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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605389

RESUMO

Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Gastrópodes , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Chile , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3443-3450, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813040

RESUMO

Feline lungworms infect the respiratory tract of wild and domestic cats, causing infection often associated with clinical disease. Until recently, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has been considered the most relevant species of lungworm, while Troglostrongylus brevior was considered of less significance. Fecal samples of feral cats from Jerusalem, Israel, collected over a year, were examined for first stage lungworm larvae (L1) using the Baermann method. Positive samples were morphologically identified, and their species identity was molecularly confirmed. Forty of 400 (10.0%) cats were lungworm-positive, of which 38/40 (95.0%) shed Troglostrongylus brevior and 6/40 (15.0%) shed Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Four cats (10.0%) had mixed infections with both lungworm species. L1 shedding was associated with clinical respiratory signs in 11 (19.0%) T. brevior shedding cats of a total of 58 cats manifesting respiratory signs, while 23/342 (6.7%) cats without respiratory signs were L1-positive (p = 0.006). Non-respiratory clinical signs were also found to be more prevalent in L1 shedders (p = 0.012). A young kitten ≤ 4 weeks of age shed T. brevior L1 larvae. DNA sequences of both lungworm species using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) locus were > 99% similar to other sequences deposited in GenBank, suggesting that T. brevior and A. abstrusus ITS2 sequences are both highly conserved. In conclusion, L1 shedding in feral cats from Jerusalem were mostly caused by T. brevior with only a small proportion involving A. abstrusus, different from many studies from other geographical regions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2877-2883, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748040

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) causes verminous pneumonia in cats worldwide. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of A. abstrusus antibodies in 220 stray and free-roaming cats from insular (Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos) and continental (Thessaloniki, Attica) Greece. The results were compared with morphological and biomolecular identification of first-stage larvae (L1) in faeces. Positive cats were observed in all 5 areas: 13/97 (13.4%), 1/32 (3.1%), 7/26 (26.9%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 5/47 (10.6%) cats tested positive for A. abstrusus L1 by Baermann examination, and 33/97 (34.0%), 7/32 (21.9%), 6/26 (23.1%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 11/47 (23.4%) were seropositive, in Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos, Thessaloniki and Attica, respectively. Troglostrongylus brevior L1 were found in 12/97 (12.4%), 3/26 (11.5%) and 2/47 (4.3%) cats from Mykonos, Skopelos and Attica respectively. Six of the 220 cats (2.7%), i.e. 4/97 (4.1%) from Mykonos and 2/26 (7.7%) from Skopelos, shed L1 of both A. abstrusus and T. brevior. Sixty samples were ELISA-positive (27.3%, 95% CI: 21.5-33.7%), of which 21 (35%) tested copromicroscopically positive (19 monospecific infections and 2 mixed with Troglostrongylus brevior), and 5 were positive for T. brevior L1 only. Among seronegative cats (n = 140), L1 of A. abstrusus were additionally detected in 8 (5.7% out of 140) cats (i.e. 4 monospecific infections and 4 mixed with T. brevior), and in 6 (4.3% out of 140) cats, L1 of T. brevior as monospecific infection were detected. This study confirms the presence of lungworms in Greece and suggests that the number of cats infected with/exposed to metastrongylids is higher than detected by faecal examinations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Larva/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 285: 109215, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862125

RESUMO

Feline lungworms such as Aerulostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-borne pathogens causing respiratory disease in domestic cats. Paratenic hosts such as rodents and reptiles have also been implicated in the epidemiology of these parasites. Although A. abstrusus has been recognized for a long time as the most prevalent lungworm among cats worldwide, T. brevior is of major concern in kittens. Bearing in mind that disease due to T. brevior occurs mainly in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age, the diagnosis of this parasite in two kittens presenting severe respiratory disease from the garden of one of the authors inspired us to investigate the potential routes of transmission for T. brevior in domestic cats. Of the three queens (A, B and C) that delivered kittens (n = 8), only cat A was positive for T. brevior, presenting her two kittens severe respiratory clinical signs, which lead to the exitus in one of them, 18 days of age. In addition, three kittens, the offspring of queen B, turned to be positive at the coprological examination after suckling from queen A, whereas those from queen C (that suckled only on their own mother) remained negative. A series of coprological, histological and molecular tests were conducted to confirm the presence of T. brevior in the patients as well as in the other cats cohabiting the same garden. Adult nematodes were retrieved from the trachea and bronchi of the dead kitten (kitten 1A), and larvae at the histology of the lung and liver parenchyma associated with bronco pneumonitis and lymphocytic pericholangitis, respectively. Cornu aspersum (n = 60), Eobania vermiculata (n = 30) snails (intermediate hosts) as well as lizards and rats (potential paratenic hosts) were collected from the same garden and processed through tissue digestion and molecular detection. Troglostrongylus brevior larvae were recovered through tissue digestion from two C. aspersum (3.33 %) and it was confirmed by PCR-sequencing approach, which also detected T. brevior DNA in the liver and lungs of one rat and in the coelomatic cavity of one gecko lizard. During the COVID-19 lockdown, when scientists spent more time at home, we grasp the opportunity to decipher T. brevior biology and ecology starting in a small ecological niche, such as the garden of our house. Data herein presented led us to suggest: i) the transmammary transmission of T. brevior in domestic cats; ii) the role of intermediate and paratenic hosts (including reptiles) in the epidemiology of the infection which they transmit; as well as iii) the importance of observational parasitology in studying any event that certainly occurs in small ecological niches, as it could be in our home gardens.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/parasitologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638831

RESUMO

In January and February 2019, a malacological survey was conducted in the area surrounding the residence of a 12-year-old child that had contracted cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the municipality of Macapá, capital of the Amapá State, northern Brazil. The serological examination was positive for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, the principal etiological agent of this parasitosis. A sample of 54 molluscs was artificially and individually digested for parasitological analysis, containing 38 specimens of Achatina fulica, nine specimens of Bulimulus tenuissimus and seven specimens of Sarasinula linguaeformis. A. fulica was the most abundant mollusc, and the only species infected with A. cantonensis, as well as presenting co-infections with other nematodes. This is the first report of cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the Amazon Region, and the first record of A. fulica infected with A. cantonensis in Amapá. These findings highlight the potential risks of human angiostrongyliasis, and the need to implement public health measures to control the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Brasil , Criança , Cidades , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2539-2548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562068

RESUMO

Strongylida are gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of greatest importance in small ruminants throughout the world. Differences in resistance and resilience to GIN among goat breeds were reported. This study aims to investigate the mechanism underlying the breed-associated differences using a cosmopolitan (Alpine, AB) and an autochthonous (Nera di Verzasca, NV) goat breed. At first, fifteen goats from the same herd (NV = 7, AB = 8) at day 0 were infected with infective larvae (L3) of mixed GIN. From the 15th day post-infection (DPI), individual parasite egg excretion (faecal egg counts, FEC) was performed on all goats, once per week, until the 63rd DPI. Afterwards, in goats under field conditions (30 AB and 30 NV reared on the same farm), individual faecal and blood samples were collected; FEC-specific antibody and PCV levels were explored. In goats with experimental GIN infection, mean eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) values were consistently lower in NV goats. In goats with natural GIN infection, EPG and prevalence values showed high variability in both breeds; among individual variables, breed had a significant influence on EPG. Further, PCV and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by the breed. Lower PCV values were also associated with higher strongyle EPG in AB goats, and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by both strongyle EPG and breed, with IgA levels being higher in AB vs. NV goats and positively associated with EPG. Neither EPG nor breed had any influence on IgE levels. Both studies on experimental and natural infection confirmed that goats of NV are more resistant to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras/classificação , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1803-1817, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372130

RESUMO

Lungworms of the genera Parafilaroides and Otostrongylus are responsible for parasitic bronchopneumonia, the foremost disease of eastern Atlantic common seals (EACS, Phoca vitulina vitulina) in the Dutch North Sea. Recently, there have been increased reports of lungworm cases and observations of unusually long Parafilaroides sp. adults in this location. The initial aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the Parafilaroides species infecting this population. Parafilaroides are usually small and delicate, making them difficult to extract from host tissue, and there is often difficulty accessing fresh specimens for morphological study. The large size of the Dutch worms and the accessibility of specimens from numerous animals enabled the description and measurement of many intact specimens (N = 64) from multiple host animals (N = 20). Species identity was confirmed by targeted sequencing of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA amplicons from a subset of worms. Worm morphology was consistent with descriptions for P. gymnurus, but the mature females were 1.9-fold and 3.4-fold longer than those recovered from French EACS (P ≤ 0.001) and Canadian western Atlantic common seals (Phoca vitulina concolor; P ≤ 0.0001). They were also significantly longer than mature female P. gymnurus described from other seal species, with the exception of those from harp seals of Les Escoumins, Quebec. We suggest that intraspecific genetic differences in P. gymnurus and the environment within the host could contribute to the variation reported here. This study is the first to describe P. gymnurus using morphological and molecular methods and should serve as a reference for identification of the species.


Assuntos
Pulmão/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Phoca/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Países Baixos , Mar do Norte , Focas Verdadeiras/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 24, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460832

RESUMO

Sami reindeer herders have considerable traditional knowledge about a neurological reindeer disease resembling elaphostrongylosis, but the causative agent was not identified prior to the description of the brainworm Elaphostrongylus rangiferi in Russia in 1958. Elaphostrongylosis was quickly recognised as a serious cause of reindeer morbidity and mortality. The ecology, epidemiology and pathophysiology of the disease were studied in Sweden and Norway during the 1960s and in particular the 1970s to 1990s. In Finland, elaphostrongylosis was not recognised as an important disease for Finnish reindeer husbandry, even though the presence of brainworm infection has been documented. Brainworm has an indirect lifecycle with snail and slug intermediate hosts. The free-living L1 larvae have extremely good freeze tolerance and can survive > 360 days at - 80 °C in water (solid ice). Even though reindeer brainworm is clearly well adapted to the Arctic chill, the lifecycle stages outside the reindeer final host are sped up at warmer environmental temperatures. Arctic summer temperatures are close to the developmental threshold of the parasite in the intermediate gastropod hosts (8-10 °C), and the parasite has typically had a 2-year life cycle. Disease outbreaks generally occur during the winter following the infection of reindeer with infected snails and slugs during the summer and autumn. Warmer summers result in faster development of brainworm larvae in the intermediate hosts. Clinical symptoms have been seen reported as early as August, such as in the outbreak in Trøndelag, Norway in 2018. The reindeer brainworm is also a cause of conflict between reindeer herders and small ruminant farmers, because it can cause severe disease in goats and sheep, which share pasture with reindeer. Many knowledge gaps remain if we wish to successfully predict and mitigate for large-scale outbreaks in a future with a predicted warmer, wetter and wilder climate.


Assuntos
Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Traços de História de Vida , Rena , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
9.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 400-405, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294190

RESUMO

Fatal infection by Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci (Nematoda: Syngamidae), was identified in 2 of 52 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) collected on beaches in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and admitted to the veterinary clinic for rehabilitation. Both infected birds were in poor physical condition, with atrophied pectoral muscles, and died soon after starting treatment. The parasitological and pathological examination of the carcasses revealed the presence of C. (C.) phenisci in the trachea, resulting in tracheitis, as well as severe parasitic granulomatous bronchopneumonia caused by eggs deposited in the lungs. In our opinion, these serious pathological changes were the primary cause of chronic respiratory illness. This is the first description of fatal cyathostomiasis in a fish-eating avian host caused by infection by a member of the subgenus Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma). Therefore, it is reasonable to consider C. (C.) phenisci to be a real threat to a wide range of their definitive hosts, and cyathostomiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for fish-eating marine birds, even in cases without respiratory signs. This is also the first record of the genus Cyathostoma in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Strongyloidea/classificação , Animais , Atrofia , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/terapia , Aves , Brasil/epidemiologia , Broncopneumonia/parasitologia , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções por Strongylida/mortalidade , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/terapia , Strongyloidea/genética , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/parasitologia , Traqueíte/parasitologia , Traqueíte/veterinária
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 486-489, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242771

RESUMO

A 2-y-old Brahman bull was presented with progressive hindlimb ataxia and paraparesis that led to recumbency. Postmortem examination revealed scattered pinpoint, red-brown foci within the brainstem and gray matter of the spinal cord, and a larger lesion within the spinal cord at the level of T13. Histology of the section of T13 contained cross-sections of nematodes consistent with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Evidence of inflammation was present in other affected areas of the spinal cord and brain. DNA extraction and nested PCR were performed, which demonstrated 98% identity and 100% coverage to both P. tenuis and P. andersoni. Our case highlights the utility of DNA sequencing in parasite identification.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Ataxia/veterinária , Encéfalo/patologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251964

RESUMO

Benzimidazoles (BZ) have been the anthelmintic of choice for controlling Nematodirus battus infections since their release in the 1950s. Despite heavy reliance on this single anthelmintic drug class, resistance was not identified in this nematode until 2010 (Mitchell et al., 2011). The study aimed to explore the prevalence of BZ-resistance mutations in N. battus from UK sheep flocks using deep amplicon sequencing and pyrosequencing platforms. Based on evidence from other gastrointestinal nematodes, resistance in N. battus is likely to be conferred by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the ß-tubulin isotype 1 locus at codons 167, 198 and 200. Pyrosequencing and deep amplicon sequencing assays were designed to identify the F167Y (TTC to TAC), E198A (GAA to GCA) and F200Y (TTC to TAC) SNPs. Nematodirus battus populations from 253 independent farms were analysed by pyrosequencing; 174 farm populations were included in deep amplicon sequencing and 170 were analysed using both technologies. F200Y was the most prevalent SNP identified throughout the UK, in 12-27% of the populations tested depending on assay, at a low overall individual frequency of 2.2 ±â€¯0.6% (mean ±â€¯SEM, based on pyrosequencing results). Four out of the five populations with high frequencies (>20%) of the F200Y mutation were located in NW England. The F167Y SNP was identified, for the first time in this species, in four of the populations tested at a low frequency (1.2% ±â€¯0.01), indicating the early emergence of the mutation. E198A or E198L were not identified in any of the isolates. Results obtained were comparable between both techniques for F200Y (Lins' CCC, rc = 0.96) with discrepancies being limited to populations with low frequencies. The recent emergence of resistance in this species will provide a unique opportunity to study the early stages of anthelmintic resistance within a natural setting and track its progress in the future.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Nematodirus/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Mutação , Nematodirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 64, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum may cause severe clinical disease, even death in dogs, however, due to the often non-specific clinical signs, diagnosis is not always straightforward. Regular prophylactic treatment may offer a safe means to protect dogs against infection. The efficacy of a novel oral endectocide containing moxidectin, sarolaner and pyrantel was investigated for the prevention of angiostrongylosis in dogs in three placebo-controlled, randomized, masked studies. The initial study (Study 1) determined the efficacious dosage of moxidectin in the combination product by evaluating three different dose levels, and two follow-up studies (Studies 2 and 3) confirmed the efficacy of the selected moxidectin dose. METHODS: Animals were infected orally with 200 infective third-stage larvae (L3) of A. vasorum and were treated 28 days later with the combination product or with placebo. Timing of dosing relative to infection allowed for efficacy to be evaluated against the immature adult (L5) stage. Dogs in Study 1 received treatments with oral tablets to deliver 3, 12 or 24 µg/kg moxidectin in combination with 2 mg/kg sarolaner and 5.0 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or placebo. In Studies 2 and 3, Simparica Trio™ tablets were administered to provide minimum dosages of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5.0 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt). Efficacy of the combination product was calculated as the percent reduction in adult worm counts at necropsy relative to placebo. RESULTS: In Study 1, the 3, 12 and 24 µg/kg moxidectin dosage in the combination product provided 7.2%, 54.5% and 94.7% efficacy against the immature adult stages of A. vasorum, respectively. Studies 2 and 3 confirmed that the efficacy of 24 µg/kg moxidectin combined with 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner and 5 mg/kg pyrantel in Simparica Trio™ was ≥ 92.9%. All three studies established that a single oral administration of 24 µg/kg moxidectin in the combination product provided effective prophylactic treatment for angiostrongylosis, reduced L1 production and fecal excretion and minimized the tissue damage to the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: A single oral treatment of dogs with Simparica Trio™ providing moxidectin at a minimum dose of 24 µg/kg was efficacious in the prevention of angiostrongylosis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 254-260, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206795

RESUMO

The Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is a small cetacean species found on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America from Honduras to Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The nematode Halocercus brasiliensis infects this cetacean, resulting in lung pathologies and death. The present study aimed to conduct a morphological and morphometric study of specimens of H. brasiliensis collected from S. guianensis from the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. For this study, 7 dolphins were collected and examined for the presence of lung parasites. Nematodes were collected and processed for light microscopy, and lung fragments were processed for histological analysis. The nematodes were identified as H. brasiliensis according to their morphology and morphometry. The histopathological analysis revealed mineralization of the bronchiolar cartilage and inflammatory process. The parasitic infections by H. brasiliensis in S. guianensis can contribute to the debilitating status of these cetaceans, resulting in their stranding and accidental capture in fishing nets.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/patogenicidade , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 65, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In three randomized, controlled laboratory efficacy studies, the efficacy in the prevention of patent infections of a topical combination of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 1% (Advocate® spot-on formulation for cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH) against larval stages and immature adults of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the treatment efficacy of a single or three monthly treatments against adult A. abstrusus, were evaluated. METHODS: Cats were experimentally inoculated with 300-800 third-stage larvae (L3). Each group comprised 8 animals and the treatment dose was 10 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) imidacloprid and 1 mg/kg bw moxidectin in each study. Prevention of the establishment of patent infections was evaluated by two treatments at a monthly interval at three different time points before and after challenge infection. Curative efficacy was tested by one or three treatments after the onset of patency. Worm counts at necropsy were used for efficacy calculations. RESULTS: In Study 1, the control group had a geometric mean (GM) of 28.8 adult nematodes and the single treatment group had a GM of 3.4 (efficacy 88.3%). In Study 2, the control group had a GM of 14.3, the prevention group had a GM of 0 (efficacy 100%), while the treatment group had a GM of 0.1 (efficacy 99.4%). In Study 3, the GM worm burden in the control group was 32.6 compared to 0 in all three prevention groups (efficacy 100% for all of those groups). CONCLUSIONS: The monthly administration of Advocate® reliably eliminated early larval stages and thereby prevented lung damage from and patent infections with A. abstrusus in cats. Regarding treatment, a single application of Advocate® reduced the worm burden, but it did not sufficiently clear the infection. In contrast, three monthly treatments were safe and highly efficacious against A. abstrusus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Metastrongyloidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(2): 161-169, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004511

RESUMO

Marshallagia marshalli is a multi-host gastrointestinal nematode that infects a variety of artiodactyl species from temperate to Arctic latitudes. Eggs of Marshallagia are passed in host faeces and develop through three larval stages (L1, L2, and L3) in the environment. Although eggs normally hatch as L1s, they can also hatch as L3s. We hypothesised that this phenotypic plasticity in hatching behaviour may improve fitness in subzero and highly variable environments, and this may constitute an evolutionary advantage under current climate change scenarios. To test this, we first determined if the freeze tolerance of different free-living stages varied at different temperatures (-9 °C, -20 °C and -35 °C). We then investigated if there were differences in freeze tolerance of M. marshalli eggs sourced from three discrete, semi-isolated, populations of wild bighorn and thinhorn sheep living in western North America (latitudes: 40°N, 50°N, 64°N). The survival rates of eggs and L3s were significantly higher than L1s at -9 °C and -20 °C, and survival of all three stages decreased significantly with increasing freeze duration and decreasing temperature. The survival of unhatched L1s was significantly higher than the survival of hatched L1s. There was no evidence of local thermal adaptation in freeze tolerance among eggs from different locations. We conclude that developing to the L3 in the egg may result in a fitness advantage for M. marshalli, with the egg protecting the more vulnerable L1 under freezing conditions. This phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits of M. marshalli might be an important capacity, a potential exaptation capable of enhancing parasite fitness under temperature extremes.


Assuntos
Carneiro da Montanha/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Trichostrongyloidea/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ovos , Fezes/parasitologia , Congelamento , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Temperatura , Trichostrongyloidea/parasitologia
16.
J Helminthol ; 94: e113, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915081

RESUMO

Aim of the study was to get in-depth information on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus first-stage larvae (L1s) survival at different temperatures and to assess the capability of these larvae to develop into the third infective stage (L3s). Faeces of a naturally infected cat were split into two aliquots: the first was divided in subsamples assigned to four groups (F1-F4); from the second aliquot, L1s were extracted by Baermann technique, suspended in water and divided into four groups (W1-W4). Groups were stored at different temperatures (F1/W1 -20 ± 1°C; F2/W2 +4 ± 1°C; F3/W3 +14 ± 1°C; and F4/W4 +28 ± 1°C) and L1s vitality assessed every seven days. The capability of L1s stored in water to develop into L3s in snails was evaluated at the beginning and every 21 days. The L1s of W2 and F2 groups remained viable for a longer period (231 and 56 days, respectively) compared to those of other groups. The capability of L1s to moult into L3s in snails showed a decreasing trend; the group W2's L1s maintained the capability to moult into L3s for the longest time (day 189) compared to the other groups. The time of survival of A. abstrusus L1s is influenced by temperature. However, the species seems to be more resistant to temperature variations than other feline lungworms, and this may explain its wider distribution across Europe.


Assuntos
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Metastrongyloidea/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Temperatura
17.
J Helminthol ; 94: e114, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928550

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/parasitologia , Colo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Íleo/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/parasitologia , Estômago/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Estrongilídios/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
18.
Parasitology ; 147(3): 348-359, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840634

RESUMO

Comparing parasitic infection among individuals of wildlife populations can provide insight into factors that influence wildlife disease ecology. Strongylids are parasitic worms that infect the intestinal tract of vertebrates, and infection with strongylids can be approximated by counting strongylid eggs in dung samples. Here we tested for correlations between strongylid egg counts and 18 different individual characteristics, environmental and social factors in individually known wild African elephants. We counted more eggs in the dung samples of younger elephants and females relative to mature elephants and males. We also found that elephants spending more time outside reserves shed more strongylid eggs than elephants that were more often within reserves. Elephants that were less socially integrated, as measured by how much aggression they received from other elephants, shed fewer strongylid eggs; relatedly, socially isolated orphan elephants that had left their family shed fewer strongylid eggs than elephants that remained with their family. Our results suggest that landscapes altered by livestock grazing and social disruption caused by humans may impact parasitic infection in wildlife.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Movimento , Comportamento Social , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elefantes/fisiologia , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112249, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557509

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trachyspermum ammi has been used traditionally as a popular ethnobotanical plant in human and animal parasitic infestations. Few scientific studies have been conducted on in vitro anthelmintic activity of T. ammi against various helminths and there is no study on its in vivo/in vitro anthelmintic properties against equine helminths. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous extract (CAE) of T. ammi seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes in the donkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty donkeys, naturally and severely infected with Strongyle-type nematodes, were randomly divided into six groups and administered orally with graded doses of CP and CAE at single dose as follow: Two groups were treated with 1 and 3 gkg-1 body weight of CP, two groups were treated with CAE at the equivalent dose rate 1 and 3 gkg-1 bw of CP and one group was treated with 200 µgkg-1 bw of Ivermectin 0.2% (Positive Control). One group received no medication (Negative Control). Efficacy was determined by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test. The faecal samples were taken from the donkeys on days 7, 14 and 28 post-treatments (PT) and the egg per gram (EPG) of faeces was determined for each animal. FECR for donkeys treated with CP, CAE, and Ivermectin 0.2% was calculated on days 7, 14, and 28 PT. In the present study, CAE was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine CAE chemical components. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a marker (thymol) was applied to confirm the existence of thymol as an active principle. RESULTS: Based on the FECR findings, the maximum FECR (71.2%) was observed in the group treated with CAE3 on day 14 PT, while it was 66.2% for CP3 on the same day. The effects of different treatments (P < 0.001), time (P < 0.001) and their interactions (P < 0.05) on EPG showed a significant difference. A dose-dependent response in the anthelmintic activity of CP and CAE was observed. GC-MS analysis indicated that thymol was the major component of CAE (Area = 45.01%) with the respective peak at retention times (Rt) 10.41 min. On HPLC analysis of CAE, thymol was found to be the major constituent of CAE (Area = 58.76%) with the same Rt at 13.233 min. CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that both CP and CAE of T. ammi had the dose-dependent anthelmintic effects. Due to the development of drug resistance against synthetic anti-helminthics, T. ammi seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment and prevention of helminths in livestock.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Apiaceae , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Strongylus , Animais , Equidae , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Pós , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
20.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100342, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796174

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary nematodes in cats include different parasite species affecting feline lungs and the heart, with the metastrongyloid Aelurostrongylus abstrusus being the most frequent feline lungworm worldwide. The present case report describes an 11-month-old male neutered European short hair cat which presented with generalised subcutaneous oedema and pleural and peritoneal effusions. According to clinical examination, abdominal imaging and laboratory analyses, a tentative diagnosis of severe glomerulopathy with massive proteinuria was made. Due to worsening of the clinical signs despite therapeutic interventions and a poor prognosis, the cat was euthanised. Necropsy and histological examinations revealed severe bilateral collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy, generalised oedema and a focal verminous pneumonia with thrombosis in arterial lung vessels containing nematode cross sections. A serum sample was tested for the presence of antibodies against the cat lungworm A. abstrusus, resulting negative. Genetic analyses confirmed the presence of nematode DNA; after exclusion of common lung and heart parasites occurring in cats, DNA of the canid heart worm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified. This is the first description of a naturally occurring infection with A. vasorum in a cat. Previous experimental studies demonstrated the development of adult male and female A. vasorum worms containing eggs in cats, but no larval excretion in the faeces. Although cats did not become patent, A. vasorum infections were clinically relevant. As A. abstrusus and A. vasorum are both gastropod transmitted nematodes, they may share the same intermediate hosts within overlapping areas. In addition, especially chronic A. abstrusus infected cats become non-patent and do not excrete L1. Considering that patent A. vasorum infections are widespread in the dog and fox population in Switzerland (and several other countries) but are apparently not patent in cats, we cannot exclude that infections with A. vasorum may occur more frequently than expected.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Evolução Fatal , Masculino , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Suíça
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