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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 153, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting ducks. It can be caused by five agents, including duck hepatitis A virus genotypes 1 (DHAV-1), 2 (DHAV-2), and 3 (DHAV-3), as well as duck hepatitis virus 2 and duck hepatitis virus 3. Since 2007, DHAV-3 has been known to be the most prevalent in East and South Asia. So far, the information regarding the propagation of DHAV-3 in cultured cells is limited. In this study, we describe the comparative studies on the growth properties of DHAV-3 in primary duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells using two different strains: a virulent strain C-GY and an attenuated strain YDF120. The effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) and chick serum (CS) on DHAV-3 replication and the mechanism of the inhibitory effect conferred by FCS were also investigated. RESULTS: Following serial passages, both C-GY and YDF120 failed to produce cytopathic effect and plaques. The combined quantitative real-time PCR and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods showed that the two viruses could be propagated productively in DEF cells. Investigation of the viral growth kinetics revealed that the two viruses replicated in DEF cells with similar efficiencies, while the viral load of the virulent C-GY strain peaked more rapidly when compared with the attenuated YDF120 strain. Neutralization assay and time-of-drug-addition study indicated that FCS displayed inhibitory effect on DHAV-3 replication. Analysis on the mechanism of action of FCS against DHAV-3 demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was reflected at three steps of the DHAV-3 life cycle including adsorption, replication, and release. CONCLUSIONS: Both virulent and attenuated DAHV-3 strains can establish noncytocidal, productive infections in DEF cells. The virulent strain replicates more rapidly than the attenuated strain in early infection period. FCS has an inhibitory effect on DHAV-3 replication, which may be attributed to action of a non-specific inhibitory factor present in FCS directly on the virus. These findings may provide new insights into the development of potential antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/sangue , Patos , Embrião não Mamífero/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 7-10, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955826

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a picornavirus that causes vesicular disease in swine. Since it is clinically indistinguishable from vesicular disease caused by food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), investigations must be performed to rule out this high consequence pathogen. A large portion of these investigations have involved market-weight swine at slaughter plants. The objective of this study was to describe acute infection dynamics of market-weight gilts (8 months of age) experimentally infected with SVV. At 0 days post inoculation (dpi) all gilts (n=15) were given an intranasal SVV inoculation. Vesicular lesions on the coronary band were first observed on one or more feet by 2 dpi in 4 of the 15 gilts and in all by 5 dpi. Vesicles on the snout were observed in 6 of the 15 gilts beginning at 4 dpi. All gilts became viremic post challenge for about 7 days and developed anti-SVV neutralizing antibodies by 7 dpi. Most vesicular lesions were resolved by 14 dpi. Understanding the pathogenesis of SVV is critical in order to inform decisions that veterinarians and producers must make at the farm level to control this disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Matadouros , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Viremia/patologia
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 13-21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030837

RESUMO

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of acute diarrhoea, respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and polioencephalomyelitis in swine. Here, we report the isolation, genomic sequence, and biological characterization of PSV isolated from pig diarrhoeal samples. In our study, two PSV strains were identified with a diameter of approximately 25 nm, and their full genomes were 7564 nucleotides in length. We named the strains PSV-JXXY-a2 and PSV-JXXY-c. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two virus isolates were classified into the China cluster. Moreover, the PSV-JXXY-a2 strain could be inactivated quickly at 54℃ and adapted to grow on different cell lines of porcine, human, and baby hamster origin. Pathogenicity investigation showed that the isolated PSV could infect neonatal piglets efficiently and caused diarrhoea in piglets. Further epidemiological investigation revealed a high prevalence of PSV in pig herds, and the PSV-positive rates in pigs with diarrhoea were much higher than in asymptomatic samples in China. Together, our findings demonstrate that PSV-JXXY-a2 is pathogenic to neonatal piglets and advance knowledge on the prevalence of PSV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Linhagem Celular , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral
4.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1911-1914, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982088

RESUMO

A novel picornavirus, named "lorikeet picornavirus 1" (LoPV-1), was detected in a fecal sample from rainbow lorikeets using viral metagenomic analysis, and its complete genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The genome of LoPV-1 is 7862 nt long, including a 617-nt 5' UTR, a type IV IRES 5'UTR with an '8-like' motif, a 7032-nt polyprotein ORF, and a 213-nt 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise asequence comparisons based on the amino acid sequences of P1, P2, and P3 indicated that LoPV-1 showed the closest relationship to two picornaviruses that were isolated recently from red-crowned cranes and clustered together with members of the genus Avihepatovirus.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Papagaios/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 256-262, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999161

RESUMO

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The function of IFITs has been investigated extensively in mammals. IFIT5 is the sole protein in this family found in birds and little information is available about the function of avian IFIT5. In this study, duck IFIT5 was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that duck IFIT5 is highly homologous to chicken IFIT5. Tissue specificity analysis demonstrated that duck IFIT5 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of five-day-old ducklings, with the highest expression levels in heart, followed by thymus, cerebrum, liver, and lung; kidney expressed the lowest. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that duck IFIT5 expression rapidly increased both in vitro and in vivo after stimulation with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] and infection with virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3), respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that the expression of duck IFIT5 is positively correlated with viral load and may play an important role in the immune response to DHAV-3 infection. This study lays a foundation for further research into the innate antiviral immune responses of ducklings.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Patos/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(1): 163-171, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997771

RESUMO

Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute and fatal disease of young ducklings characterized by rapid transmission and damages. The most important agent of DVH is duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1). The effective control of DVH was achieved by active immunization of 1-day-old duck- lings with an attenuated DHV-1 virus vaccine. However, the attenuated virus might reverse to virulence. In this study, a DHV-1 strain, Du/CH/LBJ/090809, was identified and its genomic se- quences were determined. The genome of Du/CH/LBJ/090809 is composed of 7,692 nt excluding poly A and the virus was clustered into genotype A by comparing with other referenced DHV-1 strains. Du/CH/LBJ/090809 could lead to 30% mortality of 10-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) ducklings. The virus was passaged serially in SPF chicken embryonated eggs and three vi- ruses, passage 16 (P16), P29 and P40, were selected for genomic analysis. P29 and P40 were used to evaluate the attenuation in duckling by inoculating the virus to 10-day-old SPF ducklings. Re- sults of vaccination-challenge assay showed that the inactivated virus P40 could evoke protection against the pathogenic parent virus. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the genomes of Du/ CH/LBJ/090809, P16, P29 and P40 were compared. Changes both in nucleotides and amino acids, which might be contributed to the decreasing in virulence by chicken embryo-passaging of DHV- 1, were observed. We speculated that these changes might be important in the adaption and at- tenuation of the virulent virus. Additionally, strains obtained in this study will provide potential candidate in the development of vaccines against DHV-1.


Assuntos
Patos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/patogenicidade , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Virais , Virulência
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(3): 1360-1369, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864242

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) belonging to the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus was incidentally isolated in 2002 from the PER.C6 (transformed foetal retinoblast) cell line. However, currently, this virus is associated with vesicular disease in swine and it has been reported in countries such as the United States of America, Canada, China, Thailand and Colombia. In Brazil, the SVA was firstly reported in 2015 in outbreaks of vesicular disease in swine, clinically indistinguishable of Foot-and-mouth disease, a contagious viral disease that generates substantial economic losses. In the present work, it was standardized a diagnostic tool for SVA based on RNA reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) using one-step and two-step approaches. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were done in parallel with real-time PCR, RT-qPCR (one-step and two-step) for comparison of sensitivity and specificity of both methods. In the standardization of RT-ddPCR, the double-quenched probe and the temperature gradient were crucial to reduce background and improve amplitude between positive and negative droplets. The limit of detection and analytical specificity of techniques of one-step techniques showed superior performance than two-step methods described here. Additionally, the results showed 94.2% concordance (p < 0.001) for RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR using the one-step assay approach and biological samples from Brazilian outbreaks of Senecavirus A. However, ddRT-PCR had a better performance than RT-PCR when swine serum pools were tested. According to the results, the one-step RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR is highlighted to be used as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for Senecavirus A and for viral RNA absolute quantification in biological samples (RT-ddPCR), being a useful tool for vesicular diseases control programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Doença Vesicular Suína/epidemiologia , Doença Vesicular Suína/virologia
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 165: 1-7, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851922

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the family Picornaviridae. Recently, SVA has been associated with idiopathic vesicular disease and increased neonate mortality outbreaks in the United States, Brazil, China, Colombia, and Thailand, with increasing incidence since 2014. Indirect detection by antibody detection methods, including indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), virus neutralization assay, and competitive or indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), have been reported in clinical and experimental trials. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of SVA in nonclinical affected herds in the United States. Individual samples were collected from 3654 and 2433 clinically healthy grower-finisher pigs and sows, respectively, from 219 unique commercial swine production sites. SVA seroprevalence was evaluated by SVA rVP1 ELISA and SVA IFA. The estimated seroprevalence for grower-finisher pigs and sows was 12.2% and 34.0%, respectively. The herd prevalence was 42.7% for grower-finisher farms and 75.8% for sow farms. The SVA rVP1 ELISA and SVA IFA exhibited a fair (sows) and moderate (grower-finisher) agreement at the herd level, while a fair agreement was observed at the individual level for both pig categories evaluated. The McNemar's test was significant at the individual and herd level (p < 0.05). In this study, we demonstrated the presence of SVA IgG antibodies in pigs from clinically healthy grower-finisher and sow herds. These results suggest that SVA is circulating subclinically in sow farms and grower-finisher pig farms in major swine producing-states in the United States.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Virus Genes ; 55(2): 198-208, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712153

RESUMO

The Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) is an enteric virus of pigs that can cause various disorders. However, there are few reports that describe the molecular characteristics of the PSV genome. In this study, almost the entire genomes of 23 PSVs detected in Japanese pigs were analyzed using bioinformatics. Analysis of the cis-active RNA elements showed that the predicted secondary structures of the internal ribosome entry site in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a cis-replication element in the 2C coding region were conserved among PSVs. In contrast, those at the 3' UTR were different for different PSVs; however, tertiary structures between domains were conserved across all PSVs. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 region showed that PSVs exhibited sequence diversity; however, they could not be grouped into genotypes due to the low bootstrap support of clusters. The insertion and/or deletion patterns in the C-terminal VP1 region were not related to the topology of the VP1 tree. The 3CD phylogenetic tree was topologically different from the VP1 tree, and PSVs from the same country were clustered independently. Recombination analysis revealed that recombination events were found upstream of the P2 region and some recombination breakpoints involved insertions and/or deletions in the C-terminal VP1 region. These findings demonstrate that PSVs show genetic diversity and frequent recombination events, particularly in the region upstream of the P2 region; however, PSVs could currently not be classified into genotypes and conserved genetic structural features of the cis-active RNA elements are observed across all PSVs.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/genética , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 228: 181-187, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593365

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major pathogen of viral hepatitis in ducks, which is a fatal and contagious disease of young ducklings. Despite the identification of numerous DHAV strains (e.g. DHAV-3, DHAV-2, DHAV-1 and DHAV-1a), the pathogenic differences among the different subtypes have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to compare the pathogenic properties of three epidemic strains DHAV-3, DHAV-1, and DHAV-1a in mainland China, in a Pekin duckling infection model. We evaluated the pathogenicity of these different subtypes by investigating clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, immunohistochemical examination, and viral RNA detection after experimental inoculation of Pekin ducklings with the three different DHAV strains. There was no significant difference in pathogenicity between DHAV-3 and DHAV-1. Pathogenicity of DHAV-1a differed significantly from that of classical duck hepatitis A (DHAV-3 or DHAV-1), in that there were no clinical signs of opisthotonos. More importantly, pancreatic bleeding or yellowing, and spleen swelling and bleeding were the predominant lesions in the DHAV-1a group, while liver and spleen lesions were the main signs in classical hepatitis (DHAV-1/3). Our findings indicate that there are differences in the pathogenicity of different subtypes of DHAV in ducklings, which may be useful for understanding the biological characteristics of the different subtypes of DHAV in ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/patogenicidade , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/genética , Fígado/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Virulência
12.
Microb Pathog ; 127: 320-325, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529427

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in naturally infected Indian pigs of various age groups. Eight samples (16%) out of 49 necropsied animals were positive for PSV on the basis of pathological and molecular investigation. Major lesions of PSV positive cases were thickening and clouding of meninges, congestion in brain, severe to moderate congestion in lungs along with froathy exudates in trachea, thickening of intestinal mucosa, especially mucosal folds of ileum. Microscopic lesions of PSV positive cases in CNS were perivascular cuffing, neuronophagia and focal gliosis. In lungs, interstitial pneumonia was noticed in all cases, and intestinal lesions comprised of sloughing of villi epithelium, moderate to severe congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of mononuclear cells mainly plasma cells in both large and small intestine. RT-PCR results of total cases examined for PSV were targeted for PSV 3D Polymerase, 5'UTR region and VP1 gene respectively. Genetic characterization was done on the basis of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) gene of PSV. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of amplified VP1 gene product showed maximum identity 85-90% with South Korean, KJ821021.1 and Indian, KY053835.1 strain of PSV. Further explorative surveillance and epidemiological studies are suggested to find out the real impact of this economically important disease affecting pigs population of India.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estruturas Animais/patologia , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Histocitoquímica , Índia , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
13.
Arch Virol ; 164(2): 653-656, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569277

RESUMO

The complete genome of a bear picornavirus 1 (BePV-1) in the viscera of an Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) from China was characterized using viral metagenomics and RT-PCR/Sanger sequencing. The genome of BePV1 is 6703 nt long, contains a type-IV IRES 5'UTR with the '8-like' motif, encodes a 2053-aa-long polyprotein showing a 3-4-4 organization pattern and two 2A genes. BePV-1 showed the highest overall genome nucleotide sequence identity of 71.7% to a picornavirus genome from an Arctic ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Canada, classified as a member of the species Aquamavirus A, currently the only one in the genus Aquamavirus. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses of P1 and 3D indicated that Asian bear picornavirus (aquamavirus B) represents the second sequenced member of the genus Aquamavirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Focas Verdadeiras/virologia , Ursidae/virologia , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Genoma Viral , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tortoise picornavirus (ToPV) has been speculated to play an important role in the frequently seen disease pattern of juvenile shell softening. This study aimed to determine ToPV prevalence among German tortoise collections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 334 animals selected from 27 different collections were included. Seven species of four genera of the family Testudinidae (Testudo graeca, T. hermanni, T. marginata, T. horsfieldii, Centrochelys sulcata, Stigmochelys pardalis, Chelonoidis carbonarius) were sampled. The tortoises were clinically investigated and none of the adults showed any signs of shell softening. Seven hatchlings of a ToPV-positive T. graeca breeding pair showed retarded growth and a progressive shell weakness that resulted in death. Each animal was sampled by conjunctival, pharyngeal and cloacal swabs (990 swabs in total) and blood sampling (293 in total). All three swabs of one animal were pooled and tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for tortoise picornavirus RNA. Blood samples were investigated by virus neutralisation test (VNT) for specific anti ToPV antibodies. All titres equal to or higher than log2 = 2 were considered positive. RESULTS: In total, 35 adult and 11 juvenile animals were tested positive for ToPV RNA. The serological investigation did detect specific antibodies against ToPV in 44 adult tortoises and one juvenile. In total, 76 animals were tested positive in either one of the investigations, 16 animals in both. The highest number of ToPV-positive animals was found for T. graeca, with a prevalence of 32 %. No specimens of C. carbonarius, C. sulcata, or S. pardalis were tested positive. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results propose a predisposition in T. graeca, as well as a high prevalence of ToPV in T. graeca, whereas other species showed only single or no positive animals, but may function as virus carriers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/virologia , Animais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Prevalência
15.
Virology ; 522: 147-157, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029014

RESUMO

The goals of this study were to compare the pathogenicity and infection dynamics of a historical and a contemporary SVA strains (SVV 001 and SD15-26) and to assess cross-neutralizing and cross-reactive T cell responses following experimental infection in pigs. Both SVA strains successfully infected all inoculated animals, resulting in viremia and robust antibody and cellular immune responses. SVA SD15-26 infection resulted in characteristic clinical signs and vesicular lesions, however, SVA SVV 001 did not cause overt clinical disease with inoculated animals remaining clinically normal during the experiment. Notably, neutralization- and -recall IFN-γ expression-assays revealed marked cross-neutralizing antibody and cross-reactive T cell responses between the two viral strains. Together these results demonstrate that the historical SVA SVV 001 strain presents low virulence in pigs when compared to the contemporary SVA SD15-26 strain. Additionally, immunological assays indicate that SVA SVV 001 and SD15-26 are antigenically related and share conserved antigenic determinants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/imunologia , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Virulência
16.
Virol J ; 15(1): 100, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian keratin disorder (AKD) is an epizootic of debilitating beak deformities, first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska during the late 1990s. Similar deformities have now been recorded in dozens of species of birds across multiple continents. Despite this, the etiology of AKD has remained elusive, making it difficult to assess the impacts of this disease on wild populations. We previously identified an association between infection with a novel picornavirus, Poecivirus, and AKD in a small cohort of black-capped chickadees. METHODS: To test if the association between Poecivirus and AKD holds in a larger study population, we used targeted PCR followed by Sanger sequencing to screen 124 symptomatic and asymptomatic black-capped chickadees for Poecivirus infection. We further compared the efficacy of multiple non-terminal field sampling methods (buccal swabs, cloacal swabs, fecal samples, and blood samples) for Poecivirus screening. Finally, we used both in situ hybridization and a strand-specific expression assay to localize Poecivirus to beak tissue of AKD-positive individuals and to determine if virus is actively replicating in beak tissue. RESULTS: Poecivirus was detected in 28/28 (100%) individuals with AKD, but only 9/96 (9.4%) asymptomatic individuals with apparently normal beaks (p < 0.0001). We found that cloacal swabs are the most sensitive of these sample types for detecting Poecivirus in birds with AKD, but that buccal swabs should be combined with cloacal swabs in evaluating the infection status of asymptomatic birds. Finally, we used both in situ hybridization and a strand-specific expression assay to localize Poecivirus to beak tissue of AKD-positive individuals and to provide evidence of active viral replication. CONCLUSION: The data presented here show a strong, statistically significant relationship between Poecivirus infection and AKD, and provide evidence that Poecivirus is indeed an avian virus, infecting and actively replicating in beak tissue of AKD-affected BCCH. Taken together, these data corroborate and extend the evidence for a potential causal association between Poecivirus and AKD in the black-capped chickadee. Poecivirus continues to warrant further investigation as a candidate agent of AKD.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Passeriformes/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Bico/patologia , Bico/virologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
17.
Vet Res ; 49(1): 52, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925406

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus 3 (DHAV-3), the only member of the novel genus Avihepatovirus, in the family Picornaviridae, can cause significant economic losses for duck farms in China. Reports on the pathogenicity and the antiviral molecular mechanisms of the lethal DHAV-3 strain in ducklings are inadequate and remain poorly understood. We conducted global gene expression profiling and screened differentially expressed genes (DEG) of duckling liver tissues infected with lethal DHAV-3. There were 1643 DEG and 8979 DEG when compared with mock ducklings at 12 hours post-infection (hpi) and at 48 hpi, respectively. Gene pathway analysis of DEG highlighted mainly biological processes involved in metabolic pathways, host immune responses, and viral invasion. The results may provide valuable information for us to explore the pathogenicity of the virulent DHAV-3 strain and to improve our understanding of host-virus interactions.


Assuntos
Patos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Poult Sci ; 97(8): 2722-2732, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757435

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the main pathogens of ducklings and causes a high mortality rate. Baicalin (BA) has potent antiviral effect, but the solubility is very poor. In order to increase the absorption, solubility, and pharmacological activity, the phospholipid complex was used to modify BA in present study. Therefore, BA phospholipid complex (BAPC) was prepared. The anti-DHAV-1 abilities of BA and BAPC in vitro was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 and reverse transcription quantitative PCR. The curative effects of BA and BAPC on ducklings which were infected by DHAV-1 in addition to the ALT and AST levels were also detected. The results indicated the anti-DHAV-1 ability of BAPC was stronger than that of BA both in vitro and in vivo. To explore the anti-DHAV-1 mechanism, the influence of BAPC on DHAV-1 adsorption, replication, and release was studied. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative and immuno-enhancing abilities of BAPC in the treatment of infected ducklings were also determined. The results showed BAPC inhibited DHAV-1 adsorption, replication and release. Furthermore, it played anti-oxidative and immno-enhancing roles in the treatment, and the immno-enhancing role was crucial to the treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Patos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antivirais/química , Flavonoides/química , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Fosfolipídeos/química , Infecções por Picornaviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(4): 667-671, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398671

RESUMO

In total, 985 livers were collected from 275 backyard waterfowl farms distributed in seven provinces of southern China. The virus that was most commonly isolated was avian influenza virus, with a 12.1% positivity rate. Of the other positive samples, 10.6% tested positive for avian Tembusu virus, 6.8% for duck hepatitis A virus, 3.8% for duck plague virus, 3.4% for Muscovy duck parvovirus, 3.1% for goose parvovirus, 1.0% for mycoplasma and 0.9% for respiratory enteric orphan virus. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Escherichia coli, with a 47.1% positivity rate. This survey suggests that backyard waterfowl in southern China could be an important vector for the storage, variation, and transmission of various pathogens.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Flavivirus , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae , Picornaviridae , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
20.
Arch Virol ; 163(6): 1701-1703, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442227

RESUMO

Using random high-throughput RNA sequencing, the complete coding sequence of a novel picorna-like virus (a 9,228-nt contig containing 212,202 reads) was determined from a blackbird (Turdus merula) infected with Usutu virus. This sequence shares only 36% amino acid sequence identity with its closest homolog, arivirus 1, (an unclassified member of the order Picornavirales), and shares its dicistronic genome arrangement. The new virus was therefore tentatively named "blackbird arilivirus" (ari-like virus). The nearly complete genome sequence consists of at least 9,228 nt and contains two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the nonstructural polyprotein (2235 amino acids) and structural polyprotein (769 amino acids). Two TaqMan RT-qPCR assays specific for ORF1 confirmed the presence of high levels of this novel virus in the original sample. Nucleotide composition analysis suggests that blackbird arilivirus is of dietary (plant) origin.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Flavivirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Passeriformes/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/genética , Animais , Bélgica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Coinfecção , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Plantas/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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