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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25593, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine preparation XPYEG combined with SBI and SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and to provide the reference in drugs for the clinical treatment of children with rotavirus enteritis. METHODS: Retrieving the English databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase; Chinese databases: CNKI, CBM and WANFANG Data. Retrieving a randomized controlled trial of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC. The retrieval time is from the above database until September 2020. The retrieval strategy of combining free words and subject words is adopted, and the references included in the literature are searched manually in accordance with the literature studied in this paper and not included in the above database. Two researchers screen the literature according to the literature inclusion and exclusion criteria, extract valid data and evaluate the quality of the literature, and cross-check it. Using the RevMan 5.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis on the main outcome and secondary outcome indicators of the included literature, while assessing the evidence quality of included study. RESULTS: The effectiveness and safety of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC are presented through the main and secondary outcome indicators. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/3QSZG. CONCLUSION: This study will conclude whether the combination of XPYEG and SBI is more effective than SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and whether the medication increases the risk of adverse reactions compared with single medication. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not involve the specific patients, and all research data comes from publicly available professional literature, so an ethics committee is not required to conduct an ethical review and approval of the study.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Enterite/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Saccharomyces boulardii , Pré-Escolar , Enterite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573534

RESUMO

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2018. During this period, 690 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 607 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 457/607 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 150/607 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 457 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 52% of samples, followed by G2P[4] (17%). The Australian National Immunisation Program, which previously included both RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines, changed to Rotarix exclusively on 1 July 2017. Continuous surveillance is needed to identify if the change in vaccination schedule could affect rotavirus genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573535

RESUMO

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2019. During this period, 964 faecal specimens had been referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 894 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 724/894 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 169/894 were identified as vaccine-like. A single sample could not be determined as wild-type or vaccine-like due to poor sequencing. Genotype analysis of the 724 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 46.7% of samples, followed by G2P[4] in 8.8% of samples. The Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) changed to the exclusive use of Rotarix as of 1 July 2017. The NIP had previously included two live-attenuated oral vaccines: Rotarix (monovalent, human) and RotaTeq (pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant) in a state-based vaccine selection. Continuous surveillance is imperative to determine the effect of this change in rotavirus vaccine schedule on the genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 94, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of RVA in hospitalized children younger than 10 years of age with the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in Shanxi Province, China. METHODS: A hospital-based active surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted at Children's Hospital of Shanxi from Jan 1, 2015, through Dec 31, 2019. Rotavirus was detected in stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). G- and P-genotypes were determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 961 children younger than 10 years of age was enrolled over the study period, of whom 183 (19.0%) were positive for RVA. The highest RVA-infection frequency (23.7%) was found among children aged 12-23 months, and the seasonal peak was in December. G9P[8] was most prevalent (76.0%), followed by G3P[8] (7.1%), G2P[4] (3.3%), G1P[8] (0.5%) and G9P[4] (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: These results report for the first time that RVA was one of the main causes of severe infectious gastroenteritis in children, and a high proportion of G9P[8] strains circulating in most areas of Shanxi Province. While the protective efficacy of the rotavirus vaccines has been demonstrated against G9P[8] strains, our results highlight that the dominant strains have not been effectively controlled in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498321

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal viruses, including enteroviruses, noroviruses and rotaviruses (RVs), where stimulatory and inhibitory effects on infectivity have been reported. With the aim of determining whether members of the microbiota interact with RVs during infection, a combination of anti-RV antibody labeling, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the interaction between specific bacteria and RV in stool samples of children suffering from diarrhea produced by G1P[8] RV. The genera Ruminococcus and Oxalobacter were identified as RV binders in stools, displaying enrichments between 4.8- and 5.4-fold compared to samples nonlabeled with anti-RV antibodies. In vitro binding of the G1P[8] Wa human RV strain to two Ruminococcus gauvreauii human isolates was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis in R. gauvreauii with antibodies directed to several histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) indicated that these bacteria express HBGA-like substances on their surfaces, which can be the target for RV binding. Furthermore, in vitro infection of the Wa strain in differentiated Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced by incubation with R. gauvreauii. These data, together with previous findings showing a negative correlation between Ruminococcus levels and antibody titers to RV in healthy individuals, suggest a pivotal interaction between this bacterial group and human RV. These results reveal likely mechanisms of how specific bacterial taxa of the intestinal microbiota could negatively affect RV infection and open new possibilities for antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Rotavirus/microbiologia , Rotavirus/metabolismo , Ruminococcus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Ruminococcus/patogenicidade
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 62, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389254

RESUMO

Bovine rotavirus A (RVA) and bovine coronavirus (CoV) are the two main viral enteropathogens associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The aim of the present work was to study the impact of group and individual housing systems in the epidemiology of RVA and CoV infection. Eleven calves reared in individual housing (FA) and nine calves in group housing (FB) were monitored during the first 7 weeks of life. Stool and serum samples were screened for RVA and CoV antigens by ELISA. IgG1 antibodies (Ab) to both antigens were also measured. From the 160 fecal samples collected, the proportion of positive samples to RVA and CoV was significantly higher in FB (23.6%) than in FA (9%) (p = 0.03). The geometric mean of colostral IgG1 Ab titers to CoV and RVA in FA (IgG1 anti-CoV 1024 and anti-RVA 1782.9) was lower than in FB (IgG1 anti-CoV 10,321.2 and anti-RVA 4096) at birth. Calves less than 2 weeks of life from FB had a higher risk of being infected by RVA (OR = 4.9; p = 0.01) and CoV (OR = 17.15; p = 0.01) than calves from FA. The obtained results showed that there was higher RVA and CoV shedding in group-housed calves than in individual-housed animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
7.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468689

RESUMO

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Cavalos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , /isolamento & purificação
8.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445703

RESUMO

Children in low-and middle-income countries, including Rwanda, experience a greater burden of rotavirus disease relative to developed countries. Evolutionary mechanisms leading to multiple reassortant rotavirus strains have been documented over time which influence the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of novel rotaviruses. Comprehensive rotavirus whole-genome analysis was conducted on 158 rotavirus group A (RVA) samples collected pre- and post-vaccine introduction in children less than five years in Rwanda. Of these RVA positive samples, five strains with the genotype constellations G4P[4]-I1-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E1-H2 (n = 1), G9P[4]-I1-R2-C2-M2-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 (n = 1), G12P[8]-I1-R2-C2-M1-A1-N2-T1-E2-H3 (n = 2) and G12P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A2-N2-T2-E1-H1 (n = 1), with double and triple gene reassortant rotavirus strains were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the Rwandan strains and cognate human RVA strains as well as the RotaTeq® vaccine strains in the VP1, VP2, NSP2, NSP4 and NSP5 gene segments. Pairwise analyses revealed multiple differences in amino acid residues of the VP7 and VP4 antigenic regions of the RotaTeq® vaccine strain and representative Rwandan study strains. Although the impact of such amino acid changes on the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines has not been fully explored, this analysis underlines the potential of rotavirus whole-genome analysis by enhancing knowledge and understanding of intergenogroup reassortant strains circulating in Rwanda post vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Genômica , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in children with diarrhea (cases) and the carriage rate of these pathogens in asymptomatic children (controls). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 203 cases and 73 controls who presented to two major hospitals in Al Ain city, UAE. Samples were analyzed with Allplex™ Gastrointestinal Full Panel Assay for common entero-pathogens. The association between diarrhea and the isolated pathogens was calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The adjusted attributable fractions (aAFs) were calculated for all pathogens significantly associated with cases. RESULTS: At least one pathogen was identified in 87 samples (42.8%) from cases and 17 (23.3%) from controls (P < 0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus were significantly more prevalent in cases. Their aAFs with 95% ci are 0.95 (0.64, 1.00) for rotavirus, 0.86 (0.38, 0.97) for norovirus GII and 0.84 (0.29, 0.96) for adenovirus. None of the 13 bacteria tested for were more commonly found in the cases than in controls. Cryptosporidium spp. were more significantly detected in cases than in controls. Co-infections occurred in 27.9% of the children. Viruses and parasites were significantly more likely to occur together only in the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR revealed high positivity rates in both cases and controls which demand a cautious interpretation. Rotavirus remains the main childhood diarrhea pathogen in UAE. Effective strategies are needed to better control rotavirus and other causative pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 18, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mozambique has a high burden of group A rotavirus (RVA) infection and chronic undernutrition. This study aimed to determine the frequency and potential risk factors for RVA infection in undernourished children under 5 years old with diarrhoea in Mozambique. METHODS: The analysis was conducted using data from March 2015 to December 2017, regarding children under 5 years old with at least one type of undernutrition. Anthropometric measures were used to calculate indices of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age through the Z-Scores. RVA results were extracted from the National Diarrhoea Surveillance database. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test was used for qualitative variables and organized in contingency tables and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were considered for the calculation of RVA infection proportion and in the multiple logistic regression models to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: Of the 842 undernourished children included in the analysis, 27.2% (95% CI: 24.3-30.3%) were positive for RVA. The rate of RVA infection was 42.7% (95% CI: 38.0-47.5%) in the pre-vaccine period, with great reduction to 12.2% (95% CI: 9.4-15.6%) in the post-vaccine period. Most of the RVA undernourished children had severe wasting (33.3%) and severe stunting (32.0%). The risk of infection was significantly high in children from 0 to 11 months (p-value < 0.001) when compared to the age group of 24-59 months. A higher proportion of RVA infection was detected in households with five or more members (p-value = 0.029). Similar proportions of RVA were observed in children fed only by breast milk (34.9%) and breast milk with formula (35.6%). A higher proportion of undernourished HIV-positive children co-infected with RVA (7.4%) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of RVA infection in undernourished children declined following the introduction of the vaccine in Mozambique. Beyond the temporal variation, Maputo province, age and crowded households were also associated to RVA infection. A high proportion of RVA infection was observed in children with severe wasting and a triple burden of disease: undernutrition, RVA and HIV, highlighting the need to conduct follow-up studies to understand the long-term impact of these conditions on children's development.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/virologia , Características da Família , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 107, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: G12 rotaviruses were first observed in sub-Saharan Africa in 2004 and since then have continued to emerge and spread across the continent and are reported as a significant human rotavirus genotype in several African countries, both prior to and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. This study investigated the genetic variability of 15 G12 rotavirus strains associated with either P[6] or P[8] identified between 2010 and 2014 from Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. METHODS: The investigation was carried out by comparing partial VP7 and partial VP4 sequences of the African G12P[6] and G12P[8] strains with the available GenBank sequences and exploring the recognized neutralization epitopes of these strains. Additionally, Bayesian evolutionary analysis was carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implemented in BEAST to estimate the time to the most recent ancestor and evolutionary rate for these G12 rotavirus strains. RESULTS: The findings suggested that the VP7 and VP4 nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the G12 strains circulating in African countries are closely related, irrespective of country of origin and year of detection, with the exception of the Ethiopian strains that clustered distinctly. Neutralization epitope analysis revealed that rotavirus VP4 P[8] genes associated with G12 had amino acid sequences similar to those reported globally including the vaccine strains in RotaTeq and Rotarix. The estimated evolutionary rate of the G12 strains was 1.016 × 10- 3 substitutions/site/year and was comparable to what has been previously reported. Three sub-clusters formed within the current circulating lineage III shows the diversification of G12 from three independent ancestries within a similar time frame in the late 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: At present it appears to be unlikely that widespread vaccine use has driven the molecular evolution and sustainability of G12 strains in Africa. Continuous monitoring of rotavirus genotypes is recommended to assess the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on the dynamic nature of rotavirus evolution on the continent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , África/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Epitopos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373390

RESUMO

The genus Rotavirus comprises eight species, designated A to H, and two recently identified tentative species I in dogs and J in bats. Species Rotavirus A, B, C and H (RVA, RVB, RVC and RVH) have been detected in humans and animals. While human and animal RVA are well characterized and defined, complete porcine genome sequences in the GenBank are limited compared to human strains. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to sequence the 11 segments of RVA, RVC and RVH strains from piglets in the United States (US) and explore the evolutionary relations of these RV species. Metagenomics identified Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronoviridae in samples MN9.65 and OK5.68 while Picobirnaviridae and Arteriviridae were only identified in sample OK5.68. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses identified multiple genotypes with the RVA of strain MN9.65 and OK5.68, with the genome constellation of G5/G9-P[7]/P[13]-I5/I5- R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1/E1-H1 and G5/G9-P[6]/P[7]-I5-R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1/T7-E1/E1-H1, respectively. The RVA strains had a complex evolutionary relationship with other mammalian strains. The RVC strain OK5.68 had a genome constellation of G9-P[6]-I1-R1-C5-M6-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, and shared an evolutionary relationship with porcine strains from the US. The RVH strains MN9.65 and OK5.68 had the genome constellation of G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E4-H1 and G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, indicating multiple RVH genome constellations are circulating in the US. These findings allow us to understand the complexity of the enteric virome, develop improved screening methods for RVC and RVH strains, facilitate expanded rotavirus surveillance in pigs, and increase our understanding of the origin and evolution of rotavirus species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/genética , Sus scrofa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22002, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319798

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) is considered a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals. RV is classified into nine species, five of which have been identified in pigs. Most studies worldwide have highlighted diarrhoea outbreaks caused by RVA, which is considered the most important RV species. In the present study, we described the detection and characterization of porcine RVB as a primary causative agent of diarrhoea outbreaks in pig herds in Brazil. The study showed a high frequency (64/90; 71.1%) of RVB diagnosis in newborn piglets associated with marked histopathological lesions in the small intestines. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of wild-type RVB strains revealed a high diversity of G genotypes circulating in one geographic region of Brazil. Our findings suggest that RVB may be considered an important primary enteric pathogen in piglets and should be included in the routine differential diagnosis of enteric diseases in piglets.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sequência de Bases , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/virologia , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide, with a high mortality burden in developing countries, particularly during the first two years of life. Rotavirus vaccination was introduced into the United Kingdom childhood vaccination schedule in July 2013, with high coverage (>90%) achieved by June 2016. We used an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to assess the impact of the rotavirus vaccination programme, specifically through the demonstration of any immediate and continuing impact on ED gastroenteritis visits in England. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study used syndromic surveillance data collected from 3 EDs in the two years before (July 2011-June 2013) and 3 years post (July 2013-June 2016) introduction of rotavirus vaccination. The weekly levels of ED visits for gastroenteritis (by age group and in total) during the period before rotavirus vaccination was first described alongside the findings of laboratory surveillance of rotavirus during the same period. An interrupted time-series analysis was then performed to demonstrate the impact of rotavirus vaccination introduction on gastroenteritis ED visit levels. RESULTS: During the two years before vaccine introduction ED visits for gastroenteritis in total and for the 0-4 years age group were seen to rise and fall in line with the seasonal rotavirus increases reported by laboratory surveillance. ED gastroenteritis visits by young children were lower in the three years following introduction of rotavirus vaccination (reduced from 8% of visits to 6% of visits). These attendance levels in young children (0-4years) remained higher than in older age groups, however the previously large seasonal increases in children were greatly reduced, from peaks of 16% to 3-10% of ED visits per week. CONCLUSIONS: ED syndromic surveillance demonstrated a reduction in gastroenteritis visits following rotavirus vaccine introduction. This work establishes ED syndromic surveillance as a platform for rapid impact assessment of future vaccine programmes.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 712, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japan's National Immunization Program does not cover rotavirus vaccine and no government subsidies are available. This study aimed to measure the uptake of and determinants that influenced self-paid rotavirus vaccination, including socioeconomic status and relative poverty. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at health check-ups for all children aged 18 months in Kanazawa, Japan, between December 2017 and July 2018. Community nurses collected information on self-paid vaccination history, parents' perceptions of and recommendations for rotavirus vaccine, and socioeconomic status in interviews using a unified questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess vaccine uptake and possible determinants. RESULTS: In total, 1282 participants were enrolled. The estimated rotavirus vaccine coverage was 72.9%. Perceptions that rotavirus gastroenteritis was serious and that the rotavirus vaccine was effective, pediatricians' recommendations, information from the city office, magazine and Internet articles, and higher parental education level were associated with higher rotavirus vaccine uptake. Lower household income was associated with decreased rotavirus vaccine uptake. Vaccine expense, fear of adverse reactions to the vaccine, number of household members and siblings, and children's characteristics were not correlated with rotavirus vaccination. Poverty was associated with decreased rotavirus vaccine uptake, even after adjustment for other determinants (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.90). CONCLUSION: Parents' perceptions, socioeconomic status, relative poverty, and pediatricians' recommendations are determinants of vaccination. This study suggests that appropriate information about rotavirus vaccine, subsidies for those of lower socioeconomic status, and national recommendations are necessary to achieve higher coverage.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Classe Social , Vacinação/economia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Renda , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 198-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820733

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus remains one of the main causative agents of gastroenteritis in young children. This happens, especially in countries (e.g., Nigeria) that have not yet introduced the vaccine into the national immunization program. A significant prevalence of Rotavirus infection both in children and adults without major symptoms has earlier been reported. This study aimed at defining the prevalence of asymptomatic Rotavirus infection from apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 269 stool samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy children <15 years of age from July 2017 to June 2018. All samples were screened using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for the presence of Rotavirus antigen. The Rotavirus-positive samples were further subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine their RNA electropherotypes. Results: A total of 59 stool samples (19.9%) were Rotavirus positive with peaks observed in the cold dry season, among male children, and 6-10 years of age group. A total of 50 randomly selected Rotavirus-positive samples were subjected to PAGE, and none of the samples showed either long or short profiles. Conclusion: This study shows that Rotavirus can be shed into environments without any signs and symptoms. In view of this, the Rotavirus vaccine should be considered a priority and be introduced in the existing national immunization program in Nigeria, particularly in Borno State.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 596, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A Rotavirus (RVA), despite being an important pathogen in hospitalized children, is less studied in pediatric outpatients, and even rarely investigated in adults. This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of RVA in outpatients across all age groups in Shanghai, and thus providing a molecular basis for vaccine implementation and evaluation. METHODS: Stool samples were first screened by Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). RVA genotyping was performed through the amplification of partial VP7 and VP4 gene. Strains of interest were further sequenced and analyzed using MEGA 6.0. RESULTS: Four thousand nine hundred one samples were collected, from which 7.61% (373 cases) were screened positive for RVA. RVA prevalence was higher in children (9.30%) than in adults (7.21%) (χ2 = 4.72, P < 0.05). 9.38% RVA positive cases had taken antibiotics before hospital visit while 49.60% had been prescribed antibiotics afterwards. RVA displayed a strong seasonality in both adults and children with a shared commonality in genotype repertoire, where G9P[8] was the most prevalent strain (67.96%) followed by G3P[8] (15.49%) and G1P[8] (12.32%). Meanwhile the first local case of fecal shedding of the G10P[15] vaccine strain was also discovered. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of rotavirus is highest during cold seasons, it is revealed for the first time that G9P[8] is the predominant genotype in both adults and pediatric outpatients. Clinically, higher occurrence of nausea or vomiting was observed in RVA positive cases. Antibiotic overuse was implicated in both non-clinical and clinical settings. The finding emphasizes the importance of RVA genotyping in surveillance as it provides the basis for new vaccine application as well as a baseline for future vaccine efficacy evaluation.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008732, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750093

RESUMO

Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children, with infection typically inducing high levels of protective antibodies. Antibodies targeting the middle capsid protein VP6 are particularly abundant, and as VP6 is only exposed inside cells, neutralisation must be post-entry. However, while a system of poly immune globulin receptor (pIgR) transcytosis has been proposed for anti-VP6 IgAs, the mechanism by which VP6-specific IgG mediates protection remains less clear. We have developed an intracellular neutralisation assay to examine how antibodies neutralise rotavirus inside cells, enabling comparison between IgG and IgA isotypes. Unexpectedly we found that neutralisation by VP6-specific IgG was much more efficient than by VP6-specific IgA. This observation was highly dependent on the activity of the cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21 and was confirmed using an in vivo model of murine rotavirus infection. Furthermore, mice deficient in only IgG and not other antibody isotypes had a serious deficit in intracellular antibody-mediated protection. The finding that VP6-specific IgG protect mice against rotavirus infection has important implications for rotavirus vaccination. Current assays determine protection in humans predominantly by measuring rotavirus-specific IgA titres. Measurements of VP6-specific IgG may add to existing mechanistic correlates of protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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