Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.147
Filtrar
1.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 99: 103404, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781422

RESUMO

Salmonella spp. causes digestive clinical signs in horses. Foals and hospitalized animals are more susceptible to the disease. Nowadays, the report of multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. producer of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, is more frequent. The aim of this work was to study the clonal relationship and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles among Salmonella ser. Typhimurium isolates, obtained during a salmonellosis outbreak in an Argentinian equine hospital. Thus, in 2017, we studied the genotypic profiles and the susceptibility to antimicrobials of the strains isolated from three animals with diarrhea in an equine hospital of Argentina. The pulsotype identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was the same among the isolates. Also, this pulsotype had been previously detected in human and porcine isolates, suggesting the circulation of the same strains in different species. Multidrug-resistant isolates with different ß-lactam susceptibility profiles were identified and blaCTX-M-14 was detected for the first time from an isolate of equine-origin in Argentina. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium is an important pathogen in public and veterinary health, so our results emphasize the relevance of appropriate measures to prevent and control this disease. Furthermore, routine antibiotic susceptibility tests of local strains are needed to improve the empiric treatment of equine salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Salmonella , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Hospitais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Suínos
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e56, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551005

RESUMO

Laboratory data increasingly suggest that Salmonella infection may contribute to colon cancer (CC) development. Here, we examined epidemiologically the potential risk of CC associated with salmonellosis in the human population. We conducted a population-based cohort study using four health registries in Denmark. Person-level demographic data of all residents were linked to laboratory-confirmed non-typhoidal salmonellosis and to CC diagnoses in 1994-2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CC (overall/proximal/distal) associated with reported salmonellosis were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Potential effects of serovar, age, sex, inflammatory bowel disease and follow-up time post-infection were also assessed. We found no increased risk of CC ≥1 year post-infection (HR 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.13). When stratifying by serovar, there was a significantly increased risk of proximal CC ≥1 year post-infection with serovars other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.03-1.90). CC risk was significantly increased in the first year post-infection (HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.48-2.93). The association between salmonellosis and CC in the first year post-infection can be explained by increased stool testing around the time of CC diagnosis. The association between proximal CC and non-Enteritidis/non-Typhimurium serovars is unclear and warrants further investigation. Overall, this study provides epidemiological evidence that notified Salmonella infections do not contribute significantly to CC risk in the studied population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 131-143, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455089

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a major global public health issue; its most common infection, gastroenteritis, accounts for approximately 90 million illnesses and 150,000 mortalities per year. Eradicating salmonellosis requires surveillance, prevention and treatment, entailing large expenditures. However, it is difficult to control Salmonella transmission because it occurs via multiple routes; exotic reptiles are a reservoir of Salmonella and comprise one such route. As the popularity of exotic pets and animal exhibition has increased, human encounters with reptiles have also increased. As a result, reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) has been recognized as an emerging disease. The development of antimicrobial resistance in RAS-causing Salmonella sp. requires alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, bacteriophages have been established as an alternative to antibiotics because only target bacteria are lysed; thus, they are promising biocontrol agents. Here, bacteriophage pSal-SNUABM-02, which infects and lyses reptile Salmonella isolates, was isolated and characterized. The morphology, host range, growth traits and stability of the phage were investigated. The phage was assigned to Myoviridae and was stable in the following conditions: pH 5-9, 4-37°C, and ultravioletA/ultravioletB (UVA/UVB) exposure. Salmonella clearance efficacy was tested using planktonic cell lysis activity and biofilm degradation on polystyrene 96-well plates and reptile skin fragments. The phage exhibited vigorous lysis activity against planktonic cells. In in vitro biofilm degradation tests on reptile skin and polystyrene plates, both low- and high-concentration phage treatments lowered bacterial cell viability by approximately 2.5-3 log colony-forming units and also decreased biomass. Thus, bacteriophages are a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and eradication of RAS.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Répteis/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Fagos de Salmonella/fisiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes , Humanos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 1): 196-203, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): This study aimed to investigate clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibility of inpatient children with nontyphoidal salmonellosis from 2010 to 2018. METHODS: We retrospectively collected pediatric patients with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection confirmed by positive cultures in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2010 to 2018. Patients' characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data were collected. Serogroup category and antimicrobial susceptibility were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of total 569 isolates, ampicillin resistant rate was 53% in average, third-generation cephalosporin resistant rate was 6.7%, ciprofloxacin resistant rate was 9% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant rate was 30%. Compared to the resistant rates in 2010, the resistance rate of third generation cephalosporin was significantly higher (3.4% vs. 11%, p = 0.003) but that of ciprofloxacin was significantly lower (20% vs. 11%, p < 0.001) in 2018. Among 297 inpatients with nontyphoidal salmonellosis, Group D (38%) was the most common in the bacteremia patients whereas Group B (48%) was the most common in the non-bacteremia patients. Among 244 immunocompetent inpatients with community-acquired salmonellosis, the bacteremia patients had significantly longer fever duration and diarrhea duration before hospitalization (p < 0.001), and significant higher rate of anemia (p = 0.028) due to either thalassemia trait or prolonged disease course than the non-bacteremia patients. CONCLUSION: Third-generation cephalosporin was still the drug of choice for nontyphoidal Salmonella infection in children though the resistant rate increased progressively. Significant risk factors associated with bacteremia were longer fever and diarrhea duration and anemia due to either thalassemia trait or prolonged disease course in immunocompetent children.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Salmonella , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2182: 17-32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894483

RESUMO

An outbreak is defined as the occurrence of disease cases in excess of normal expectancy within a particular area and a given time. Foodborne outbreaks caused by gastrointestinal bacteria such as Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most commonly reported and most extensively investigated. The classic outbreak investigation follows a series of well-defined steps which lead to a faster confirmation of the source and hopefully preventing of further cases. These steps are ideally undertaken using a One Health cross-sectorial collaboration approach involving partners from public health, food safety, and the veterinary and environmental sectors. In order to firmly identify the source of the outbreak, descriptive epidemiology is often combined with more robust evidence from analytical epidemiology such as a case-control study. A case-control study assesses whether a specific exposure is associated with illness, firstly by identifying cases (persons known to have been ill) and controls (persons who have not been ill, used as a reference group), and then retrospectively through interviews determining specific exposures for all persons. This information ultimately leads to the calculation of an odds ratio (see Note 3) which indicates the strength of the association between specific exposures and the outcome (illness or no illness). A well-conducted case-control study may substantiate or form core evidence as to the vehicle of a foodborne outbreak and is often a very important investigation tool, particularly in situations where microbiological proof cannot be obtained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Saúde Única , Saúde Pública/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptomycin is used as an epidemiological marker in monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and indicates the presence of pentaresistance. However, comprehensive data on streptomycin resistant Salmonella among human, animal, and animal products is lacking in Ethiopia. In this review, we aimed to assess heterogeneity and pooled proportion of Salmonella serovars to streptomycin resistance among human, animal and animal products in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature from Ethiopia. We used the MEDLINE/ PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to identify genetic and phenotypic data on Salmonella isolates. To determine the heterogeneity and pooled proportion, we used metaprop commands and the random-effects model. Relative and cumulative frequencies were calculated to describe the overall preponderance of streptomycin resistance isolates after arcsine-transformed data. Metan funnel and meta-bias using a begg test were performed to check for publication bias. RESULTS: Overall, we included 1475 Salmonella serovars in this meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of streptomycin resistance was 47% (95% CI: 35-60%). Sub-group analysis by target population showed that the proportion of streptomycin resistance in Salmonella serovars was 54% (95% CI: 35-73%) in animal, 44% (95% Cl: 33-59%) in humans and 39% (95% CI: 24-55%) in animals products. The streptomycin resistant Salmonella serovars were statistically increasing from 0.35(95% CI: 0.12-0.58) in 2003 to 0.77(95% CI: 0.64-0.89) in 2018. The level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars was 50.1% in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: We found a high level of streptomycin resistance, including multidrug, Salmonella serovars among human, animals, and animal products. This resistance was significantly increasing in the last three decades (1985-2018). The resistance to streptomycin among Salmonella serovars isolated from animals was higher than humans. This mandates the continuous monitoring of streptomycin use and practicing one health approach to preventing further development of resistance in Ethiopia. REGISTRATION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis after registration of the protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42019135116) following the MOOSE (Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology).


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Etiópia , Humanos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia
8.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321823

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella present a major threat to animal and human health as food-borne infectious agents. We characterized 91 bacterial isolates from Armenia and Georgia in detail, using a suite of assays including conventional microbiological methods, determining antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, serotyping (using the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme) and genotyping (repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR)). No less than 61.5% of the isolates were shown to be multidrug-resistant. A new antimicrobial treatment strategy is urgently needed. Phage therapy, the therapeutic use of (bacterio-) phages, the bacterial viruses, to treat bacterial infections, is increasingly put forward as an additional tool for combatting antibiotic resistant infections. Therefore, we used this representative set of well-characterized Salmonella isolates to analyze the therapeutic potential of eleven single phages and selected phage cocktails from the bacteriophage collection of the Eliava Institute (Georgia). All isolates were shown to be susceptible to at least one of the tested phage clones or their combinations. In addition, genome sequencing of these phages revealed them as members of existing phage genera (Felixounavirus, Seunavirus, Viunavirus and Tequintavirus) and did not show genome-based counter indications towards their applicability against non-typhoidal Salmonella in a phage therapy or in an agro-food setting.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/virologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Geografia Médica , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008440, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745137

RESUMO

Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a major public health challenge, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In Kenya, mortality rates are high (20-25%) unless prompt treatment is instituted. The most common serotypes are Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). In a 5 year case-control study in children residing in the Mukuru informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, a total of 4201 blood cultures from suspected iNTS cases and 6326 fecal samples from age-matched controls were studied. From the laboratory cultures we obtained a total of 133 S. Typhimurium isolates of which 83(62.4%) came from cases (53 blood and 30 fecal) and 50(37.6%) from controls (fecal). A total of 120 S. Enteritidis consisted of 70(58.3%) from cases (43 blood and 27 fecal) and 50(41.7%) from controls (fecal). The S. Typhimurium population fell into two distinct ST19 lineages constituting 36.1%, as well as ST313 lineage I (27.8%) and ST313 lineage II (36.1%) isolates. The S. Enteritidis isolates fell into the global epidemic lineage (46.6%), the Central/Eastern African lineage (30.5%), a novel Kenyan-specific lineage (12.2%) and a phylogenetically outlier lineage (10.7%). Detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed a high level of relatedness between NTS from blood and stool originating from cases and controls, indicating a common source pool. Multidrug resistance was common throughout, with 8.5% of such isolates resistant to extended spectrum beta lactams. The high rate of asymptomatic carriage in the population is a concern for transmission to vulnerable individuals and this group could be targeted for vaccination if an iNTS vaccine becomes available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Áreas de Pobreza , Infecções por Salmonella/sangue , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008375, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors in Latin America, including Colombia, is essential to understand the epidemiology of these infections. The primary objectives of this study were to describe etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age from Bucaramanga, Colombia, a middle-income country in Latin American, and to identify the presence of emerging E. coli pathotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a prospective, matched for age, case-control study to assess the etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia, South America. We tested for 24 pathogens using locally available diagnostic testing, including stool culture, polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adjusted attributable fractions were calculated to assess the association between AGE and each pathogen in this study population. The study included 861 participants, 431 cases and 430 controls. Enteric pathogens were detected in 71% of cases and in 54% of controls (p = <0.001). Co-infection was identified in 28% of cases and in 14% of controls (p = <0.001). The adjusted attributable fraction showed that Norovirus GII explained 14% (95% CI: 10-18%) of AGE, followed by rotavirus 9.3% (6.4-12%), adenovirus 3% (1-4%), astrovirus 2.9% (0.6-5%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 2.4% (0.4-4%), Cryptosporidium sp. 2% (0.5-4%), Campylobacter sp. 2% (0.2-4%), and Salmonella sp.1.9% (0.3 to 3.5%). Except for Cryptosporidium, all parasite infections were not associated with AGE. Three emergent diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were identified in cases (0.7%), including an enteroaggregative/enterotoxigenic E.coli (EAEC/ETEC), an enteroaggregative/enteropathogenic E.coli (EAEC/EPEC), and an emergent enteroinvasive E. coli with a rare O96:H19. No deaths were reported among cases or controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Norovirus and rotavirus explained the major proportion of moderate to severe AGE in this study. Higher proportion of infection in cases, in the form of single infections or co-infections, showed association with AGE. Three novel E. coli pathotypes were identified among cases in this geographic region.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Norovirus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infections continue to be a significant public health threat worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance among 147 S. Typhimurium isolates collected from patients in Henan, China from 2006 to 2015. METHODS: 147 S. Typhimurium isolates were collected from March 2006 to November 2015 in Henan Province, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed, and the resistant genes of ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefoxitin) and azithromycin were detected and sequenced. Clonal relationships were assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Of the 147 isolates, 91.1% were multidrug resistant (MDR), with 4.1% being resistant to all antibiotic classes tested. Of concern, 13 MDR isolates were co-resistant to the first-line treatments cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, while three were also resistant to azithromycin. Seven PFGE patterns were identified among the 13 isolates. All of the isolates could be assigned to one of four main groups, with a similarity value of 89%. MLST assigned the 147 isolates into five STs, including two dominant STs (ST19 and ST34). Of the 43 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, 39 carried double gyrA mutations (Ser83Phe, Asp87Asn/Tyr/Gly) and a single parC (Ser80Arg) mutation, including 1 isolate with four mutations (gyrA: Ser83Phe, Asp87Gly; parC: Ser80Arg; parE: Ser458Pro). In addition, 12 isolates not only carried mutations in gyrA and parC but also had at least one plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene. Among the 32 cephalosporin-resistant isolates, the most common extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) gene was blaOXA-1, followed by blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1, and blaCMY-2. Moreover, the mphA gene was identified in 5 of the 15 azithromycin-resistant isolates. Four MDR isolates contained ESBL and PMQR genes, and one of them also carried mphA in addition. CONCLUSION: The high level of antibiotic resistance observed in S. Typhimurium poses a great danger to public health, so continuous surveillance of changes in antibiotic resistance is necessary.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108692, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521291

RESUMO

Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which is responsible for global foodborne disease outbreaks. Here, 255 S. 4,[5],12:i:- strains isolated from humans (11.0%) or food-borne animals (89.0%) between 2010 and 2018 were examined. Tests of susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents using the broth micro dilution method showed that 99.2% (n = 253) of the isolates were resistant to at least one compound. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis demonstrated that 91.8% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains with predominant resistance to tetracycline (90.6%), followed by resistance to ampicillin (86.3%), streptomycin (63.5%), chloramphenicol (62.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (55.3%). The 5 major distinct patterns of multi-resistance were identified as R-type AST, R-type ACTSxt, R-type ACSTSxt, R-type ACGSTSxt and R-type ASTSxt. Among the PMQR genes examined in this study, oqxAB and aac (6')-Ib-cr were the most prevalent resistance genes in the multi-resistant isolates. Our findings highlight the prevalence of the resistance of S. 4,[5],12:i:- in some regions of China, and several common types of multidrug resistance phenotypes, to provide valuable information for epidemiological studies, risk management, and public health strategies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(17)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591375

RESUMO

Clinical surveillance of enteric pathogens like Salmonella is integral to track outbreaks and endemic disease trends. However, clinic-centered disease monitoring biases toward detection of severe cases and underestimates the incidence of self-limiting gastroenteritis and asymptomatic strains. Monitoring pathogen loads and diversity in municipal wastewater (MW) can provide insight into asymptomatic or subclinical infections which are not reflected in clinical cases. Subclinical infection patterns may explain the unusual observation from a year-long sampling campaign in Hawaii: Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most abundant pulsotype in MW but was detected infrequently in clinics over the sampling period. Using whole-genome sequencing data of Salmonella isolates from MW and public databases, we demonstrate that the Derby serovar has lower virulence potential than other clinical serovars, particularly based on its reduced profile of genes linked with immune evasion and symptom production, suggesting its potential as a subclinical salmonellosis agent. Furthermore, MW had high abundance of a rare Derby sequence type (ST), ST-72 (rather than the more common ST-40). ST-72 isolates had higher frequencies of fimbrial adherence genes than ST-40 isolates; these are key virulence factors involved in colonization and persistence of infections. However, ST-72 isolates lack the Derby-specific Salmonella pathogenicity island 23 (SPI-23), which invokes host immune responses. In combination, ST-72's genetic features may lead to appreciable infection rates without obvious symptom production, allowing for subclinical persistence in the community. This study demonstrated wastewater's capability to provide community infectious disease information-such as background infection rates of subclinical enteric illness-which is otherwise inaccessible through clinical approaches.IMPORTANCE Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been conventionally used to analyze community health via the detection of chemicals, such as legal and illicit drugs; however, municipal wastewater contains microbiological determinants of health and disease as well, including enteric pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that WBE can be used to examine subclinical community salmonellosis patterns. Derby was the most abundant Salmonella serovar detected in Hawaii wastewater over a year-long sampling study, with few corresponding clinical cases. Comparative genomics analyses indicate that the normally rare strain of S Derby found in wastewater has a unique combination of genes which allow it to persist as a subclinical infection without producing symptoms of severe gastroenteritis. This study shows that WBE can be used to explore trends in community infectious disease patterns which may not be reflected in clinical monitoring, shedding light on overall enteric disease burden and rates of asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Sorogrupo
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 422, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Kenya, typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis present a huge burden of disease, especially in poor-resource settings where clean water supply and sanitation conditions are inadequate. The epidemiology of both diseases is poorly understood in terms of severity and risk factors. The aim of the study was to determine the disease burden and spatial distribution of salmonellosis, as well as socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for these infections, in a large informal settlement near the city of Nairobi, from 2013 to 2017. METHODS: Initially, a house-to-house baseline census of 150,000 population in Mukuru informal settlement was carried out and relevant socioeconomic, demographic, and healthcare utilization information was collected using structured questionnaires. Salmonella bacteria were cultured from the blood and faeces of children < 16 years of age who reported at three outpatient facilities with fever alone or fever and diarrhea. Tests of association between specific Salmonella serotypes and risk factors were conducted using Pearson Chi-Square (χ2) test. RESULTS: A total of 16,236 children were recruited into the study. The prevalence of bloodstream infections by Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis, was 1.3%; Salmonella Typhi was 1.4%, and this was highest among children < 16 years of age. Occurrence of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis was not significantly associated with rearing any domestic animals. Rearing chicken was significantly associated with high prevalence of S. Typhi (2.1%; p = 0.011). The proportion of children infected with Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis was significantly higher in households that used water pots as water storage containers compared to using water directly from the tap (0.6%). Use of pit latrines and open defecation were significant risk factors for S. Typhi infection (1.6%; p = 0.048). The proportion of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis among children eating street food 4 or more times per week was higher compared to 1 to 2 times/week on average (1.1%; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Typhoidal and NTS are important causes of illness in children in Mukuru informal settlement, especially among children less than 16 years of age. Improving Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) including boiling water, breastfeeding, hand washing practices, and avoiding animal contact in domestic settings could contribute to reducing the risk of transmission of Salmonella disease from contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Saneamento , Testes Sorológicos , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia
15.
Environ Res ; 187: 109706, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485358

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in developing countries. Climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity can directly increase the growth and spread of these pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate long-term temporal trends and seasonal patterns of Salmonella infections as well as evaluating the effects of demographic and climatic factors on the infection incidence in Yazd province, Iran during 2012-2015. The incidence of Salmonella infections was highest among patients with the age group of ≤5 years and peaked in summer, especially during June. Contrary to expectations, no significant associations were seen between the average monthly temperature, rainfall or humidity and incidence rate (IR) of salmonellosis. Interestingly, atmospheric dust hovering was significantly associated with an increased risk of salmonellosis. Transmission pathways of Salmonella spp. in communities should be considered as a complex ecological process that animal reservoirs, socio-economic factors, and lifestyle behaviors need to be addressed in future studies.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella , Animais , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e180, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364094

RESUMO

Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e144, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450932

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, sequences types and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles have specific associations with animal and human infections in Vietnam. Antimicrobial resistance may have an effect on the manifestation of human NTS infections, with isolates from asymptomatic individuals being more susceptible to antimicrobials than those associated with animals and human diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Vietnã
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e100, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389136

RESUMO

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16-27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7-952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Restaurantes , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Gravação em Vídeo , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108623, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339770

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a challenge to public health globally, and many infections have been principally linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in commercial eggs and susceptibilities of isolates to a panel of 14 antimicrobial agents which were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI) procedures. A total of 33,288 eggs (5548 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected across China in 2016 and the prevalence of Salmonella was 0.5% (27/5548). The most predominant serotype was S. enteritidis. No significant differences were observed on the basis of the egg component tested, shell condition, packaging type, sampling site or sampling season. However, there were significant differences among provincial regions. About 64.3% (n = 18) isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by ampicillin (39.3%) and ampicillin/sulbactam (39.3%). All isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, cefalothin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem and meropenem. Three Salmonella isolates exhibited resistance to multiple antibiotics. This study provides valuable baseline data of the occurrence of Salmonella in eggs, which will be used for risk assessments of possible human foodborne infections associated with the consumption of contaminated eggs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(13)2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276982

RESUMO

Dissemination of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella, especially extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, is a concern worldwide. Here, we assessed Salmonella carriage by food workers in Japan to clarify the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella harboring bla CTX-M We then characterized the genetic features, such as transposable elements, of bla CTX-M-harboring plasmids using whole-genome sequencing. A total of 145,220 stool samples were collected from food workers, including cooks and servers from several restaurants, as well as food factory workers, from January to October 2017. Isolated salmonellae were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method), and whole-genome sequencing was performed for Salmonella strains harboring bla CTX-M Overall, 164 Salmonella isolates (0.113%) were recovered from 164 samples, from which we estimated that at least 0.113% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.096 to 0.132%) of food workers may carry Salmonella Based on this estimation, 3,473 (95% CI = 2,962 to 4,047) individuals among the 3,075,330 Japanese food workers are likely to carry Salmonella Of the 158 culturable isolates, seven showed resistance to ESCs: three isolates harbored bla CMY-2 and produced AmpC ß-lactamase, while four ESBL-producing isolates harbored bla CTX-M-14 (n = 1, Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) or bla CTX-M-15 (n = 3, S. enterica serovar Haardt). bla CTX-M-15 was chromosomally located in the S Haardt isolates, which also contained ISEcp1, while the S Senftenberg isolate contained an IncFIA(HI1)/IncHI1A/IncHI1B(R27) hybrid plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-14 along with ISEcp1 This study indicates that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing Salmonella and associated genes. Thus, these workers may contribute to the spread of bla CTX-M via plasmids or mobile genetic elements such as ISEcp1 IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella bacteria arise in farm environments through imprudent use of antimicrobials. Subsequently, these antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, may be transmitted to humans via food animal-derived products. Here, we examined Salmonella carriage among food handlers in Japan. Overall, 164 of 145,220 fecal samples (0.113%) were positive for Salmonella Among the 158 tested isolates, four were identified as ESBL-producing isolates carrying ESBL determinants bla CTX-M-15 or bla CTX-M-14 In all cases, the genes coexisted with ISEcp1, regardless of whether they were located on the chromosome or on a plasmid. Our findings suggest that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing strains and could contribute to the spread of resistance genes from farm-derived Salmonella to other bacterial species present in the human gut.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Indústria Alimentícia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...