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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052016, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality rates from cervical cancer demonstrate deep inequality in health between richer and poorer populations. Over 310 000 women died of this preventable disease in 2018, mostly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where screening and treatment are beyond the capacity of health systems. Immunisation against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a primary prevention strategy, but rates of vaccination uptake are unclear. Understanding coverage levels and factors affecting uptake can inform immunisation strategies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the status of HPV vaccination coverage from nationally reported indicators and to estimate global coverage in a single year cohort of vaccine-eligible girls. DESIGN: This study provides quantitative population-level estimates of important global health indicators. Using data from the Global Cancer Observatory and WHO/UNICEF, incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and HPV vaccination coverage are described for countries, categorised by income group. Characteristics of LMICs achieving high coverage are explored using selected development indicators from World Bank sources. Global HPV immunisation coverage is calculated and its impact on cervical cancer mortality estimated. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality for cervical cancer correlate with poverty. Whilst all WHO member states report high infant measles vaccination rates, fewer than half report on HPV vaccination. Even amongst high-income countries, coverage varies widely. In upper-middle-income countries, there is a trend for higher coverage with increased health spending per capita. Four LMICs report good coverage levels, all associated with external funding. Global HPV immunisation coverage for 2018 is estimated at 12.2%. Of the global cohort of 61 million 15-year-old girls in 2018, 7000 are likely to die from cervical cancer, almost all in LMICs. CONCLUSIONS: Countries in all income groups must devise strategies to achieve and maintain higher levels of HPV immunisation. For all but the richest, affordability remains a barrier.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
2.
Vaccine ; 39(36): 5129-5137, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 had a target of 60% HPV vaccine coverage. The PAPILLON study investigated the annual age-specific vaccination initiation rates and cumulative partial and complete vaccination rates in France from 2017 to 2022. It also identified the factors associated with vaccination in different age groups and those associated with the type of completion of the vaccination scheme (partial vs full vaccination). METHODS: For this publication, all females recorded in the French National Claims database who initiated HPV vaccination between 1 July 2007 and 31 December 2018 and were aged between 11 and 19 years at initiation were included. Annual HPV vaccination initiation rates were estimated in 11- to 14-year-old (target population) and 15- to 19-year-old females (catch-up). Cumulative vaccine coverage rates (VCRs) were estimated among those who were 15, 16, 20 and 21 years old. Partial vaccination was defined by dispensing of at least one dose of HPV vaccine by the pharmacy, while full vaccination was defined by two or three doses dispensed by a pharmacy over an 18-month period, according to current French recommendations based on the age at vaccination initiation. RESULTS: Among the 465,629 females who initiated HPV vaccination in 2017 or 2018, the initiation rate increased from 7.7 to 11.1% in 11- to 14-year-old girls and from 4.5 to 6.5% in 15- to 19-year-old females. In 2017 and 2018, the cumulative VCRs for partial vaccination by age 15 were 28.2% and 32.8%, respectively, while by age 20, they were 41.6% and 38.8%. The cumulative VCRs for full vaccination were 15.6% and 18.6% by age 16, while they were 25.9 and 23.6% by age 20. HPV vaccination initiation and completion were strongly associated with the use of health services. CONCLUSION: Overall, the HPV VCR substantively increased between 2017 and 2018, which is positive evidence of the resumption of vaccination. Updates in 2022 should confirm these results.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasias , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
3.
Vaccine ; 39(36): 5198-5204, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: British Columbia (BC) introduced a publicly funded, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program in 2008 with the quadrivalent vaccine. In 2010/2011, a baseline evaluation of HPV prevalence was conducted among women undergoing cervical cancer screening. After 10 years of publicly funded HPV vaccination, HPV-type prevalence was re-evaluated. METHODS: From August 2017 to March 2018, 1107 physicians were invited to return cytobrushes used during routine Pap screening to the Cervical Cancer Screening Laboratory for HPV testing. Only age or year of birth was collected. Specimens were screened for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) and positive samples were genotyped. HPV type prevalence was compared for females 15-22 yrs (those eligible for the school-based vaccination) and 23+ yrs (ineligible for school-based vaccination) for the 2010/2011 and the 2017/2018 data. RESULTS: There were 3309 valid samples received for testing; of these, 3107 were included in the analysis. The overall hrHPV prevalence was 12.2% (95% CI 11.3-13.3) in 2010/11, and 12.0% (95% CI 10.9-13.2) in 2017/18. For the 15-22 age group, the prevalence for any hrHPV was 26.8% (95% CI 23.1-30.8) in 2010/11 and 25.4% (95% CI 15.3-37.9) in 2017/18. For those aged 15-22, HPV16 prevalence in 2010/11 was 8.8% (95% CI 6.5-11.5) and in 2017/18 was 6.3% (95% CI 1.8-15.5), with corresponding figures for HPV18 3.7% (95% CI 2.3-5.7) and 0% (95% CI 0.0-5.7), respectively. For all hrHPV types, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2010/11 and 2017/18 periods. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the prevalence of hrHPV in BC over time in women undergoing cervical cancer screening, where an indication of a decline in HPV16/18 is seen in vaccine eligible women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
4.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372548

RESUMO

Infections with multiple human papilloma virus (HPV) types have been reported, but their role in cervical carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, 236 cases with multiple HPV infection were examined and compared to 180 cases with single HPV infection. HPV genotyping was performed with cervico-vaginal swab specimens using multiplex (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In multiple HPV infection, the most prevalent HPV genotype was HPV 53, followed by HPV 16, 58, 52, and 68. HPV 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 53, 58, and 68 were high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes that were more frequently detected in multiple HPV infection compared to that in single HPV infection. The association between multiple HPV infection and high-grade SIL (HSIL) was significantly stronger compared to that of single HPV infection and HSIL (p = 0.002). Patients with multiple HPV infection displayed persistent and longer duration of the HPV infection compared to patients with single HPV infection. Multiple HPV infections have distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Since it is associated with persistent HPV infection, HSIL, and different HR-HPV strains in contrast to single HPV infection, the presence of multiple HPV infection should be reported; close follow up is warranted.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406288

RESUMO

This study presents 25 cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) that occurred in Sao Luis, Maranhao State, Northeast region, Brazil, between January 2007 and December 2018. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status were evaluated. Clinical and histopathological data were collected from the patients' medical records. For the HPV infection analysis, DNA was extracted and subjected to amplification by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Viral genotyping was performed by automated sequencing. The median age of patients was 12.40 ± 12.6. years, and the juvenile form of the disease (68%) was the predominant form of disease. Female participants were predominant (60%), and they were from cities located in the interior of the State (60%). The most common clinical manifestation was dysphonia; recurrence was observed in most cases (56%), and tracheostomy was necessary in seven patients (26.9%). When comparing the RRP forms, patients in the juvenile-RRP group had higher recurrence rates and need of tracheostomy than those in the adult-RRP group. The viral genotyping analysis revealed that 47.8% of patients had low-risk HPVs, whereas 13.1% had high-risk HPVs, and in 39.1% of patients the viral genotype was not obtained. HPV-6 was the most prevalent type and Juvenile-RRP was more prevalent in our population. HPV was present at a high rate, and HPV-6 was the predominant genotype. This study serves as the basis for further studies to be conducted in the Brazilian population. Our findings aid the better understanding of RRP, possibly suggesting some prognostic factors associated with the disease aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360884

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported to be present in different types of human cancers, including CRCs, where they can play a key role in the onset and/or progression of these cancers. Thus, we herein explored the prevalence of high-risk HPVs and EBV in a cohort of 94 CRC tissue samples and 13 colorectal normal tissues from the Lebanese population using polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarray methodologies. We found that high-risk HPVs are present in 64%, while EBV is present in 29% of our CRC samples. Additionally, our data showed that high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 35, 58, 51, 45, 52, 31, and 33) are the most frequent in CRC in the Lebanese cohort, respectively. Our data point out that HPVs and EBV are copresent in 28% of the samples. Thus, this study clearly suggests that high-risk HPVs and EBV are present/copresent in CRCs, where they could play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, further investigations using a larger cohort are needed to elucidate the possible cooperation between these oncoviruses in the development of CRC.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Lancet HIV ; 8(9): e531-e543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust age-specific estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in men can inform anal cancer prevention efforts. We aimed to evaluate the age-specific prevalence of anal HPV, HSIL, and their combination, in men, stratified by HIV status and sexuality. METHODS: We did a systematic review for studies on anal HPV infection in men and a pooled analysis of individual-level data from eligible studies across four groups: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive men who have sex with women (MSW), and HIV-negative MSW. Studies were required to inform on type-specific HPV infection (at least HPV16), detected by use of a PCR-based test from anal swabs, HIV status, sexuality (MSM, including those who have sex with men only or also with women, or MSW), and age. Authors of eligible studies with a sample size of 200 participants or more were invited to share deidentified individual-level data on the above four variables. Authors of studies including 40 or more HIV-positive MSW or 40 or more men from Africa (irrespective of HIV status and sexuality) were also invited to share these data. Pooled estimates of anal high-risk HPV (HR-HPV, including HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68), and HSIL or worse (HSIL+), were compared by use of adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) from generalised linear models. FINDINGS: The systematic review identified 93 eligible studies, of which 64 contributed data on 29 900 men to the pooled analysis. Among HIV-negative MSW anal HPV16 prevalence was 1·8% (91 of 5190) and HR-HPV prevalence was 6·9% (345 of 5003); among HIV-positive MSW the prevalences were 8·7% (59 of 682) and 26·9% (179 of 666); among HIV-negative MSM they were 13·7% (1455 of 10 617) and 41·2% (3798 of 9215), and among HIV-positive MSM 28·5% (3819 of 13 411) and 74·3% (8765 of 11 803). In HIV-positive MSM, HPV16 prevalence was 5·6% (two of 36) among those age 15-18 years and 28·8% (141 of 490) among those age 23-24 years (ptrend=0·0091); prevalence was 31·7% (1057 of 3337) among those age 25-34 years and 22·8% (451 of 1979) among those age 55 and older (ptrend<0·0001). HPV16 prevalence in HIV-negative MSM was 6·7% (15 of 223) among those age 15-18 and 13·9% (166 of 1192) among those age 23-24 years (ptrend=0·0076); the prevalence plateaued thereafter (ptrend=0·72). Similar age-specific patterns were observed for HR-HPV. No significant differences for HPV16 or HR-HPV were found by age for either HIV-positive or HIV-negative MSW. HSIL+ detection ranged from 7·5% (12 of 160) to 54·5% (61 of 112) in HIV-positive MSM; after adjustment for heterogeneity, HIV was a significant predictor of HSIL+ (aPR 1·54, 95% CI 1·36-1·73), HPV16-positive HSIL+ (1·66, 1·36-2·03), and HSIL+ in HPV16-positive MSM (1·19, 1·04-1·37). Among HPV16-positive MSM, HSIL+ prevalence increased with age. INTERPRETATION: High anal HPV prevalence among young HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM highlights the benefits of gender-neutral HPV vaccination before sexual activity over catch-up vaccination. HIV-positive MSM are a priority for anal cancer screening research and initiatives targeting HPV16-positive HSIL+. FUNDING: International Agency for Research on Cancer.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/virologia
8.
Am Fam Physician ; 104(2): 152-159, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383440

RESUMO

With more than 200 types identified, human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly causes infections of the skin and mucosa. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although most HPV infections are transient and subclinical, some lead to clinical manifestations ranging from benign papillomas or warts to intraepithelial lesions. In some patients, persistent infection with high-risk mucosal types, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, causes anal, cervical, oropharyngeal, penile, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. Most HPV-related cancers are believed to be caused by sexual spread of the virus. A history of multiple sex partners; initiation of sexual activity at an early age; not using barrier protection; other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; an immunocompromised state; alcohol use; and smoking have been identified as risk factors for persistent HPV infections. Screening for HPV infection is effective in identifying precancerous lesions and allows for interventions that can prevent the development of cancer. Use of condoms and dental dams may decrease spread of the virus. Vaccination is the primary method of prevention. The nonavalent HPV vaccine is effective in preventing the development of high-grade precancerous cervical lesions in noninfected patients. Vaccination is ideally administered at 11 or 12 years of age, irrespective of the patient's sex. In general, a two-dose series is recommended if administered before 15 years of age; however, individuals who are immunocompromised require three doses.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/farmacologia , Vacinação/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 634, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has resulted in a remarkable decline of genital warts in women and men, but in Germany historical rates of vaccination are relatively low. We report long-term surveillance data on changes in HPV 6 and HPV 11 infection and the prevalence of genital warts in young women in the Wolfsburg HPV epidemiological study (WOLVES). METHODS: Women born in 1983/84, 1988/89, and 1993/94 participated in four cohorts between 2009/10 and 2014/15. Quadrivalent vaccination coverage and prevalence of HPV 6/11 infection and genital warts are reported for participants aged 19-22 years and 24-27 years at the time of sample collection. Statistical analyses were done to compare similarly aged participants using 2 × 2 contingency tables (Röhmel-Mansmann unconditional exact test; two-side alpha of 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 2456 women were recruited. Between 2010 and 2015, there was a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of HPV 6 infection among women aged 24-27 years (2.1% versus 0.0%; P < 0.0001) and women aged 19-22 years (2.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.0056). There was no significant decline in HPV 11 infection. In total, 52 of 2341 participants were diagnosed with genital warts. There was a statistically significant drop in the risk of developing genital warts in women aged 24-27 years between 2010 and 2015 (4.7% versus 1.7%, respectively; P = 0.0018). The overall risk of developing genital warts in women aged 19-27 years decreased from 3.1% in 2010 to 1.2% in 2015 (P = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in vaccination coverage was associated with a decreased prevalence of genital warts in young women. A protective effect greater than herd immunity alone was seen despite low vaccination rates. Quadrivalent vaccine had a protective effect on genital HPV 6 infection and an almost fully protective effect on the development of genital warts in the youngest population.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prev Med ; 151: 106596, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217415

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact on a wide range of health outcomes. Disruptions of elective health services related to cervical screening, management of abnormal screening test results, and treatment of precancers, may lead to increases in cervical cancer incidence and exacerbate existing health disparities. Modeling studies suggest that a short delay of cervical screening in subjects with previously negative HPV results has minor effects on cancer outcomes, while delay of management and treatment can lead to larger increases in cervical cancer. Several approaches can mitigate the effects of disruption of cervical screening and management. HPV-based screening has higher accuracy compared to cytology, and a negative HPV result provides longer reassurance against cervical cancer; further, HPV testing can be conducted from self-collected specimens. Self-collection expands the reach of screening to underserved populations who currently do not participate in screening. Self-collection and can also provide alternative screening approaches during the pandemic because testing can be supported by telehealth and specimens collected in the home, substantially reducing patient-provider contact and risk of COVID-19 exposure, and also expanding the reach of catch-up services to address backlogs of screening tests that accumulated during the pandemic. Risk-based management allows prioritizing management of patients at highest risk of cervical cancer while extending screening intervals for those at lowest risk. The pandemic provides important lessons for how to make cervical screening more resilient to disruptions and how to reduce cervical cancer disparities that may be exacerbated due to disruptions of health services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(7): 3000605211022534, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is currently increasing worldwide. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV DNA and p16 expression in HNSCC patients age <45 years compared with patients aged ≥45 years. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients aged <45 years who presented at Besançon University Hospital with HNSCC since 2005 were included in this retrospective study. HPV DNA was detected by HPV genotyping and p16 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using paraffin-embedded tissues. A matched-group of 38 patients aged ≥45 years from Besançon University Hospital was included. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 11.7%. HPV16 was the only genotype detected in 4/39 and 5/38 patients, and p16 was expressed in 6/39 and 4/38 patients aged <45 years and ≥45 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-positivity and p16 expression were similar in both age groups. The results suggest that p16 immunohistochemistry may provide a prognosis biomarker for all HNSCCs, not only oropharyngeal cancers, and this should be addressed in large clinical trials.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
12.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1206-1208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes in limited-resource settings is imperative for cancer prevention strategies in these regions. The objective of our study is to compare the prevalence of cervical HPV genotypes in women across the African diaspora. METHODS: This study was approved by the African Caribbean Consortium (AC3). Six member institutions (Benin, Ethiopia, The Bahamas, Tobago, Curacao, and Jamaica) provided independently collected HPV data. Prevalence comparisons across for each nation were performed followed by an assessment of anticipated 9-valent vaccine coverage. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used with significance at P < .05. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred fifty high-risk (HR) and 584 low-risk (LR) HPV subtypes were identified in the entire cohort. The most common HR HPV subtype was HPV 16 (17.9%) of infections. The distribution of HR and LR subtypes varied by country. The proportion of HR-HPV subtypes covered by the current 9-valent vaccine was lower in African countries compared with the Caribbean countries (47.9% v 67.9%; P < .01). No significant difference was seen for LR subtypes (8.1% African continent v 5.2% Caribbean; P = .20). Marked variation in the proportion of infections covered by the 9-valent vaccine persisted in individual countries. CONCLUSION: Significant variations in HPV prevalence were identified among African and Afro-Caribbean women. A large number of women in these regions are potentially uncovered by current vaccination formulation, particularly low-risk HPV infections.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bahamas , Benin , Curaçao , Etiópia , Feminino , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Jamaica , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(8): 2111-2115, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304188

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed to investigate the presence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in tumors obtained from sporadic retinoblastoma patients. Methods: One hundred six tumor tissues obtained from sporadic RB patients were analyzed for HPV infection by use of both seminested PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Of 106 RB patients, 55 were male and 51 were female. The mean age at diagnosis was 26.77 ± 15.36 (mean ± Std. dev) months. Almost all patients presented with leukocoria. Molecular investigation by different methods revealed no HPV positivity in any tumor genome. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates no association between HPV and RB, postulating HPV may not be a major risk factor in the etiology of RB.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias da Retina , Retinoblastoma , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Neoplasias da Retina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Retina/epidemiologia , Retinoblastoma/diagnóstico , Retinoblastoma/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 675, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been causally linked to a subset of oropharyngeal cancers in Western populations, and both oropharyngeal cancer and oral HPV infection are increased among HIV-positive individuals. India has high incidences of oral and oropharyngeal cancers, and Indian HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) may be at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancers. However, there is little information available on the prevalence of oral HPV in this population. METHODS: We tested 302 HIV-positive Indian MSM for oral HPV infection using L1 HPV DNA PCR with probes specific for 29 types and a mixture of 10 additional types. CD4+ level and plasma HIV viral load (VL) were measured. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including a sexual history. RESULTS: The prevalence of oral HPV was 23.7% (95% CI: 19-29%) and 2.4% of participants had oncogenic HPV types. No participants had oral HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and the prevalence of other anogenital HPV types was low. Participants with higher CD4+ levels had reduced odds of having any oral HPV infection (OR: 3.1 [1.4-6.9]) in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of oral HPV among Indian HIV-positive MSM. Our results show a high prevalence of oral HPV infection consistent with studies from Western populations. However, oncogenic anogenital HPV types were relatively uncommon in our study population. It is unknown what the impact of this distribution of oral HPV will be on oropharyngeal cancers. HIV-positive MSM in India should be monitored closely for oral and oropharyngeal pre-cancer and cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudos Transversais , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(7): 786-791, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence, genotype distribution, and associated risk factors in women with general gynaecological problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Lady Wallingdon Hospital, Lahore from August 2018 to May 2019. METHODOLOGY: One hundred females with general gynaecological problems constituted the sample. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and liquid base cytology were performed for HR-HPV detection, genotyping, and cytological changes in cervical samples. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was found to be 57%, with the most frequent HR-HPV genotypes HPV 16 (18%), HPV 18 (6%), and HPV 45 (1%). The total prevalence of single HR-HPV infection was 25%; whereas, multiple co-infection of HR-HPV was seen in 32% of cases. In total, 81% of these women had normal cytology and 19% had cytologic abnormalities. A significant association was observed between HR-HPV infection and general gynaecological complaints and between HR-HPV infection and cytological abnormalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The HR-HPV prevalence was 57% with the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 and HPV 18. The results will also aid the identification of HR-HPV 51 and 31 genotypes, which should be added in the multi-type HPV vaccines. Key Words: Cancer of cervix, Human papillomavirus, Papanicolaou test, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colo do Útero , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(15): 1838-1844, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer remains a major public health issue for the Uyghur women and other women living mainly in rural areas of Xinjiang. This study aims to investigate the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in rural areas of Xinjiang, China. METHODS: Cervical cancer screening was performed on rural women aged 35 to 64 years from Xinjiang, China in 2017 through gynecological examination, vaginal discharge smear microscopy, cytology, and HPV testing. If necessary, colposcopy and biopsy were performed on women with suspicious or abnormal screening results. RESULTS: Of the 216,754 women screened, 15,518 received HPV testing. The HPV-positive rate was 6.75% (1047/15,518). Compared with the age 35-44 years group, the odds ratios (ORs) of HPV positivity in the age 45-54 years and 55-64 years groups were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.37) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.21), respectively. Compared with women with primary or lower education level, the ORs for HPV infection rates of women with high school and college education or above were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.09-1.72) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.23-2.12), respectively. Uyghur women were less likely to have HPV infection than Han women, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.78 (0.61-0.99). The most prevalent HPV types among Xinjiang women were HPV 16 (24.00%), HPV 33 (12.70%), and HPV 52 (11.80%). The detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ was 0.14% and the early diagnosis rate of cervical cancer was 85.91%. The detection rates of vaginitis and cervicitis were 19.28% and 21.32%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The HPV infection rate in Xinjiang is low, but the detection rate of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions is higher than the national average level. Cervical cancer is a prominent public health problem in Xinjiang, especially in southern Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
18.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3691-3698, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252250

RESUMO

In Japan, the age-adjusted incidence of cervical cancer has been increasing constantly and rapidly among younger women. We set out to accurately confirm the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in Japan. Data were collected for women born in the fiscal year (FY) 1990 to 1997, who became eligible for their 20-y-old cervical cancer screening between the FY 2010 to 2017. The adjusted incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1+ in women born in FY 1990 to 1993, that is those who reached the national vaccination target age prior to the introduction of publicly subsidized HPV vaccinations, referred here after as "the pre-introduction generation", was 1.42% (242/17 040). The incidence in the "vaccination generation" (women born in FY 1994 to 1997, that is those who were heavily vaccinated as a group when they were of the nationally targeted age of 13-16) was 1.66% (135/8020). There was no significant difference between these incidence rates. However, our FY birth year-by-year analysis revealed that the incidence of CIN1+ was obviously lower than that predicted based on just the trend for CIN1+ seen in the pre-introduction generation. Our analysis revealed that the incidence of CIN3+ was obviously lower in the vaccination generation than in the pre-introduction generation (P = .0008). The incidence of CIN was already tending to increase in both the pre-introduction and vaccination generations. The changes in CIN incidence by individual birth FY must be examined to accurately determine the actual effects of the HPV vaccine for reducing mild cervical lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Cancer ; 149(7): 1483-1494, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224588

RESUMO

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increasing rates of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in men. Sequential infection from one site to another has been demonstrated at the cervix and anus. Thus, risk of an oral HPV infection after a genital infection of the same type in the HPV infection in men study was investigated. Samples from 3140 men enrolled in a longitudinal cohort were assessed for sequential genital to oral infection with one of nine HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58); and then also sequential, same-type oral to genital infection. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared rates of oral HPV among men with and without prior genital infection of the same type. Risk of sequential HPV infections were assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Incidence of an oral HPV infection was significantly higher among men with a prior genital infection of the same type for any of the 9 HPV types (IRR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.0). Hazard ratio of a sequential genital to oral HPV infection was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-6.4) for oral to genital infection. Both changed minimally after adjustment for age, country, circumcision, alcohol use, lifetime sexual partners and recent oral sex partners. HPV infections at one site could elevate risk of a subsequent genital or oral HPV infection of the same type in men, emphasizing the importance of vaccination to prevent all HPV infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Genitália/patologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4856-4863, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, high and widespread uptake of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has led to substantial population-level reductions in the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine targeted HPV genotypes 6/11/16/18 in women aged ≤ 35 years. We assessed risk factors for HPV detection among 18-35 year old women, 9-12 years after vaccine program introduction. METHODS: Women attending health services between 2015 and 2018 provided a self-collected vaginal specimen for HPV genotyping (Roche Linear Array) and completed a questionnaire. HPV vaccination status was validated against the National Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for factors associated with HPV detection. RESULTS: Among 1564 women (median age 24 years; IQR 21-27 years), Register-confirmed ≥ 1-dose vaccine coverage was highest at 69.3% and 68.1% among women aged 18-21 and 22-24 years respectively, decreasing to 42.9% among those aged 30-35 years. Overall prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted HPV types was very low (2.0%; 95% CI: 1.4-2.8%) and influenced only by vaccination status (5.5% among unvaccinated compared with 0.7% among vaccinated women; aOR = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.05-0.30)). Prevalence of remaining HPV types, at 40.4% (95% CI: 38.0-42.9%), was influenced by established risk factors for HPV infection; younger age-group (p-trend < 0.001), more recent (p < 0.001) and lifetime sexual partners (p-trend < 0.001), but not vaccination status. Prevalence of HPV31/33/45, which shared risk factors with that of non-vaccine targeted HPV types, was also lower among vaccinated (4%) compared with unvaccinated (7%) women (aOR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89), indicative of cross-protection. CONCLUSION: Vaccination has changed the epidemiology of HPV infection in Australian women, having markedly reduced the prevalence of vaccine-targeted types, including amongst women with known risk factors for infection. Vaccinated women appear to be benefiting from modest cross-protection against types 31/33/45 afforded by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. These results reinforce the importance of HPV vaccination.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
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