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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) started a routine rotavirus immunization program with ROTARIX in May 2016, with support for vaccine procurement and introduction provided through a global development organization. In 2018, financial responsibility for rotavirus vaccine procurement was transferred to the Palestinian government, which elected to shift to ROTAVAC vaccine because of its lower price per dose. This study aims to assess the cost, impact, and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, specifically evaluating the economic implications of the change in vaccine product, accounting for the different characteristics of each rotavirus vaccine used. METHODS: We conducted primary and secondary data collection to assess the introduction, procurement, supply chain, and service delivery costs related to each vaccine. We used the UNIVAC model to project costs and benefits of rotavirus vaccination over a 10-year period comparing the use of ROTARIX versus no vaccination; ROTAVAC versus no vaccination; and ROTAVAC versus ROTARIX. We undertook scenario and probabilistic analyses to capture uncertainty in some of the study parameters. We used a 3% discount rate, and all costs are in 2018 US$. RESULTS: The cost to deliver one dose was lower for ROTAVAC than ROTARIX (US$2.36 versus $2.70), but the total cost per course, excluding vaccine cost, favored ROTARIX ($7.09 versus $5.39). Both vaccines had high probability of being cost-effective interventions in Palestine compared to no vaccine. Because of lower vaccination program costs for ROTAVAC, however, switching from ROTARIX to ROTAVAC was cost-saving. CONCLUSION: National decision-makers should consider systematically assessing multiple criteria beyond vaccine price when comparing the health and economic value of several products in order to fully account for all characteristics including product presentation, number of doses per course, cold chain volume, cost of delivery, and wastage.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Programas de Imunização/economia , Infecções por Rotavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/classificação , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 280-289, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003707

RESUMO

Introduction. Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is known to be a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children but its role as a potential pathogen in immunocompetent adults is probably underestimated.Aim. To compare RVA infections in patients from different age groups.Methodology. Fecal samples were collected from patients aged from birth to 65 years, hospitalized or consulting for AGE between 2015 and 2017. All samples were screened by RT-PCR for the detection of VP6 gene specific of RVA. RVA-positive samples were VP7 and VP4 genotyped using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR. Full-length VP7 gene of G9-positive strains were sequenced and submitted for phylogenetic analysis.Results. Of 1371 stool specimens collected from children (<5 years; n=454), older children (5 to <15 years; n=316) and adults (15-65 years; n=601), 165 (12.0 %) were RVA-positive. RVA detection rates were significantly higher in children and adults than in older children (15.8 % and 12.1 Vs 6.3 %, respectively; P<0.001). While RVA infections were mostly detected during the coldest months in children, they were observed all year-round in patients aged >5 years. Although G1P[8] remained the most prevalent combination (41.7 %) detected in children, G9P[8] strains widely predominated in adults (58.1 %), followed by G2P[4] (12.9 %). All characterized G9 strains clustered in the modern lineage III.Conclusion. RVA play an important role in AGE not only in children but also in adults. The findings of a wide G9 predominance in patients >5 years highlights the need for continuing surveillance in both pediatric and mature populations.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 691-702, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016546

RESUMO

Here, we present the results of a study in which 639 samples obtained between October 2018 and April 2019 from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of a rotavirus infection. The antigen of group A rotavirus was detected in 160 samples (25% of those tested). To study the genetic diversity of group A rotavirus, RNA was isolated from the samples, and polymerase chain reaction combined with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) with primers specific for the VP4, VP6, and VP7 genes of group A rotaviruses was performed. At least one fragment of the group A rotavirus genome was found in 101 samples (15.8%). These fragments were sequenced, and their G and P genotypes-as well as their combinations-were determined. The predominant G genotypes were G9 (35.8% of all genotyped samples) and G4 (28.4%), but the rare G12 genotype was also found (3.0%). The dominant P genotype was P[8]. The spectrum of certain G/P combinations of genotypes included seven variants. The most common variants were G9P[8] (37.2%) and G4P[8] (30.2%).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moscou , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 181-186, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074707

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus in children under 5 years old in China (excluding China Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan data, the same below) from 2005 to 2018. Method: Data on other infectious diarrhea in the country from 2005 to 2018 were downloaded from the National Notifiable Disease Report System was to build a database for report cases of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years of age, and descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the data. Result: In 2005-2018, a total of 820 588 cases of rotavirus infection in children under 5 years old were reported nationwide, with male 500 944 cases, and with an average annual incidence of 63.7/100 000. The reported incidence showed a fluctuating upward trend increased from 8.4/100 000 to 178.1/100 000. The number of reporting provinces increased from 17 to 30. The reported incidence showed a peak of season from November to following February. The reported cases of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 months of age was 13.1%(107 845 cases), and the high-incidence age ranged from 6 months to 2 years old, accounting for 70.3% (576 874 cases), with a peak of 11-13 months (163 947 cases). The top three provinces (cities) reporting the incidence rate were Zhejiang (535.2/100 000), Guangdong (334.3/100 000) and Beijing (317.3/100 000), the provinces with the low reported case rates were Shanxi (0.9/100 000), Heilongjiang (1.6/100 000) and Liaoning (2.5/100 000), but there was no case reported in Tibet; The report cases of south region (745 526 cases) were 9.9 times north region (74 935 cases).The cases of rotavirus infection and other diarrhea pathogens were detected simultaneously accounted for 1.8% (15 030 cases) and mainly were positive for rotavirus and adenovirus (90.1%, 13 544 cases). Conclusion: The rate of rotavirus infection in children has increased rapidly since the age of 6 months, and 84.4% of the reported cases were infants before the age of 2 years.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino
5.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 1003-1005, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037490

RESUMO

We previously reported the VP4 and the VP7 genotypes of the first G6P[14] rotavirus strain (RVA/Human-wt/GHA/M0084/2010/G6P[14]) from the stool of an infant with diarrhoea in Ghana. In the current study, we obtained the complete genome sequences using Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing to enable us to determine the host species origin of the genes by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype constellation was G6-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M0084 was a reassortant strain from RVAs of both artiodactyl and human host species origin. The level of sequence identity of the individual genes of M0084 to other sequences in the GenBank ranged from 95.2 to 99.5%; however, there was no single strain from the GenBank database with a complete genome sequence that was highly similar to that of M0084. To help trace the source of such unique gene pools being introduced into human RVAs, it will be useful to examine RVA sequences from potential reservoirs such as sheep and goats, which are common domestic animals in this locality.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Diarreia/terapia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Gana , Cabras , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Ovinos
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 865-875, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052197

RESUMO

The G1P[8] genotype is one of the most common among rotaviruses circulating in the last 40 years. Therefore, this genotype is a component of rotavirus vaccines licensed throughout the world. This paper presents the results of a 35-year (1984-2019) observation of the circulation of G1P[8] rotaviruses among children under 14 in one region (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) without vaccine pressure. Several complementary approaches were used: RNA electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCR genotyping, and cDNA sequencing of rotavirus VP4 and VP7 genes. A total of 8375 rotavirus-positive samples were examined, and the proportion of genotype G1P[8] rotaviruses was 39.9% (4.3-98.9%). Two cycles of high circulation activity (1984-1993 and 1993-2007) and one cycle of low activity (2007-2019) were noted. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of rotaviruses of two VP4 gene lineages (P[8]-1 and P[8]-3) and two VP7 gene lineages (sublineages IA, IB, ID, II-B, II-C, and II- E). The prolonged circulation of rotaviruses of only one sublineage (G1-II-E) and then a change of the prevailing sublineage within the G1-II lineage (from E to C) during the active circulation were shown. Since 2011, when the circulation intensity of G1P[8] rotaviruses was low, the appearance of strains of the G1-I lineage and their co-circulation with strains of the G1-II lineage were observed in the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/genética , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 977-983, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095877

RESUMO

A novel rotavirus A (RVA) strain (JZ) was detected in RVA-positive stool specimens from three pediatric patients in Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, in 2018-2019. The electrophoresis pattern of the JZ strain showed a long electropherotype. The genomic constellation G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E2-H1 was detected, suggesting that a new inter-genogroup reassortment had occurred. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the JZ isolates were identical to each other. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VP7 and VP4 clustered in lineages G9-VI and P[8]-3, respectively. JZ strain-specific amino acid substitutions were detected in VP7, VP4 and NSP4. This study provides information on the epidemiology and characteristics of G9 strains circulating in China.


Assuntos
Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 425-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828508

RESUMO

Although members of rotavirus group A (RVA) are major enteric pathogens of humans and animals of many species, their impact on the health of small ruminants is not well documented. In this study, we conducted a molecular analysis of VP4, VP7, VP6 and NSP4 genes of RVAs detected using a commercial antigen ELISA in small ruminants with or without diarrhea in Turkey. Of the RVAs detected in sheep, one strain (Kutahya) was characterized as genotype G8P[1]-I2-E2. Two others (Ankara-1 and Ankara-2) were identified as NSP4 E2 and VP6 I2 genotypes, although they were untyped for the VP4 and VP7 genes. The RVAs from two goats were characterized as genotype G6P [1]-I2-E2. This is the first detection of in goats RVA genotypes G6P [1], which had previously only been found in cattle in Turkey, and of RVA in sheep. The study extends our current knowledge about the circulation of two RVA G genotypes, G6 and G8, in goat herds, and the detection of the G8 genotype in sheep in Turkey. This provides further information about the molecular epidemiology of RVAs in different animal species and indicates that additional surveillance programs are needed to determine the epidemiology of RVA in small ruminants and other species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Ruminantes/virologia , Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Turquia , Proteínas Virais/genética
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 463-470, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863266

RESUMO

The aim of this work was the genetic typing of RVA isolates originating from pigs and human patients in Slovakia. Seventy-eight rectal swabs from domestic pigs and 30 stool samples from humans were collected. The whole VP7 (G genotypes), VP6 (I genotypes) and partial VP4 (P genotypes) ORFs were amplified by RT-PCR. Genetic variability was higher amongst porcine sequences, where four G genotypes (G3, G4, G5, G11), two P genotypes (P[6], P[13]) and one I5 genotype were detected. Human RVA strains were represented by two G genotypes (G1, G3), two I genotypes (I1, I2), and one P genotype (P[8]). Genetic analysis did not show a relationship between Slovakian porcine and human RVA strains, but phylogenetic grouping of some Slovakian porcine sequences with Hungarian human sequences in both G and P genotypes was observed.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Reto/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Eslováquia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5798, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862873

RESUMO

Childhood diarrheal disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries, yet our ability to accurately predict diarrhea incidence remains limited. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been shown to affect diarrhea dynamics in South America and Asia. However, understanding of its effects in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of under-5 diarrhea is high, remains inadequate. Here we investigate the connections between ENSO, local environmental conditions, and childhood diarrheal disease in Chobe District, Botswana. Our results demonstrate that La Niña conditions are associated with cooler temperatures, increased rainfall, and higher flooding in the Chobe region during the rainy season. In turn, La Niña conditions lagged 0-5 months are associated with higher than average incidence of under-5 diarrhea in the early rainy season. These findings demonstrate the potential use of ENSO as a long-lead prediction tool for childhood diarrhea in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , El Niño Oscilação Sul/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Diarreia Infantil/prevenção & controle , Diarreia Infantil/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chuva , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
11.
Clin Lab ; 65(12)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses in humans worldwide, and different viral agents have been shown to be associated with the disease. Among these, rotaviruses and adenoviruses are the responsible causative agents of acute gastroenteritis and causing numerous outbreaks. Therefore, a simple and rapid diagnostic tool, such as an immunochromatographic (IC) test, is required for rapid diagnosis, especially during an outbreak of these pathogens. METHODS: The efficiency of two commercial IC kits were evaluated for simultaneous detections of rotavirus and adenovirus in clinical stool specimens by a single test kit. RESULTS: The data demonstrated that both IC test kits could detect either adenovirus or rotavirus positive alone, as well as mixed infections of both viruses in a single stool specimen. In addition, a wide variety of rotavirus genotypes, including G1-P[8]-I1, G2-P[4]-I2, G3-P[8]-I2, G8-P[8]-I2, and G9-P[8]-I1 could be detected by both IC kits. The detection limit of the kits for the detection of rotavirus and adenovirus were comparable to those of real-time PCR at 105 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These two IC test kits could be used as an alternative choice for rapid screening of rotavirus and adenovirus in the stool specimens, especially during the seasonal outbreak of acute gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Adenoviridae/genética , Cromatografia/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 978, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The present study was conducted to detect the two most important pathogens, rotavirus and Campylobacter Jejuni in children suffering with diarrhea in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease were also investigated. METHODS: A total of 500 stool samples were collected from children presented with clinical signs and symptoms of acute diarrhea. The samples were initially screened for the presence of rotavirus A (RVA) via ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase PCR) and then were analysed for C. jejuni by using species specific PCR assay. RESULTS: The detection rate of RVA was 26.4% (132/500) while, Campylobacter was detected in 52% (260/500) of samples with C. jejuni accounted for 48.2% (241/500) of all study cases. Co-infection of C. jejuni with RVA was identified in 21.8% of all cases. Children with RVA and C. jejuni co-infection showed a higher probability (p = 0.01) to be dehydrated. A significant association (p = 0.02) was found between C. jejuni positive status and fever in children. The median age of children with both RVA and C. jejuni infection was 6-11 months. The RVA detection rate was high in winter months of the year while, C. jejuni infections were documented high in summer over 1 year study period. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results have demonstrated the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The results of present study will not only help to calculate disease burden caused by C. jejuni and rotavirus but also will provide critical information to health authorities in planning public health care strategies against these pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 84, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640807

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Paridade , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 895-899, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484250

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a viral pathogen surveillance program on pediatric inpatients less than five years old with acute gastroenteritis in Shanghai and to better understand the pathogenic spectrum and molecular features in the target population, for setting up programs on control, prevention, medication and vaccine applications of the diseases. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from inpatients less than 5 years old who were admitted to a pediatric hospital for having acute gastroenteritis. Information related to demographic, clinical and epidemiological features of the patients was also collected. Laboratory assays including ELISA, real-time PCR and nested PCR, were performed to detect the presence of pathogens as rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and adenovirus. Results: A total of 1 018 samples were collected (male 671 and 347 female), with the positive detection rate as 40.57% which peaked from autumn till winter, annually. Calicivirus and rotavirus A presented with the highest detection rates (24.75% and 13.95% respectively). The lowest detection rate was found in the 0-6 month-olds (32.20%). 65% of the patients with positive virus had received antibiotic treatment prior to the hospitalization. However, no statistically significant difference was seen, regarding the rates of antibiotic medication in the virus positive or negative populations (P>0.05). Data from the Rotavirus genotype analysis revealed that G9P[8] genotype was the predominant strain, and causing majority of rotavirus infections in all the age groups. Conclusions: Among the inpatients under 5 years of age in Shanghai, the positive detection rate for Calicivirus was higher than that for rotavirus group A, suggesting the necessity to carefully monitor the changes regarding the pathogenic spectrum and subtypes of the virus. Antibiotics should also be attentively administered, together with the development of suitable vaccine.


Assuntos
Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 89: 3-9, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. In countries like Croatia, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced in the national immunization program, prospective surveillance is necessary to establish the diversity of rotavirus strains. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and geographical distribution of rotavirus strains in Croatia and to detect the possible emergence of novel strains. METHODS: The study was conducted among children ≤5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis at three hospitals located in different geographical regions of Croatia, during the years 2012 to 2014. Rotavirus was detected in stools using an immunochromatographic assay and then sent for further molecular analysis. RESULTS: Genotyping of 822 rotaviruses showed that the predominant circulating strain was G1P[8] (61.9%), followed by G2P[4] (19.5%), G1P[4] (3.9%), and G3P[8] (2.9%). A high prevalence of reassortants among common human rotavirus genotypes was detected (7.7%). Possible zoonotic reassortants were found, including G8 and G6 strains. The latter is described for the first time in Croatia. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents pre-vaccination data that are important for decisions regarding immunization strategies in Croatia. The high prevalence of 'common' rotavirus strains circulating in Croatia may advocate for rotavirus vaccine introduction, but further surveillance is necessary to monitor the possible emergence of novel genotypes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Croácia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1215: 45-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317495

RESUMO

To initiate infection, non-enveloped viruses must recognize a target cell and penetrate the cell membrane by pore formation or membrane lysis. Rotaviruses are non-enveloped dsRNA viruses that infect the mature intestinal epithelium. They are major etiologic agents of diarrheal disease in human infants, as well as in young individuals of various avian and mammalian species. Rotavirus entry into the cell is a complex multistep process initiated by the interaction of the tip of the viral spike with glycan ligands at the cell surface, and driven by conformational changes of the proteins present in the outer protein capsid, the viral machinery for entry. This review feeds on the abundant structural information produced for rotavirus during the past 30 years and focuses on the structure and the dynamics of the rotavirus entry machinery. We survey the current models for rotavirus entry into cells.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Membrana Celular/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312314

RESUMO

Introduction: Rotavirus causes severe-diarrheal diseases in infants. An estimation of 138 million rotavirus-associated diarrheal cases and 215,000 deaths occur every year globally. In December 2016, West-Shewa zone in Ethiopia reported unidentified gastrointestinal diarrhea outbreak. We investigated to identify the causative agent of the outbreak to support response operations. Methods: Medical records were reviewed, and the daily line list was collected from health facilities. Descriptive data analysis was done by time, person and place. Stool specimens were first tested by antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique and further confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as a gold standard. The product of RT-PCR was genotyped for each gene using G1-G4, G8-G9 and G12 primers for VP7 gene and P(4), P(6), P(8) and P(14) primers for VP4 gene. Results: A total of 1,987 diarrheal cases (5.7 per 1000) and five deaths (case-fatality rate 0.25%) were identified and epidemiologically-linked to confirmed rotavirus from December 2016 to February 2017. Among the cases, 1,946 (98%) were < 5 children. Fourteen (74%) of the 19 tested stool specimens were positive for rotavirus by EIA and RT-PCR. Majority of strains detected were G12P(6) (25%) and G-negative P(8) (25%) followed by G9P(8) (19%), G1P(8) (13%) and G3/G2 P(8), G12P(8), and G-negative P(6) (6% each). Conclusion: Diarrheal outbreak which occurred in West-Shewa zone of Ethiopia was associated with rotavirus and relatively more affected districts with low vaccination coverage. Routine rotavirus vaccination quality and coverage should be evaluated and the surveillance system needs to be strengthened to detect, prevent and control a similar outbreak.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 77-85, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322520

RESUMO

The etiological structure of the acute diarrhoeal infections among the population of the Odessa region during 2015-2017 was analyzed. Based on the registered cases, an assessment of the frequency of hospitalization of sick persons from different age groups was undertaken. The most frequent pathogens from 18 detected bacterial causative agents were St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, Ent.cloacae. During 2016-2017 the mixed infection was detected in 54 fecal samples. Bacterial-virus associations were detected in 20 samples and were presented in St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. Aeruginosa and Rotavirus. During the summer period of 2016, the detection rate of rota-, noro-, adenovirus antigens in the examined fecal samples of adult patients was 13.60%. According to the results of genotyping of the circulating rotaviruses strains in 2016, strains G1P[8] (46.70%) and G3P[8] (26.70%) are most commonly detected.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Enterocolite/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Enterocolite/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genes Microbianos , Genótipo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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