and are classified as small cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Affected fish populations always contain subpopulations with preneoplastic lesions, characterized by epithelial hyperplasia or inflammation. Previous observations indicated that these tumours are unlikely caused by diet, water quality or genetic background, suggesting an infectious aetiology. We performed five transmission experiments by exposure of naïve fish to affected donor fish by cohabitation or exposure to tank effluent water. Intestinal lesions were observed in recipient fish in all exposure groups, including transmissions from previous recipient fish, and moribund fish exhibited a higher prevalence of neoplasms. We found a single 16S rRNA sequence, most similar to Mycoplasma penetrans, to be highly enriched in the donors and exposed recipients compared to unexposed control fish. We further tracked the presence of the Mycoplasma sp. using a targeted PCR test on individual dissected intestines or faeces or tank faeces. Original donor and exposed fish populations were positive for Mycoplasma, while corresponding unexposed control fish were negative. This study indicates an infectious aetiology for these transmissible tumours of zebrafish and suggests a possible candidate agent of a Mycoplasma species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/transmissão , Neoplasias Intestinais , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma penetrans/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma penetrans/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra , Adenocarcinoma/microbiologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma penetrans/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(11): 1826-1833, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047422

RESUMO

Data on the likelihood of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in sexual contacts, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), are needed to form an evidence base for guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, during 2008-2016. We calculated the proportion of contacts with M. genitalium infection and determined factors associated with infection. Among those patients reporting sexual contact with an M. genitalium-infected person, 48.2% of women, 31.0% of heterosexual men, and 41.7% of MSM were infected. Among heterosexual contacts, women were twice as likely to be infected; among MSM, rectal infection was more common than urethral infection; and among persons within heterosexual partnerships, concordance of infection was high. High positivity among female and MSM contacts and high concordance in heterosexual partnerships provide some justification for presumptive treatment; however, clinicians should consider antimicrobial drug resistance and toxicity of quinolones.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(15): 3154-3167, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061202

RESUMO

Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Belize , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Peru , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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