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1.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2863-2875, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399870

RESUMO

A fundamental aim of parasite ecology is to understand the mechanisms behind spatial variation in diversity and structure of parasite assemblages. To understand the contribution of individual parasite species and their assemblages to spatial variation in parasite communities, we examined species contributions to beta diversity (SCBD) and local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD) of parasitic gastrointestinal helminths (nematodes and cestodes) in two closely related rodents, Rhabdomys dilectus and Rhabdomys pumilio, from 20 localities across South Africa. Although the two Rhabdomys spp. are morphologically similar, they differ substantially in body size, habitat preference, and sociality. We asked whether the variation in life history traits and infection parameters are associated with SCBD of helminths and whether variation in environmental factors, host population density, and species richness of host communities are associated with LCBD of component assemblages of helminths. We also considered spatial factors to test whether LCBD of helminth assemblages demonstrate geographic structure. We found that the contribution of helminth species parasitic in both hosts to beta diversity significantly increased with characteristic prevalence of these species, whereas mean abundance, type of life cycle, and location in the host's gut had no effect on SCBD. The LCBD of helminth assemblages showed a significant positive correlation with environmental factors in both host species. Our results suggest that predictors of variation in SCBD and LCBD may substantially differ between parasites with different infection parameters and/or parasite communities at different hierarchical scales.


Assuntos
Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Murinae/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 113-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375024

RESUMO

The review provides data on species composition of nematode parasites of cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants (Ovis orientalis gmelini, Capreolus capreolus, Capra aegagrus aegagrus) of Armenia. Six species of lung nematodes and 22 species of gastrointestinal ones have been registered in ruminants of Armenia. Five of the species listed in the review (Protostrongylus davtiani, Protostrongylus muraschkinzewi, Nematodirus davtiani, Trichostrongylus andreevi, Trichostrongylus skrjabini) have been first identified in Armenia. The ruminant host species most studied for this territory is a domestic sheep. Data on nematodes of goats and wild ruminants are limited to sporadic reports. Data on nematodes of cattle are limited to the only one species ­ Neoascaris vitulorum. Most of the nematode species found in Armenia are common for all ruminant host species living here and noted as widespread all over the world. Eight species of nematodes detected in ruminants of Armenia able to infect humans. The taxonomy of some rare species of nematodes reported from ruminants in Armenia is not entirely clear and should be re-evaluated basing on thorough studies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Ruminantes , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Armênia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 51-58, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437776

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary nematodes are among the most pathogenic parasites of domestic and wild canids. The aim of this study was to describe the species diversity, prevalence and infection intensity of these parasites in the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. 257 foxes and 74 wolves were necropsied between 2008 and 2014. Four nematode species were identified: Angiostrongylus vasorum, Eucoleus aerophilus, Crenosoma vulpis and Filaroides hirthi. This last species was only found in wolves, being the first time that is cited worldwide in this wild canid. The overall parasite prevalence was significantly higher in foxes (70%) than in wolves (28%). Specifically, prevalences in foxes and wolves were, respectively, 43% and 22% for A. vasorum, 33% and 5% for E. aerophilus, and 30% and 9% for C. vulpis. The prevalence of F. hirthi was 16%. The A. vasorum intensity was significantly higher in foxes than in wolves. Differences between host species in the risk of infection would be associated to diverging feeding behavior, and possibly reflects a parasite-host adaptation related to host's hunting strategies and cardiorespiratory requirements. This study revealed an association between infection and environmental factors, and highlighted a wide variation in the spatial distribution of A. vasorum. Our results indicate that cardiopulmonary parasites are widespread in wild canids in northwest Spain, and further agrees with other studies indicating the expansion of A. vasorum in Europe and, therefore, the urgent need to investigate infection in dogs in sympatric areas.


Assuntos
Raposas/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Lobos/parasitologia , Angiostrongylus , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coração/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 167-170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378275

RESUMO

Studies were carried out on 25 pheasants belonging to 13 Phasianinae species of the Phasianidae family. The research material was collected from private breeders ­ both Polish and from abroad. The results confirm that the most frequent nematode is Heterakis gallinarum, while for the first time in the country ­ in two of the examined birds of Polish flocks ­ the occurrence of Heterakis isolonche was found.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Polônia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218681, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291262

RESUMO

Rural children are one of the populations that are most vulnerable to gastrointestinal parasite infections. Such diseases decrease the quality of life and result in growth and cognitive delays in the long term. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the frequency of intestinal parasite infections among rural schoolchildren in the municipality of Apulo, Colombia. A total of 97 stool samples from children aged between 5 and 15 years were collected and examined via direct light microscopy. Microscopic examination was repeated with sediments obtained using a fecal parasite concentrator, and the Kato-Katz test was performed. Frequency of intestinal parasite infection was 100%. Endolimax nana (77.35%), Blastocystis sp. (71.1%), Giardia intestinalis (39.1%), Entamoeba coli (25.7%), and the Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii complex (9.2%) were the most prevalent protozoa. Trichuris trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (12.3%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (6.15%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.1%). Among the analyzed associated factors, consumption of untreated water increased the risk of acquiring pathogenic intestinal parasites. Finally, because G. intestinalis was the most prevalent pathogenic protozoan, molecular analysis was conducted to establish genetic assemblages and subassemblages of Giardia through sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, and beta-giardin genes. A total of 14 G. intestinalis-positive samples were genotyped, which revealed the presence of subassemblages AI (n = 1), AII (n = 7), BIII (n = 2), BIV (n = 2), and BIII/BIV (n = 1) as well as a mixed subassemblage AII + BIII (n = 1). Our results indicate that gastrointestinal parasite infections in the tested population were mainly caused by suboptimal water quality. Moreover, molecular typing of G. intestinalis suggested contamination of water by animal- and human-derived cysts.


Assuntos
Água Potável/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/classificação , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Endolimax/classificação , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Enterobius/classificação , Enterobius/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/transmissão , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
7.
ISME J ; 13(11): 2664-2680, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239540

RESUMO

The relationship between bacterial communities and their host is being extensively investigated for the potential to improve the host's health. Little is known about the interplay between the microbiota of parasites and the health of the infected host. Using nematode co-infection of lambs as a proof-of-concept model, the aim of this study was to characterise the microbiomes of nematodes and that of their host, enabling identification of candidate nematode-specific microbiota member(s) that could be exploited as drug development tools or for targeted therapy. Deep sequencing techniques were used to elucidate the microbiomes of different life stages of two parasitic nematodes of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, as well as that of the co-infected ovine hosts, pre- and post infection. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated significant differences between the composition of the nematode and ovine microbiomes. The two nematode species also differed significantly. The data indicated a shift in the constitution of the larval nematode microbiome after exposure to the ovine microbiome, and in the ovine intestinal microbial community over time as a result of helminth co-infection. Several bacterial species were identified in nematodes that were absent from their surrounding abomasal environment, the most significant of which included Escherichia coli/Shigella. The ability to purposefully infect nematode species with engineered E. coli was demonstrated in vitro, validating the concept of using this bacterium as a nematode-specific drug development tool and/or drug delivery vehicle. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the concept of exploiting a parasite's microbiome for drug development and treatment purposes.


Assuntos
Haemonchus/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nematoides/microbiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Abomaso/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Engenharia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Infecções por Nematoides/terapia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/terapia
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(2): 155-159, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors of pupils in rural areas of Yi Ethnicity in Butuo County, Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematode infections. METHODS: In 2016, the pupils of 2 villages in Butuo County were selected by the multi-stage random sampling method, and the relevant information was obtained by questionnaires, including social demographic information, diet and hygiene habits and acknowledge of parasitic disease prevention. The soil-transmitted nematode infections were examined by Kato-Katz technique. The results were statistically analyzed by the single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression methods. RESULTS: A total of 160 pupils were investigated in this survey. The soil-transmitted nematodes included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. The overall infection rate was 89.38%, and the multi-infection rate was 54.55%. The infection rates of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were higher. The infection densities were mild (75.68%) or moderate (22.97%). The logistic regression analysis showed that the protective factor of soil-transmitted nematode infections was the knowledge about correct diet and health habits notified by teachers (OR = 0.67), but the risk factor was drinking unboiled water (OR = 19.26). CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of nematodes is still high in the pupils in rural areas of Yi Ethnicity in Butuo County, Sichuan Province. Therefore, we should strengthen the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematode infections, especially A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections, and mostly develop the teachers'function in health education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Criança , China , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/etnologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Solo/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 47(10): 1063-1066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225945

RESUMO

In the spring of 2018, nematode-like organisms were first noted at the time of microscopic diagnosis on gynecologic (GYN) and anal pap specimens in our institution's cytopathology department. Due to their morphology and specimen source, we considered a diagnosis of pinworm. However, after identifying at least 30 more cases over 3 months from patients living in variable locations, we started favoring a contaminant. This report studies the steps that were initiated to figure the source of pap smear-preparation contamination and the molecular investigation to identify the nature of the contaminant.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/normas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Teste de Papanicolaou/normas
10.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(2): 189-192, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251508

RESUMO

A New Holland honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae), a common species found mostly in the southern parts of Australia, was examined after a presumed traumatic incident but died several hours after presentation. At necropsy, a Diplotriaena nematode was found in a cranial air sac. Although no obvious gross pathologic changes were attributed to the nematode, histologic changes of bronchial epithelial hyperplasia and goblet cell metaplasia, consistent with chronic airway irritation were found in the lungs associated with Diplotriaena eggs. Diplotriaena species are parasitic nematodes found in the air sacs of birds. These parasites have an indirect life cycle; larval stages develop in insects, and when eaten by the host, these larvae migrate to the air sac and become adults. Although Diplotriaena species have been found in birds worldwide, none, to our knowledge, have previously been described in New Holland honeyeaters.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos/parasitologia , Aves , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Gorduras , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/patologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2269-2278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152335

RESUMO

Natural compounds from medicinal plants provide safe and sustainable alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics. In this study, we assessed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis (NH-A) and Euphorbia hirta (NH-B) and compared it with levamisole-HCl. The shoots of NH-A and whole plant of NH-B were used to prepare extracts using 70% methanol which were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays of crude methanolic extracts (CMEs) of NH-A and NH-B on larvae of mixed gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats revealed mortalities of 95.7% (at 100 mg ml-1) and 98.1% (at 50 mgml-1) 24 h postexposure. In vivo assays of NH-A administered orally at doses of 100, 300, 900, and 2700 mg kg-1 bwt revealed dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects in goats experimentally infected with mixed species of GINs. NH-B exhibited similar properties when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 bwt. Both NH-A (900 mg kg-1 bwt) and levamisole (7.5 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved a 100% reduction in fecal egg count per gram (EPG) on day 21 and day 14 respectively posttreatment. NH-B (400 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved 93.1% and 86.1% reduction in fecal EPG 7 and 14 days postexposure respectively compared with 88.2% and 82.3% reduction with levamisole-HCl 7 and 14 days postexposure. Our results show that extracts of both plants can disrupt helminth lifecycles by suppressing the egg-laying capacity in adult worms but also kill their infective larvae. Future studies should aim at establishing synergies or antagonisms between the two plant extracts and further development for control of helminths in goats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Levamisol , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 489-500, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187388

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The blue antimora, Antimora rostrata and slender codling, Halargyreus johnsonii (Gadoformes: Moridae) are common representatives of deep-water marine demersal fish fauna. This paper focuses on infections in blue antimora caught in the northwestern Atlantic region, but also reports observations on the parasites of slender codling obtained from a limited number of specimens from the same location. METHODS: Standard methods of parasitological examination, fixation and staining were used. In addition, a genetic analysis of the found acanthocephalans was performed to clarify their taxonomic affiliation. RESULTS: Blue antimora is mostly infected by juveniles of Anisakis sp. and trematodes Lepidapedon sp. sensu Campbell & Bray, 1993. The trematode Lepidapedon cf. mariannae and nematodes Spinitectus oviflagellis, Fellicola sp., Hysterothylacium gadi gadi, and Capillaria cf. gracilis have been recorded from blue antimora for the first time. The slender codling has been newly recorded as a host of five parasite species: Steringophorus pritchardae; Plerurinae gen. sp.; Lepidapedon cf. mariannae; Ascarophis sp.; Anisakis sp., and Sphyrion lumpi. CONCLUSIONS: Blue antimora and slender codling are recorded as hosts of 14 and 5 parasite taxa, respectively. The parasite fauna of these two species have similar patterns of infection to other bony fish that exist at a similar depth (800-2000) within the studied region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 456-463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Concordance of multiple anthelmintic resistances for gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants by three average-based and two individually based fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests was evaluated and corrected. METHODS: Sheep and goats (≥ 8 weeks) from five farms were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (I, II, III; n = 10 per group) and one untreated control group (Group IV; n = 10). Group I received fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 and 10 mg/kg, Group II received ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, and Group III received levamisole at the dose rate of 8 and 12 mg/kg body weight orally for sheep and goat, respectively. Three average-based methods of FECR (FECR1, FECR2 and FECR3) and two individually based methods of FECR (iFECR1 and iFECR2) were evaluated. RESULTS: For fenbendazole resistance, Spearman correlation coefficient for FECR1 was non-significant with other formulae, but for FECR2 with FECR3, FECR3 with iFECR1 and iFECR1 with iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 1%, while for FECR2 with iFECR2 and FECR3 with iFECR2 it was significant at 5%. Spearman correlation coefficients for ivermectin resistance were significant at 1% level and for levamisole it showed significant coincidence at 1% for FECR1 with FECR2 and iFECR1, FECR2 with FECR3 and iFECR1, and iFECR1 with iFECR2, while for FECR1 with FECR3 and iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 5% level. Concordance of kappa values indicated that the coincidence of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (95% CI) among the five farms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between the standard average-based FECR and individually based methods suggests that either method could be applied to small ruminant farms.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Índia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Levamisol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Fish Biol ; 95(2): 428-443, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038739

RESUMO

A combination of traditional and emerging methodologies was used to assess the trade-offs between several life-history traits (linked to reproduction and condition) and parasitism in a commercially-exploited cold-water species, blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, in the Mediterranean Sea. The use of histological and gravimetric methods revealed conflicting evidence as to the fecundity type (indeterminate or determinate) of this species. Moreover, there seem to be condition-mediated compensations between egg quality and egg quantity. The effects of parasitism on reproduction and condition are species-specific and occur mainly at high intensities of infection; they include a lower batch fecundity (affecting reproductive potential), a higher hepatosomatic index and a higher spleen-somatic index. Considering the fact that larger fish spawn more eggs and that the minimum landing size is lower than the size at maturity, these results may have implications for the future management of M. poutassou stocks in the Mediterranean Sea. Local environmental conditions may account for geographical differences regarding infection in M. poutassou. Altogether, the results support the idea that the complex trade-offs between parasitism, reproduction and condition need to be considered in order to understand the status of cold-water species such as M. poutassou.


Assuntos
Gadiformes/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nível de Saúde , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Reprodução , Alimentos Marinhos , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/fisiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 307-316, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085411

RESUMO

Many contaminants persist in the environment for decades or more, influencing ecosystem health. Environmental contamination with mercury (Hg) is a particular concern due to its ability to biomagnify in food webs and its lethal and sub-lethal effects in exposed organisms. Despite the known impacts of anthropogenic contamination, there remains a need for data on wildlife exposure to Hg and other contaminants, and the effects of exposure on wildlife health. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantify differences in concentrations of mercury and other trace elements among three sympatric semiaquatic mammals of different assumed trophic position: North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and North American beaver (Castor canadensis), 2) compare trace element concentrations between animals captured on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, where known inputs of Hg and other trace elements have occurred, and reference sites in South Carolina (SC) and Georgia (GA), USA, and 3) investigate the relationship between host trace element concentrations and endoparasite communities. River otters, beavers, and raccoons were sampled from the SRS, SC, and GA to quantify trace element concentrations in liver tissue and quantify endoparasite communities. Both species and sampling location were important factors determining hepatic trace element concentration, however, there was no consistent trend of elevated trace element concentrations among animals sampled on the SRS. Only Hg demonstrated biomagnification based on assumed trophic position, with river otters having the highest Hg concentrations among the sampled species. Additionally, the results suggest a possible relationship between host hepatic mercury concentration and endoparasite abundance, while hepatic selenium concentration may be related to endoparasite diversity. These findings further demonstrate how wildlife can accumulate anthropogenic contamination, although future research is needed to determine the mechanisms contributing to patterns observed between endoparasite communities and the contaminant concentrations of their mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Lontras , Guaxinins , Roedores , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Lontras/metabolismo , Guaxinins/metabolismo , Roedores/metabolismo , South Carolina
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(4-5): 381-398, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077063

RESUMO

Sixteen Nile crocodiles were collected in the Kruger National Park, South Africa and vicinity during 2010 and 2011. A total of 11 nematode species representing six families were recovered. Heterocheilids were the dominant group, comprising five species, with Dujardinascaris madagascariensis (Chabaud & Caballero, 1966) being the most prevalent (75%), followed by Ingwenascaris sprenti Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 (68.8%), which was also the second most numerous nematode. While less prevalent (31.3%), Typhlophoros kwenae Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 was the most abundant species. Micropleura huchzermeyeri Junker & Mutafchiev, 2017 (Micropleuridae) was collected from five crocodiles and Crocodylocapillaria sp. (Capillariidae) occurred in a single host. Three nematodes, Camallanus kaapstaadi Southwell & Kirshner, 1937, Spirocamallanus sp. (both Camallanidae) and Ascarophis sp. (Cystidicolidae), are considered accidental infections, likely ingested with the hosts' prey. Our findings of D. dujardini (Travassos, 1920), D. madagascariensis and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) in South Africa constitute new geographical records. Crocodylocapillaria sp. represents a new host and geographical record, while T. kwenae, I. sprenti and M. huchzermeyeri have been described as new species during the course of this survey. Multicaecum agile is here redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Previously undescribed morphological characters of C. kaapstaadi, typically a parasite of Xenopus spp. (Amphibia: Pipidae), but here found in two Nile crocodiles, are also presented.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Parques Recreativos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Nematoides/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 429-441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data on helminth parasites in hammerhead sharks are scarce and, therefore, new examinations of these hosts are needed to recognize the species composition of their parasites, including nematodes. METHODS: Helminthological examinations of hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith et Smith) (209 specimens) and Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell) (57 specimens) (Sphyrnidae, Carcharhiniformes), from off the northern coast of Australia revealed one new and one insufficiently known species of intestinal nematode parasites. These were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Both nematode species are described. Piscicapillaria bursata sp. nov. (Capillariidae) from S. mokarran (type host) and S. lewini differs from its congeners mainly in the spicule length (330 µm), body length of gravid females 12.80-21.26 mm and in possessing a subterminal female anus. The specimens of Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 (Cystidicolidae) (type species of Parascarophis Campana-Rouget, 1955) collected from S. lewini made it possible to redescribe the female and, for the first time, to describe the male; the same species was also found in S. mokarran. Amended diagnosis of Parascarophis is provided. Parascarophis is mainly characterized by the presence of lateral alae, a unique feature within the Cystidicolidae, and by the cephalic structures (presence of a cuticular hood and a pair of anterolateral plate-like structures in the mouth). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the discovery of a new nematode species, Pi. bursata sp. nov., the finding of Pa. sphyrnae in Australian waters represents a new geographical record of this parasite outside the Atlantic Ocean. The species of Parascarophis previously described from teleosts, P. bharatii Agrawal, 1965, P. oteroi Arya, 1992 and P. mulloidi Imam, Tawfik et Abdel Hady, 1982, are designated as species inquirendae and incertae sedis. The finding of P. sphyrnae in Australian waters represents a new geographical record of this parasite outside the Atlantic Ocean. Pa. sphyrnae had not been reported previously from beyond the Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Tubarões/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
19.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(1): 60-69, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973268

RESUMO

Among the wild canids, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is recognised as an important reservoir species for a range of parasites, including cardiopulmonary nematodes of public health and veterinary importance. As cross-host transmission between the red fox and domestic carnivores can play an important role in the epizootiology of cardiopulmonary parasitic diseases, the aim of the present investigations was to obtain data on the geographical distribution of cardiopulmonary nematodes of the red fox. The material for examination consisted of 83 foxes which were legally hunted at different locations during a three-month period from December 2017 to February 2018. The presence of four emerging species in Europe (Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Dirofilaria immitis and Eucoleus aerophilus) was revealed in red foxes of Serbia. Crenosoma vulpis and E. aerophilus were detected in foxes in both the plain and the mountainous areas across the country. Dirofilaria immitis is distributed in red foxes near alluvial rivers in Vojvodina province (northern Serbia). Angiostrongylosis caused by A. vasorum was demonstrated to exist in two enzootic foci with a high percentage of infected foxes in a plain area of northern Serbia. To the best of our knowledge, C. vulpis and A. vasorum were discovered for the first time in red foxes in central Serbia. The results provide strong evidence for veterinarians to take into consideration the parasitic nematodes discovered in red foxes in the differential diagnosis of diseases of companion animals. In the context of the 'One Health' approach the results related to the distribution of the zoonotic species E. aerophilus and D. immitis can be useful for medical epidemiology.


Assuntos
Raposas/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/patologia , Sérvia/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(7): 487-492, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952829

RESUMO

AIMS: Helminth infections are becoming uncommon in high-income countries and laboratory staff may lose expertise in their morphological identification, especially in histological sections where speciation of helminths is challenging. Commercially available molecular diagnostic panels for faecal specimens only offer tests for protozoa but not helminths. We aim to improve the identification accuracy of helminths using a multiplex PCR assay. METHODS: We designed three pairs of PCR primers and probes targeting multicopy genes for a multiplex single-tube real-time PCR assay which covers 16 trematode (28S rRNA gene), 24 cestode (cox1 gene) and 33 nematode (cox1 gene) species. Helminths (n=27) from faecal samples (n=10), fresh parasites (n=11), formalin-fixed specimens (n=4), cerebrospinal fluid (n=1) and bile (n=1) were examined morphologically and tested by PCR. Fifty stool samples negative for parasites by microscopy were also tested. RESULTS: The PCR assay correctly identified the genera of all tested helminths. Agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the purified PCR amplicons confirmed that the PCR products were of correct sizes with 100% correlation with the respective species. Sequencing of the cox1 gene failed to identify Capillaria spp. in one sample owing to the lack of corresponding sequences in GenBank. PCR and sequencing of the nematode 18S rRNA gene using consensus primers showed 100% homology with Capillaria spp. sequence. No positive PCR products were found in the negative stool samples. CONCLUSIONS: The highly specific test correctly identified all helminths in our cohort. It is a useful adjunct to helminth identification in difficult situations such as histological sections.


Assuntos
Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Estudos de Coortes , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
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