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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638362

RESUMO

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 91-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is a requirement for high school sport participation in most states, but its location and role in preventive health care for adolescents is often questioned. HYPOTHESIS: Athletes who had their PPE performed in an office setting, in particular) by their primary care physician (PCP), will have higher human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization rates than those who had their PPE done in a group setting at a mass-participation PPE. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: The PPE forms and immunization records for athletes at a single high school were reviewed to determine the location of PPE, the signing practitioner, and HPV immunization status. RESULTS: A total of 488 athletes (286 males, 202 females) were included; 51% had received at least 1 dose of the HPV vaccine while 39% had completed the series. There was no significant difference in vaccination rates between examination in an office setting versus a group setting. Athletes receiving their PPE at an urgent care facility had significantly lower rates of HPV series completion than all other settings (29% vs 43%; P = 0.004). PPE completion by the athlete's PCP was associated with higher rates of vaccine series completion (46% vs 34%; P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Athletes who completed their PPE in mass event and office-based settings had similar rates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. PPEs done at urgent care facilities were associated with low rates of vaccine series completion, while those done by a PCP were associated with higher rates. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: HPV immunization rates in athletes are low, and the PPE represents a potential opportunity to improve immunization rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Exame Físico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(12): 1643-1652, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause most cases of cervical cancer. Here, we report long-term follow-up results for the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (publicly funded and initiated before licensure of the HPV vaccines), with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine for preventing HPV 16/18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). METHODS: Women aged 18-25 years were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in Costa Rica, between June 28, 2004, and Dec 21, 2005, designed to assess the efficacy of a bivalent vaccine for the prevention of infection with HPV 16/18 and associated precancerous lesions at the cervix. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or control hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccines were administered intramuscularly in three 0·5 mL doses at 0, 1, and 6 months and participants were followed up annually for 4 years. After the blinded phase, women in the HPV vaccine group were invited to enrol in the long-term follow-up study, which extended follow-up for 7 additional years. The control group received HPV vaccine and was replaced with a new unvaccinated control group. Women were followed up every 2 years until year 11. Investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation for the follow-up phase. At each visit, clinicians collected cervical cells from sexually active women for cytology and HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology were referred to colposcopy, biopsy, and treatment as needed. Women with negative results at the last screening visit (year 11) exited the long-term follow-up study. The analytical cohort for vaccine efficacy included women who were HPV 16/18 DNA-negative at vaccination. The primary outcome of this analysis was defined as histopathologically confirmed CIN2+ or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse associated with HPV 16/18 cervical infection detected at colposcopy referral. We calculated vaccine efficacy by year and cumulatively. This long-term follow-up study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00867464. FINDINGS: 7466 women were enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial; 3727 received the HPV vaccine and 3739 received the control vaccine. Between March 30, 2009, and July 5, 2012, 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2836 women in the new unvaccinated control group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study. 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2677 women in the control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 0-4, and 2073 women from the HPV vaccine group and 2530 women from the new unvaccinated control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 7-11. Median follow-up time for the HPV group was 11·1 years (IQR 9·1-11·7), 4·6 years (4·3-5·3) for the original control group, and 6·2 years (5·5-6·9) for the new unvaccinated control group. At year 11, vaccine efficacy against incident HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ was 100% (95% CI 89·2-100·0); 34 (1·5%) of 2233 unvaccinated women had a CIN2+ outcome compared with none of 1913 women in the HPV group. Cumulative vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ over the 11-year period was 97·4% (95% CI 88·0-99·6). Similar protection was observed against HPV 16/18-associated CIN3-specifically at year 11, vaccine efficacy was 100% (95% CI 78·8-100·0) and cumulative vaccine efficacy was 94·9% (73·7-99·4). During the long-term follow-up, no serious adverse events occurred that were deemed related to the HPV vaccine. The most common grade 3 or worse serious adverse events were pregnancy, puerperium, and perinatal conditions (in 255 [10%] of 2530 women in the unvaccinated control group and 201 [10%] of 2073 women in the HPV vaccine group). Four women in the unvaccinated control group and three in the HPV vaccine group died; no deaths were deemed to be related to the HPV vaccine. INTERPRETATION: The bivalent HPV vaccine has high efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated precancer for more than a decade after initial vaccination, supporting the notion that invasive cervical cancer is preventable. FUNDING: US National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Costa Rica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Gradação de Tumores , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinas Combinadas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
6.
S D Med ; 73(10): 470-472, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Coyote Clinic is a student-run clinic that provides free services to Sioux Falls residents without insurance. It has not historically provided routine women's health screenings. The project addressed this lack of preventative care. We aimed to increase the percentage of female patients that are up to date on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, mammograms, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines through the implementation of screening questions. METHODS: A screening questionnaire was created and asked to female patients between the ages of 18-65 about the dates and results of their last Pap smear, mammogram, and the administration of any HPV vaccine. RESULTS: 27 patients answered the questions. Fifty-two percent were Caucasian, 26 percent Hispanic, 15 percent African American, and 7 percent Middle Eastern. Two patients were eligible for HPV vaccination: one had not received the vaccination and the other was unknown. All 27 women were eligible for Pap smears. Seventy-six percent had normal results, 19 percent were unsure of their results, and 5 percent had abnormal results. Eight patients were eligible for mammograms: five were up to date, two were tested in the last three years, and one had an unknown test date. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of eligible female patients were up to date on Pap smears and mammograms. The health maintenance questionnaire was a valuable resource for patient care, patient health literacy, and medical student education.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low national immunization coverage (44.64%) requires strengthening the vaccination campaign to improve knowledge about HPV and its vaccine among adolescents and parents/guardians. Our aim is to evaluate factors related to knowledge about HPV, its vaccine, acceptability and divergences among Brazilian adolescents and parents/guardians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at a health unit of Sao Paulo University, Brazil, from 2015 to 2016. The convenience sample comprised 1047 individuals, including 74% (n = 776) adolescents and 26% (n = 271) parents/guardians, who answered a survey (knowledge about HPV, its vaccine, barriers and acceptability). RESULTS: The main source of information for adolescents was school (39%, n = 298); for parents/guardians, it was health professionals (55%, n = 153). Parents/guardians were 2.48 times more likely than adolescents to know that HPV caused changes in the Pap smear test [RR 2.48, 95% CI 2.03-3.01 (p < 0.001)], 1.43 times likely to be aware that HPV was a sexually transmitted infection [RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.68 (p < 0.001)], and 2.77 times likely to be informed that the HPV vaccine decreased the chance of having genital warts [RR 2.77, 95% CI 2.22-2.47 (p < 0.001)]. Girls knew more about the topic than boys (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.10-2.60); education increased parents' knowledge [(RR 3.38; 95% CI 1.71-6.69)]. CONCLUSION: Female adolescents and parents/guardians with a higher level of education are factors related to suitable knowledge about HPV and its vaccine among Brazilian respondents. There were differences between parents/guardians and adolescents in HPV awareness, clinical implications, vaccine knowledge and vaccine acceptance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2022025, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185676

RESUMO

Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine hesitancy or refusal is common among parents of adolescents. An understanding of public perceptions from the perspective of behavior change theories can facilitate effective and targeted vaccine promotion strategies. Objective: To develop and validate deep learning models for understanding public perceptions of HPV vaccines from the perspective of behavior change theories using data from social media. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study, conducted from April to August 2019, included longitudinal and geographic analyses of public perceptions regarding HPV vaccines, using sampled HPV vaccine-related Twitter discussions collected from January 2014 to October 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of social media discussions related to the construct of health belief model (HBM) and theory of planned behavior (TPB), categorized by deep learning algorithms. Locally estimated scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) revealed trends of constructs. Social media users' US state-level home location information was extracted from their profiles, and geographic analyses were performed to identify the clustering of public perceptions of the HPV vaccine. Results: A total of 1 431 463 English-language posts from 486 116 unique usernames were collected. Deep learning algorithms achieved F-1 scores ranging from 0.6805 (95% CI, 0.6516-0.7094) to 0.9421 (95% CI, 0.9380-0.9462) in mapping discussions to the constructs of behavior change theories. LOESS revealed trends in constructs; for example, prevalence of perceived barriers, a construct of HBM, deceased from its apex in July 2015 (56.2%) to its lowest prevalence in October 2018 (28.4%; difference, 27.8%; P < .001); Positive attitudes toward the HPV vaccine, a construct of TPB, increased from early 2017 (30.7%) to 41.9% at the end of the study (difference, 11.2%; P < .001), while negative attitudes decreased from 42.3% to 31.3% (difference, 11.0%; P < .001) during the same period. Interstate variations in public perceptions of the HPV vaccine were also identified; for example, the states of Ohio and Maine showed a relatively high prevalence of perceived barriers (11 531 of 17 106 [67.4%] and 1157 of 1684 [68.7%]) and negative attitudes (9655 of 17 197 [56.1%] and 1080 of 1793 [60.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study provided a good understanding of public perceptions on social media and evolving trends in terms of multiple dimensions. The interstate variations of public perceptions could be associated with the rise of local antivaccine sentiment. The methods described in this study represent an early contribution to using existing empirically and theoretically based frameworks that describe human decision-making in conjunction with more intelligent deep learning algorithms. Furthermore, these data demonstrate the ability to collect large-scale HPV vaccine perception and intention data that can inform public health communication and education programs designed to improve immunization rates at the community, state, or even national level.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 846, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that HPV prophylactic vaccine could prevent new infections and their associated lesions among women who are predominantly HPV-naive at vaccination. Yet there still remains uncertainty about whether HPV vaccination could benefit to individuals who have undergone surgery for cervical disease. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis intends to focus on intent-to-treat participants who underwent excision treatment at baseline and the follow-up period in a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT00779766 ) conducted in Jiangsu province, China. We evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination on preventing women from subsequent infection and cervical lesions (LSIL+ and CIN2+) after excision treatment. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-eight (vaccine, n = 87; placebo, n = 81) performed excisional treatment in this clinical trial. We observed a significant effect of vaccination on acquiring 14 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection after treatment (vaccine efficacy: 27.0%; 95% CI 4.9, 44.0%). The vaccine efficacy against new infections after treatment for 14 HR-HPV infection was estimated as 32.0% (95%CI 1.8, 52.8%), and was 41.2% (95%CI -162.7, 86.8%) for HPV16/18 infection. The accumulative clearance rates of the vaccine group and placebo group were 88.9 and 81.6% for HPV16/18 infection (P = 0.345), 63.4, 48.7% for 14 HR-HPV infection (P = 0.062), respectively. No significant difference was observed on the persistent rate of HPV16/18, 14 HR-HPV infection and occurrence rate of LSIL+ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No significant evidence from this study showed that HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine could lead to viral faster clearance or have any effect on the rates of persistent infection among women who had excision treatment. However, the vaccine may still benefit post-treatment women with "primary prophylactic" effect. Further research is required in clarifying the effect of using the prophylactic HPV vaccine as therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00779766 . Date and status of trial registration: October 24, 2008. Completed; Has Results.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/cirurgia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 857, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted pathogen and the cause of several cancers and of anogenital warts. With this study, we estimated the trend of hospitalizations for anogenital warts (AGWs) in the Veneto region (Italy) from 2007 to 2018. METHODS: The analysis included all the hospital discharge records of public and accredited private hospitals occurred in Veneto residents in the timespan 2007-2018. The ICD9-CM code 078.11 considered were those associated with condyloma acuminatum and those associated with surgical interventions for vulval/vaginal warts, penile warts anal warts. Annual total and sex- and age-specific hospitalization rates and trends were calculated and correlated with the different HPV vaccine coverage over the study period. RESULTS: We observed an overall reduction of hospitalization rates for AGWs: from 15.0 hospitalizations every 100,000 Veneto residents in years 2007-08 to 10.9 hospitalizations every 100,000 Veneto residents in year 2017-18 (- 37.4%; p < 0.05). Reduction has been caused by a drop in hospitalizations in females - from a rate of 20.4/100,000 in 2007-2008 to a rate of 10.8/100,000 in 2017-18 (AAPC: -7.1; 95%CI: - 10.6;-3.4); while in males, we observed a slight - but not statistically significant - increase in hospitalization rates. CONCLUSION: The marked decline in hospitalization rates for AGWs in Veneto Region is probably attributable to the high coverage rates of HPV vaccination programs implemented since 2008.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/tendências , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Doenças do Pênis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Doenças Vaginais/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Vulva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Ânus/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Doenças do Pênis/virologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Vaginais/virologia , Doenças da Vulva/virologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 808, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although more than 10 years have passed since HPV vaccination was implemented, first as an interim programme (Emergent vaccine promotion programme) in November 2010, followed by incorporating into the National Immunization Programme in April, 2013 and suspended in June 2013, limited studies have investigated the HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions in Japan. METHODS: We collected the matched data of the results of cervical biopsy and history of vaccination from the Japan Cancer Society database. The subjects were women aged 20 to 29 years screened for cervical cancer between April, 2015 and March, 2017, and with information on HPV vaccination status. We estimated the relative risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions in vaccinated subjects using Poisson regression as compared to unvaccinated subjects. RESULTS: Among the 34,281 women screened, 3770 (11.0%) were vaccinated. The prevalence of CIN2+ was statistically significantly lower in the vaccinated women as compared to the unvaccinated women (Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) =76%; RR = 0.24, 95% CI:0.10-0.60). High VE against CIN3+ was also observed (91%; RR = 0.09, 95% CI:0.00-0.42). CONCLUSION: Women aged 20-29 years who received at least one dose of HPV vaccine had a significantly lower risk of high-grade cervical lesions than those not vaccinated. In Japan, HPV vaccination should be resumed in order to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/classificação , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/classificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(11): e592-e603, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many European countries, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among girls has remained below target levels, supporting the scope for vaccination of boys. We aimed to investigate if sex-neutral HPV vaccination can be considered cost-effective compared with girls-only vaccination at uptake levels equal to those among girls and under tender-based vaccination costs achieved throughout Europe. METHODS: We investigated the cost-effectiveness of sex-neutral HPV vaccination in European tender-based settings. We applied a Bayesian synthesis framework for health economic evaluation to 11 countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden), accommodating country-specific information on key epidemiological and economic parameters, and on current HPV vaccination programmes. We used projections from three independently developed HPV transmission models to tailor region-specific herd effects. The main outcome measures in the comparison of sex-neutral with girls-only vaccination were cancer cases prevented and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), defined as the cost in international dollars (I$) per life-year gained. FINDINGS: The total number of cancer cases to be prevented by vaccinating girls at currently realised vaccine uptake varied from 318 (95% CI 197-405) per cohort of 200 000 preadolescents (100 000 girls plus 100 000 boys) in Croatia (under 20% uptake of the 9-valent vaccine) to 1904 (1741-2101) in Estonia (under 70% uptake of the 9-valent vaccine). Vaccinating boys at equal coverage increased these respective numbers by 168 (95% CI 121-213) in Croatia and 467 (391-587) in Estonia. Sex-neutral vaccination was likely to be cost-effective, with ICERs of sex-neutral compared with girls-only vaccination varying from I$4300 per life-year gained in Latvia (95% credibility interval 3450-5160; 40% uptake) to I$25 720 per life-year gained in Spain (21 380-30 330; 80% uptake). At uniform 80% uptake, a favourable cost-effectiveness profile was retained for most of the countries investigated (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden). INTERPRETATION: Sex-neutral HPV vaccination is economically attractive in European tender-based settings. However, tendering mechanisms need to ensure that vaccination of boys will remain cost-effective at high vaccine uptake rates. FUNDING: European Commission 7th Framework Programme and WHO.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(5): 1006-1015, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the result of an inpatient postpartum human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization pilot program in a diverse, low-income patient population from an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. METHODS: In this cohort study, we present results from the first 2 years of the inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program, in which vaccine-eligible postpartum women were identified and immunized during their hospital stays. The program was implemented after educational outreach with prenatal and postpartum clinicians and nurses. Associations between receipt of the HPV vaccine as an inpatient and the characteristics of patients, and the likelihood of and missed opportunities for receiving a subsequent dose of the HPV vaccine as an outpatient were determined using logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, chi-squared tests and t-tests. RESULTS: From April 11, 2017, to April 10, 2019, 394 (59.2%) of 666 postpartum women were eligible for the inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program. The majority (265/394, 67.3%) received the immunization pilot program HPV dose; 36 of those 265 (13.6%) completed the series with that dose. Among women due for additional doses after hospital discharge, those who received the inpatient dose were more likely to receive a subsequent outpatient dose (138/229) than were those who did not receive an inpatient dose (39/129; hazard ratio 2.51, 95% CI 1.76-3.58). On average, there were 30.7 fewer (95% CI 5.8-55.6, P<.02) missed opportunities for subsequent outpatient doses for every 100 eligible visits among women who received the inpatient dose, compared with women who did not. By the end of the study, the proportion of women who had completed the vaccine series was higher among women who received the inpatient dose (95/265, 35.8%) than in those who did not (12 out 129, 9.3%; odds ratio 5.45, 95% CI 2.86-10.38). CONCLUSION: The inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program was associated with increased rates of immunization and addressed a previously missed opportunity. Inpatient immunization programs can serve as a critical way to address gaps in vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/normas , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 50-63, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. In 2008, New Zealand commenced a quadrivalent HPV (virus-like particles of types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccination programme. AIM: Document trends in number of colposcopy referrals and number and grade of cervical abnormalities diagnosed in women (20-24 years) referred to three large colposcopy clinics over time. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of colposcopy clinic data. RESULTS: The dataset included 5,012 episodes from 4,682 women. In Auckland (2013-2017), there was a 38% decrease in colposcopy referrals and 55% decrease in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse diagnoses. In Waikato (2011-2017), there was an 8% decrease in referrals and 22% reduction in CIN2 or worse diagnoses. In Canterbury (2011-2017), there was a 24% decrease in referrals and 49% reduction in CIN2 or worse diagnoses. Across all centres, the decrease in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse diagnoses was marked and more consistent than in CIN2 diagnoses. However, while the proportion of biopsies reported as CIN3 or worse decreased in non-Maori (24% in 2013 vs 16% in 2017, nptrend z=-4.24, p>|z| <.001), there was no change in Maori women (31% in 2013 vs 29% in 2017, nptrend z=-0.12, p>|z| =.90). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a decreased number of CIN diagnoses in young women over time, with a particularly large drop in the number of CIN3/AIS/CGIN diagnoses. However, compared to non-Maori, Maori women having biopsies are more likely to have CIN3 or worse and there was a smaller reduction in the total number of Maori women diagnosed with CIN2 or worse.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Colposcopia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Gradação de Tumores , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S305-S311, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001720

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was portrayed on Pinterest before and after the platform acted to moderate vaccine-related search results to understand (1) what the information environment looked like previously and (2) whether Pinterest's policy decisions improved this environment in terms of sources and content.Methods. In this quantitative content analysis, we compared 2 samples of 500 HPV vaccine-focused Pinterest posts ("pins") collected before and after Pinterest's actions to provide more reliable vaccine-related information. Pins were based on search results and were analyzed using the Health Belief Model.Results. The majority of preaction search results leaned toward vaccine skepticism, specifically focused on perceived vaccine barriers. Few pins were published by public health-related Pinterest accounts. Postaction search results showed a significant shift to HPV vaccination benefits, and the number of pins by government or medical accounts increased. However, the proportion of pins in search results containing HPV content of any type was significantly lower.Conclusions. Pinterest's efforts to moderate vaccination discussions were largely successful. However, the ban also appeared to limit HPV vaccination search results overall, which may contribute to confusion or an information vacuum.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Mídias Sociais , Vacinação/tendências , Adulto , Movimento contra Vacinação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/normas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0234693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic and oncogenic roles of papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been documented and shown to occur in women as well as in men. While other countries have already extended their vaccination guidelines to include boys, in 2019 the French National Authority for Health validated implementation of HPV vaccination in the 2020 vaccination schedule. There is, however, a climate of distrust in regard to vaccination in France, and there have been few studies to date regarding the acceptability of HPV vaccination in boys in France. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the acceptability of extending the recommendations for HPV vaccination in men, among middle and high school students and their parents. METHODS: Our study (HPVac) was a prospective, multicenter, departmental, and descriptive survey applied to a sample of male middle and high school students attending schools in the Loire-Atlantique department and their parents. It took place from January 2017 to January 2018. RESULTS: We analyzed the information obtained from 127 parent questionnaires and 145 children questionnaires. In terms of acceptability, 36.6% (n = 53) of the children and 37.8% (n = 48) of the parents were in favour of being vaccinated or of having their children vaccinated against HPV (51.7% (n = 75) and 50.4% (n = 64), respectively, were undecided). The perception of a risk stemming from HPV infection was positively associated with acceptability of the HPV vaccine. Being against vaccines in general, being discouraged by their parents, parents thinking that their child is not at risk, and the belief that the vaccine is not mandatory were arguments cited and significantly associated with a willingness to be vaccinated. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a lack of information among boys and their parents about HPV and its vaccination. It also clearly showed that taking time to discuss the consequences of an infection and the merits of being vaccinated can help parents overcome their reluctance. The children then generally go along with their parent's choice.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(6): 1063-1078, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099451

RESUMO

The most effective strategy for cervical cancer prevention involves vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections during adolescence followed by screening to detect HPV infections during adulthood. HPV vaccination before sexual debut can prevent HPV infections, precancers, and cancers. HPV vaccination of sexually active populations does not prevent cancer. Screening with HPV testing is the most effective method of detecting precancers and cancers between ages 25 and 65. Ensuring adequate screening around the age of menopause may be the key to preventing cervical cancer among elderly women. Most cervical cancers at all ages occur among unscreened or underscreened women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Vacinação
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16091, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999408

RESUMO

In Japan, the governmental recommnendation of HPV vaccine has been suspended since June 2013, due to media reports of alleged adverse vaccination events. Although evidence of effectiveness and safety of the HPV vaccine has been universally demonstrated, and the medical and academic organizations across Japan have requested the resumption of the government's recommendation, the Japanese government has not changed their official stance towards the HPV vaccine. Under the current suspension of the national government's recommendation, one local government Isumi City started sending a leaflet containing information of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, but not recommendation for the vaccine, to the tagted girls born in the fiscal year (FY) 2003. The cumulative vaccination rate of them reached 10.07% (14/139), which was significantly higher than that (0.00%) for girls born in FY 2002 who did not receive such a leaflet (p < 0.001). We sincerely ask the national government to change their stance towards the HPV vaccine. We also strongly suggest that, in the meantime, local governments immediately begin to provide an appropriate information of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine to the targeted girls and their parents in a way similar to what Isumi City has now shown to be effective.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Japão , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Recusa de Vacinação
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