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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923195

RESUMO

Hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a locally invasive and highly metastatic endothelial cell neoplasm, accounts for two-thirds of all cardiac and splenic neoplasms in dogs. Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with neoplastic and non-neoplastic vasoproliferative lesions in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in conjunction with two other hemotropic pathogens, Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., in tissues and blood samples from 110 dogs with histopathologically diagnosed HSA from throughout the United States. This was a retrospective, observational study using clinical specimens from 110 dogs with HSA banked by the biospecimen repository of the Canine Comparative Oncology and Genomics Consortium. Samples provided for this study from each dog included: fresh frozen HSA tumor tissue (available from n = 100 of the 110 dogs), fresh frozen non-tumor tissue (n = 104), and whole blood and serum samples (n = 108 and 107 respectively). Blood and tissues were tested by qPCR for Bartonella, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Babesia spp. DNA; serum was tested for Bartonella spp. antibodies. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified and sequenced from 73% of dogs with HSA (80/110). In contrast, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. DNA was amplified from a significantly smaller proportion (5%, p<0.0001) and Babesia spp. DNA was not amplified from any dog. Of the 100 HSA tumor samples submitted, 34% were Bartonella PCR positive (32% of splenic tumors, 57% of cardiac tumors, and 17% of other tumor locations). Of 104 non-tumor tissues, 63% were Bartonella PCR positive (56% of spleen samples, 93% of cardiac samples, and 63% of skin/subcutaneous samples). Of dogs with Bartonella positive HSA tumor, 76% were also positive in non-tumor tissue. Bartonella spp. DNA was not PCR amplified from whole blood. This study documented a high prevalence of Bartonella spp. DNA in dogs with HSA from geographically diverse regions of the United States. While 73% of all tissue samples from these dogs were PCR positive for Bartonella DNA, none of the blood samples were, indicating that whole blood samples do not reflect tissue presence of this pathogen. Future studies are needed to further investigate the role of Bartonella spp. in the development of HSA.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/microbiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(1): 126047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859015

RESUMO

Twelve Mycoplasma (M.) strains isolated from the nose, the trachea, and the lung of ostriches (Struthio camelus) displaying respiratory disease were investigated. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed five of these strains within the M. synoviae cluster, and seven strains within the M. hominis cluster of genus Mycoplasma, which was further confirmed by analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and partial rpoB gene and amino acid sequences. Genomic information as well as phenotypic features obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry analysis and serological reactions indicated that the strains examined are representatives of two hitherto unclassified species of genus Mycoplasma, for which the names Mycoplasma nasistruthionis sp. nov., with type strain 2F1AT (= ATCC BAA-1893T = DSM 22456T), and Mycoplasma struthionis sp. nov., with type strain 237IAT (= ATCC BAA-1890T = DSM 22453T), are proposed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Struthioniformes/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Mycoplasma/química , Mycoplasma/citologia , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793309

RESUMO

Infectious arthritis or tenosynovitis in broiler and breeder chickens results in major loss of productivity because of reduced growth and downgrading at processing plants. The most common causative agents of avian infectious arthritis are the bacterium Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reoviruses (ARVs) (family Reoviridae, genus Orthoreovirus). In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of these two pathogens in arthritis or tenosynovitis lesions of broilers and breeder flocks in southern Brazil using molecular detection. Tissue sections from tibiotarsal joints with visible lesions from 719 broilers and 505 breeders were analysed using pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In breeders, 41.2% (n = 296) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 26.4% (n = 190) were positive for ARV, while co-infection was present in 12.2% (n = 88) of the samples. In broilers, 20.8% (n = 105) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 11.9% (n = 60) for ARV and 7.7% (n = 39) of these cases were positive for both pathogens. Post-mortem examination revealed lesions with varying degrees of gross pathological severity. Histopathological examination showed intense, diffuse lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates with heterophil accumulation, primarily in the synovial capsule and digital flexor tendon, in all samples. Improved strategies for early detection and control of these major avian pathogens are highly desirable for preventing the spread of infection and reducing economic losses in the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Tenossinovite/veterinária , Animais , Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/microbiologia , Artrite/patologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Brasil , Galinhas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Orthoreovirus Aviário/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Tenossinovite/epidemiologia , Tenossinovite/microbiologia , Tenossinovite/patologia
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108448, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767090

RESUMO

This study was designed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae in oral fluids and determine their correlation with lameness scores in pigs. Thirty-seven nursery and/or finisher herds were included in this study. Oral fluids were collected by pen. Using species specific real-time PCR M. hyorhinis was detected in 97% of sampled herds, whereas 70% were positive for M. hyosynoviae. Lameness scores were determined for all pigs in each pen where oral fluids were collected. Lameness was identified in 3.9% of pigs across all sampled pens. No correlation was observed between lameness in pigs in a pen and detection of M. hyorhinis in oral fluid samples (p > 0.05), whereas a significant correlation was observed between M. hyosynoviae detection in oral fluids and lameness (p < 0.05). A negative correlation was observed between the proportion of lame pigs in the pen and Ct values for M. hyosynoviae in oral fluids (p < 0.05; r = -0.27). An age-related effect was observed with M. hyosynoviae detection in oral fluids, indicating an increased prevalence of the bacterium in finishers compared to nursery pigs. Under the conditions of this study, M. hyorhinis was frequently detected in oral fluids from nursery and finisher pigs regardless of the clinical presentation of lameness, whereas the detection of M. hyosynoviae varied depending on the age of sample pigs. Our results suggest that oral fluids may not be an informative diagnostic sample for M. hyorhinis associated lameness. However, the association of lameness and M. hyosynoviae detection in oral fluids warrants prospective population-based diagnostic studies.


Assuntos
Coxeadura Animal/complicações , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/genética , Mycoplasma hyosynoviae/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coxeadura Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 471-483, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590898

RESUMO

Host responses are often ineffective at clearing Mycoplasma bovis infection and may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. M bovis possesses a surprisingly large repertoire of strategies to evade and modulate host responses. Unopsonized M bovis impairs phagocytosis and killing by neutrophils and macrophages. Apoptosis of neutrophils and lymphocytes is enhanced, whereas it is delayed in macrophages. Both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are stimulated during M bovis infection depending on the cell type and location, and overall systemic responses tend to have a T-helper 2 bias. M bovis reduces proliferation of T cells and, in chronic infection, causes T-cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108407, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585644

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) can target host cells and cause chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens that is characterized by pMGA and concomitant. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been manifested are crucial regulatory noncoding RNAs with important effects on microbial pathogenesis and inflammatory response, how miRNAs regulate MG-induced inflammation remains to be discovered. The results showed that gga-miR-21 was up-regulated in MG-infected chicken embryonic lungs and MG infection of chicken embryo fibroblast cells (DF-1) compared with the control group. Overexpression of gga-miR-21 increased the inflammatory cytokines production, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) after MG infection, knockdown of gga-miR-21 had thoroughly inverse effects. Gene expression data combined with bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1(MAP3K1) was a novel target of gga-miR-21. The inhibition of MAP3K1 by gga-miR-21 resulted in the accumulation of NF-κB in the nucleus, which in turn generate higher inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, upregulation of gga-miR-21 significantly inhibited MG propagation and promoted MG-infected DF-1 cells proliferation by increasing the cell cycle progression and suppressing cell apoptosis. Our study provides evidence for proinflammatory effects of gga-miR-21 which is mediated at least in part by targeting MAP3K1 in the MG-infected DF-1 cells. gga-miR-21 activates MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways via targeting MAP3K1, and then promotes the production of inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation by increasing the cell cycle progression and suppressing cell apoptosis to defend against MG infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Regulação para Cima
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 369, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging bovine pathogen, leading to significant economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Infection can result in a variety of clinical signs, such as arthritis, pneumonia, mastitis and keratoconjunctivitis, none of which are M. bovis-specific. Laboratory diagnosis is therefore important. Serological tests to detect M. bovis antibodies is considered an effective indicator of infection in a herd and often used as a herd test. Combined with clinical judgement, it can also be used to implement control strategies and/or to estimate the disease prevalence within a country. However, due to lack of harmonisation of approaches to testing, and serological tests used by different laboratories, comparisons of prevalence data between countries is often difficult. A network of researchers from six European countries designed and participated in an inter-laboratory trial, with the aim of evaluating the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of two commercially available ELISA tests (ID Screen® ELISA (IDvet) and BIO K302 ELISA (BIO-X Diagnostics)) for diagnosis of M. bovis infection. Each laboratory received a blinded panel of bovine sera and tested independently, according to manufacturer's instructions. Western blot analyses (WB) performed by one of the participating laboratories was used as a third diagnostic test in the statistical evaluation of Se and Sp values using latent class analysis. RESULTS: The Se of WB, the ID Screen® ELISA and the BIO K302 ELISA were determined to be 91.8, 93.5 and 49.1% respectively, and corresponding Sp of the three tests were 99.6, 98.6 and 89.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to present an inter-laboratory comparison of the BIO K302 ELISA and the ID Screen® ELISA. Based on our results, the ID Screen® ELISA showed high consistency with WB and performed with higher precision and accuracy than the BIO K302 ELISA.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Animais , Western Blotting/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma bovis/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 371, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma bovis is a causative agent of disease in cattle causing many clinical conditions. Currently there are no commercial M. bovis vaccines in Europe and treatment is difficult with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis field isolates. Using an M. bovis calf infection model the effectiveness of enrofloxacin given alone; in combination with flunixin meglumine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; and a group with an additional treatment of pegbovigrastim, an immunostimulator, was evaluated. RESULTS: Enrofloxacin given alone stimulated a strong immune response, reduced the clinical manifestation and lung lessions of the M. bovis infection. In contrast the combination therapy appeared ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: In this experiment enrofloxacin given alone appeared to be the most effective treatment of the M. bovis affected calves, whereas co-administration with flunixin meglumine, and pegbovigrastim was not beneficial in this trial.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Pneumonia/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Clonixina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 796-801, Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056903

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases are among the most important diseases in sheep flocks. Herein was studied the bacterial etiology of respiratory disease and the clinical signs of 99 female and male sheep breed in the states of São Paulo (SP) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. After physical examination of animals, tracheobronchial flushing samples were obtained. The usual bacteria and Mycoplasma spp. were searched, as well as their association with the clinical status and clinical signs of sheep with respiratory disease. The main observed signs were: tachypnea (75%), increase of rectal temperature (09.4%), mucopurulent/purulent nasal discharge (21.9%), cough (25%), dyspnea (31.2%), changes of lung sounds at auscultation (87.5%) and chest percussion (28.1%) in pneumonic sheep. Non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus sp. were the most isolated bacteria. Microorganisms of the Mollicutes class were molecularly (PCR) detected in 33.3% of the animals. In addition, the specific detection of M. mycoides subsp. capri was described for the first time in sheep from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.(AU)


A doença respiratória é uma das doenças mais importantes em rebanhos ovinos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a etiologia bacteriana da doença respiratória e sua relação com sinais clínicos em ovinos criados nos estados de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Noventa e nove ovelhas machos e fêmeas dos Estados de São Paulo (SP) e Rio de Janeiro (RJ) foram estudadas. Após o exame físico, amostras de lavagem traqueobrônquica foram obtidas. A presença de bactérias aeróbias e Mycoplasmaspp. foram estudados, assim como a associação entre os microrganismos e estado clínico e sinais clínicos de doença respiratória em ovinos. As principais manifestações clínicas observadas foram: taquipneia (75%), alta temperatura retal (09,4%), secreção nasal mucopurulenta/purulenta (21,9%), tosse (25%), dispneia (31,2%), sons pulmonares alterados na ausculta (87,5%) e na percussão torácica (28,1%) em ovelhas pneumônicas. Bactérias gram-negativas não fermentadoras e Bacillus sp. foram as bactérias mais isoladas. Microrganismos da classe Mollicutes foram detectados molecularmente (PCR) em 33,3% dos ovinos. Além disso, descreve-se pela primeira vez no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, a detecção do M. mycoides subsp. capri na espécie ovina utilizando a reação de polimerase em cadeia.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Ovinos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação
10.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548318

RESUMO

The metabolic inhibition (MI) test is a classic test for the identification of mycoplasmas, used for measuring the growth-inhibiting antibodies directed against acid-producing mycoplasmas, although their mechanism still remains obscure. To determine the major antigens involved in the immune killing of Mycoplasma bovis, we used a pulldown assay with anti-M. bovis antibodies as bait and identified nine major antigens. Among these antigens, we performed the MI test and determined that the growth of M. bovis could be inhibited effectively in the presence of complement by antibodies against specifically membrane protein P81 or UgpB in the presence of complement. Using a complement killing assay, we demonstrated that M. bovis can be killed directly by complement and that antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing is more effective than that by complement alone. Complement lysis and scanning electron microscopy results revealed M. bovis rupture in the presence of complement. Together, these results suggest that the metabolic inhibition of M. bovis is antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing. This study provides new insights into mycoplasma killing by the complement system and may guide future vaccine development studies for the treatment of mycoplasma infection. Furthermore, our findings also indicate that mycoplasmas may be an appropriate new model for studying the lytic activity of membrane attack complex (MAC).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Coelhos
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(6): 899-904, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510908

RESUMO

A prior multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study reported that Mycoplasma bovis isolates from North American bison possess sequence types (STs) different from those found among cattle. The 42 bison isolates evaluated were obtained in 2007 or later, whereas only 19 of 94 (~20%) of the available cattle isolates, with only 1 from North America, were from that same time. We compared STs of additional, contemporary, North American cattle isolates with those from bison, as well as isolates from 2 North American deer, all originating during the same timeframe, to more definitively assess potential strain-related host specificity and expand our understanding of the genetic diversity of M. bovis. From 307 isolates obtained between 2007 and 2017 (209 from cattle, 96 from bison, 2 from deer), we identified 49 STs, with 39 found exclusively in cattle and 5 exclusively in bison. Four STs were shared between bison and cattle isolates; one ST was found in cattle and in a deer. There was no clear association between ST and the health status of the animal of origin. An MLST-based phylogeny including 41 novel STs identified in our study reveals that STs found in bison fall within several divergent lineages that include STs found exclusively in cattle.


Assuntos
Bison , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Cervos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/classificação , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/classificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Estados Unidos
12.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101337, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437678

RESUMO

Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are Gram-negative bacteria that parasitize the erythrocyte surface of a wide variety of mammals. The present study aimed at investigating the occurrence of hemoplasmas in beef cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal, an area endemic for bovine trypanosomiasis in South America. Additionally, the objective of this study was to characterize molecularly the genotypes of the found hemoplasmas. For this purpose, blood and serum samples of 400 beef cattle were collected from five properties in Corumbá, Nhecolândia sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul, in Midwest Brazil. Blood samples underwent DNA extraction and standard 16S rRNA gene-based PCR assays for hemoplasmas. The sequences obtained were submitted to phylogenetic inferences, distance analysis, and genotype diversity. The Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (iELISA) indicated the presence of anti-Trypanosoma vivax IgG antibodies in 89.75% of the animals sampled, confirming the endemicity of said agent in the studied region. Among the 400 bovine blood samples tested, 2.25% (9/400) were positive for hemoplasmas in cPCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences confirmed the presence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' and Mycoplasma wenyonii DNA in 0.5% (2/400) and 1.75% (7/400) animals, respectively. Five genotypes of M. wenyonii and one of 'Candidatus M. haemobos' were detected among the sequenced amplicons. The present study showed low molecular occurrence of haemoplasmas in beef cattle sampled in the Brazilian Pantanal, an area endemic for bovine trypanosomiasis. Despite of the conservation of the 16S rRNA gene, there was considerable diversity of hemoplasma genotypes infecting the sampled beef cattle.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Genótipo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Trypanosoma vivax , Tripanossomíase Bovina/epidemiologia
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466385

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis is a critical bovine pathogen, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, the virulent HB0801 (P1) and attenuated HB0801-P150 (P150) strains of M. bovis were used to explore the potential pathogenesis and effect of induced immunity from calves' differential transcriptomes post infection. Nine one-month-old male calves were infected with P1, P150, or mock-infected with medium and euthanized at 60 days post-infection. Calves in P1 group exhibited other clinical signs and pathological changes compared to the other two groups. Transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed seven and 10 hub differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P1 and P150 groups compared with mock-infected group, respectively. Then, P1-induced pathogenesis was predicted to be associated with enhanced Th17, and P150-induced immunity with Th1 response and expression of ubiquitination-associated enzymes. Association analysis showed that 14 and 11 DEGs were positively and negatively correlated with pathological changes, respectively. Furthermore, up-regulated expression in molecules critical to differentiation of pathogenic Th17 cells in lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in P1 group was validated at RNA and protein levels. The results confirmed virulent and attenuated strains might be associated with biased differentiation of pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 and Th1 subsets respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Mycoplasma bovis/patogenicidade , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2336-2342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma haemolamae (Mhl) and gastrointestinal nematodes can cause anemia in camelids. Control programs aim to suppress parasitism without promoting anthelminthic resistance, but few evidence-based guidelines define acceptable parasite loads in camelids. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In clinically healthy nonanemic camelids, compare erythrocyte variables to Mhl real-time PCR status and to fecal egg count (FEC). Determine the FEC threshold above which erythrocyte variables are consistently below reference interval medians. ANIMALS: One hundred fourteen client-owned adult alpacas and llamas. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, whole blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was assessed for packed cell volume (PCV) by centrifugation, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (HGB) using an ADVIA120 analyzer, and Mhl using real-time PCR. Trichostrongyle eggs per gram (epg) were counted by modified McMaster test on freshly collected feces. Significant differences in erythrocyte variables based on Mhl status and FEC thresholds were assessed by independent t test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. RESULTS: Packed cell volume, RBC, and HGB were not significantly different between Mhl-positive and Mhl-negative animals, but were significantly lower in animals with FEC >1000 epg compared to those with <500 epg. All animals with FEC >600 epg had RBC and HGB below the reference interval median. All animals with FEC >750 epg had PCV below the reference interval median. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In healthy nonanemic camelids, positive Mhl PCR is not associated with lower erythrocyte variables and such animals may not warrant treatment. Fecal egg count >600-750 epg has a negative effect on erythrocyte variables, and may be a guide for deworming protocols.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Feminino , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
15.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 216: 109920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446205

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis causes chronic arthritis in calves. Mycoplasma arthritis shows severe inflammatory reactions in joints that is commonly treated with antibiotics and results in significant economic losses in the calf industry. A previous study showed that inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by synovial cells promote progression of the pathophysiology of bacterial arthritis. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of bovine Mycoplasma arthritis has not been fully clarified. In this study, we examined the immunologic response of bovine synovial tissue to M. bovis. We observed significant increases in expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-3 mRNA in synovial tissue from Mycoplasma arthritis calves compared with tissues from normal calves. Expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 mRNA was also induced in cultured synovial cells stimulated with M. bovis, but not expression of IL-1ß and MMP-3 mRNA. In contrast, the culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with M. bovis induced marked increases in the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-3 mRNA in synovial cells. Our results indicate that inflammatory cytokines and MMPs produced by synovial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma arthritis. We suggest that interactions between synovial cells and mononuclear cells in the presence of M. bovis induce expression of these cytokines and MMPs in synovial cells, resulting in severe inflammatory reactions in the joints.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Mycoplasma bovis , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Metaloproteases/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 261, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asian countries, including Myanmar, poultry farming is a major industry. In order to manage and maintain stable productivity, it is important to establish policies for biosecurity. Infectious respiratory diseases are a major threat to poultry farming. Avian influenza and Newcastle disease have been reported in Myanmar, but no scientific information is available for other respiratory pathogens, such as mycoplasmas and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Identifying the genotypes and serotypes of IBVs is especially important to inform vaccination programs. In this study, we detected Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and IBV in several poultry farms in Myanmar. RESULTS: Samples were collected from 20 farms in three major poultry farming areas in Myanmar, and MG, MS, and IBV were detected on two, four, and eight farms, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the observed MG and MS isolates were not identical to vaccine strains. Three different genotypes of IBV were detected, but none was an unknown variant. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasmas and IBV were detected on poultry farms in Myanmar. Periodic surveillance is required to establish the distribution of each pathogen, and to institute better vaccine protocols.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1880-1891, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of mycoplasmas in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of dogs is debated, because mycoplasmas can be isolated from both healthy and sick dogs. OBJECTIVES: To critically assess available data from controlled observational studies on the role of 4 mycoplasma species in LRT disease of dogs. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant publications. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses, stratified by mycoplasmal species, were performed using a random effects Bayesian model with noninformative priors to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma spumans, and Mycoplasma edwardii and LRT disease in dogs. RESULTS: Five studies were included from 1201 references identified. All studies dealt with M. cynos, whereas 3 dealt with the other mycoplasma species. A significant association was found between M. cynos and LRT disease (Bayesian OR, 3.60; CI, 1.31-10.29). Conversely, M. canis, M. spumans, and M. edwardii were not significantly associated with LRT signs (Bayesian OR, 1.06; CI, 0.10-14.63; Bayesian OR, 3.40; CI, 0.16-54.27; and Bayesian OR, 1.04; CI, 0.05-23.54, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Results support a pathogenic role of M. cynos and a commensal role of M. canis and M. edwardii in LRT in dogs. Although the association was not significant based on the CI, the point estimate of the Bayesian OR was relatively high for M. spumans, making its role less clear. Mycoplasma cynos-specific polymerase chain reaction should be considered on samples from dogs with LRT.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma/patogenicidade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 378, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two hemoplasma species, Mycoplasma suis and M. parvum, previously known as Eperythrozoon suis and E. parvum, respectively, have been identified in pigs. Swine hemoplasmosis is a global problem, and M. suis infection results in economic losses to pig producers worldwide. This study investigated the frequency and distribution of hemotropic mycoplasmas in pig farms of Korea. As hemoplasmas can be transmitted by ticks, we also analyzed the presence of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. METHODS: We screened 1867 samples from 464 pig farms located in four regions of Korea over the period from 2014 to 2018. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of pathogen-specific markers for species identification. RESULTS: Of the 1867 pigs evaluated in the study, three (0.2%), 51 (2.7%), and one (0.1%) were found to be infected with M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis, respectively; Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. The 16S rRNA sequences of M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis were highly similar (99.3-100%, 99.6-100%, and 99.6-100%, respectively) to those of Mycoplasma spp. isolated from other countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nationwide, large-scale study of the molecular detection of Mycoplasma spp. in domestic pigs in Korea. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Mycoplasma infections are widespread in Korean domestic pigs, and that continuous monitoring and control strategies are required to prevent the spread of hemoplasmas, which, in addition to causing economic losses in the pig industry, pose a potential threat to public health. As transmission routes of hemoplasmas remain unelucidated, additional epidemiological studies are recommended to identify reservoirs and vectors of Mycoplasma spp. in Korea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Borrelia/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 252, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) suis mainly occurs via iatrogenic or zootechnical manipulations or due to ranking fights. Other transmission routes including ingestion of secretes/excretes; blood-sucking arthropods and intra-uterine transmission have thought to play an epidemiological role without being experimentally proven. To investigate a vertical transmission of M. suis under field conditions blood samples from pre-suckling piglets and their corresponding dam were examined for M. suis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 21 farms in Southern Germany. RESULTS: A total of 14.35% of the 474 blood samples from pre-suckling piglets reacted qPCR positive. Additionally, M. suis was detected in 65 (31.25%) of the 208 sows at farrowing. On farm level, 16 (76.2%) of the 21 farms had at least one M. suis positive animal. M. suis positive farms had an average of 0.41 more stillborn piglets per litter than M. suis negative farms (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The present study provides further insights into M. suis infection dynamics as it is the first detection of M. suis in piglets immediately after birth prior to colostrum intake and the first large scale investigation of M. suis in sows at farrowing.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Natimorto/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
20.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 55, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324222

RESUMO

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis are two phylogenetically related species colonizing the respiratory tract of pigs but differing in pathogenicity, the basis of which is not well resolved. We hypothesize that genes belonging to the species-specific portion of the genome and being non-essential during ideal laboratory growth conditions encode possible virulent determinants and are the driver of interspecies differences. To investigate this, transposon mutant libraries were generated for both species and a transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) method for mycoplasmas was established to identify non-essential genes. Tn-seq datasets combined with bidirectional Blastp analysis revealed that 101 out of a total 678 coding sequences (CDS) are species-specific and non-essential CDS of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C, while 96 out of a total 751 CDS are species-specific and non-essential CDS in the M. hyorhinis strain JF5820. Among these species-specific and non-essential CDS were genes involved in metabolic pathways. In particular, the myo-inositol and the sialic acid pathways were found to be non-essential and therefore could be considered important to the specific pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis, respectively. Such pathways could enable the use of an alternative energy source providing an advantage in their specific niche and might be interesting targets to knock out in order to generate attenuated live vaccines.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/genética , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/microbiologia , Animais , Biblioteca Gênica , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/patogenicidade , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Suínos , Virulência/genética
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