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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 74-88, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556183

RESUMO

Herein, we describe several newly-collected specimens of Neopolystoma cf. orbiculare from the urinary bladder of 2 alligator snapping turtles, Macrochelys temminckii (Troost in Harland, 1835) (Cryptodira: Chelydridae Gray, 1831) from Comet Lake (30°35'46.94″N, 88°36'3.12″W), Pascagoula River, Mississippi. Our specimens differed from all previous descriptions of N. orbiculare and its junior subjective synonyms by the combination of having intestinal ceca adorned with triangular pockets and that terminate dorsal to the haptor, distinctive hooklets each having a handle and guard of approximately equal length and having a much longer and curved blade, 16 genital coronet spines that each possess 1-2 flanges per spine, pre-testicular vaginal pores, and vaginal ducts that are anterior to the junction of the oviduct and genito-intestinal canal. Some of our specimens were enantiomorphic (4 and 3 had a dextral and sinistral ovary, respectively). Nucleotide sequences (large subunit ribosomal DNA [28S], small subunit ribosomal DNA [18S], and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene [COI]) for our specimens were most similar to GenBank sequences ascribed to N. orbiculare. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic analyses confirmed that NeopolystomaPrice, 1939 is polyphyletic and that our isolates share a recent common ancestor with those ascribed to N. orbiculare. This is the first record of a polystomatid from Mississippi, from the Pascagoula River, and from the alligator snapping turtle (and only the second species of Neopolystoma reported from any snapping turtle).


Assuntos
Platelmintos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagos/parasitologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/genética , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 59-73, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535234

RESUMO

Cardicola Short, 1953 is the most speciose aporocotylid genus (35 species) and includes marine and estuarine species of fish blood flukes that infect "higher ray-finned fishes" (Euteleostei). Several clades within Cardicola are recovered in phylogenetic analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S), but morphological synapomorphies for those nucleotide-based clades remain elusive. The type species, Cardicola cardiocola (Manter, 1947) Short, 1953, has not been recollected in 73 yr and the original description was incomplete; making a genus revision challenging because of the ambiguous systematic position of its type species. Herein, we redescribe C. cardiocola by using the holotype (USNM 1337732) and new specimens collected from the type host, jolthead porgy, Calamus bajonado (Sparidae), from nearby the type locality. It differs from its congeners by the combination of having a body that is 5 times longer than wide, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of spines, 2-6 tegumental body spines per row, an esophageal gland that is 22-43% of the esophageal length, a testis that is 3-5 times longer than wide and that fills the intercecal space, a vitelline duct connecting to the anterior aspect of the oötype, an ascending uterus that lacks any coil, a descending uterus yielding a single coil, an obvious cirrus sac separated by constriction from the seminal vesicle, a tegumental protrusion surrounding the terminal end of cirrus sac, and a male genital pore that is posterior to the remainder of the genitalia. We also describe a new congener infecting the heart of yellowedge grouper, Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Serranidae), from the Gulf of Mexico. It differs from its congeners by the combination of having an anterior sucker that does not extend beyond the anterior body margin, 2-5 tegumental body spines per row, posterior ceca that are 9 times length of the anterior ceca and that lack any coil, a testis that is 3 times longer than wide and that does not fill the intercecal space, an ovary that is >60% of the body width, a vitelline duct that connects to the anterior aspect of the oötype, a uterus that is >10% of the body width and that extends posterior to all genitalia, and a rounded posterior body margin. It is the first species of Cardicola to be described from a grouper (Serranidae). The 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species as a distinct lineage within the clade of Cardicola spp.


Assuntos
Bass/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Coração/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 34, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed parasitic pathogen and had until the current study been reported from 19 countries across Europe, although many of these records require confirmation. The last comprehensive evaluation regarding the distribution of G. salaris, however, was made in 2007, although some of the states identified as being G. salaris-positive were ascribed this status based on misidentifications, on partial data resulting from either morphological or molecular tests, or from records that have not been revisited since their early reporting. It is thus important to go through the reports on G. salaris to obtain a status for each country. METHODS: To provide a revised update of the G. salaris distribution, a literature review was necessary. This literature, however, was not always readily accessible and, in certain cases, the article only made superficial reference to the parasite without providing details or data to support the identification. In most cases, the original specimens were not deposited in a national collection. Additional Gyrodactylus material for the current study was obtained from selected salmonid populations with the aim to contribute to current understanding regarding the distribution of G. salaris. Additional parasite material collected for this study was processed following standard procedures for species identification in Gyrodactylus [1]. RESULTS: From the work conducted in the current study, G. salaris is reported from a further three regions in Italy, alongside three other species, and appears to occur extensively throughout central Italy without causing significant mortalities to its rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), host. The analysis of archive material from G. salaris-positive farms would suggest that G. salaris has been in this country since at least 2000. Material obtained from rainbow trout from Finland and Germany are confirmed as G. salaris, supporting existing data for these countries. No specimens of G. salaris, however, were found in the additional Gyrodactylus material obtained from rainbow trout reared in Portugal and Spain. A morphologically similar species, Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel et Vigneulle, 1999, however, was found. CONCLUSIONS: Following the present review, Gyrodactylus salaris is reported from 23 out of 50 recognised states throughout Europe; only records from 14 of these states have been confirmed by either morphology and/or by an appropriate molecular test and are considered valid, while only nine of these records have been confirmed by a combination of both methods.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 481-496, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409627

RESUMO

The Diplozoidae are monogenean parasites of mainly cyprinoid fishes with a unique life cycle, whereby two larvae undergo anastomosis and fuse into a single cross-shaped specimen. Paradiplozoon is the most species rich and widespread genus of the family, with a distribution range covering Eurasia and Africa; however, some areas remain underexplored and their diplozoid fauna is uncertain. In the present study, the Paradiplozoon diversity was investigated in the peri-Mediterranean region, which has the highest levels of cyprinoid diversity and endemism in Europe. A total of 36 endemic cyprinoid species were sampled from sites in north-west Africa and the southern European peninsulas and investigated for the presence of diplozoid parasites. Of five Paradiplozoon species collected, three were identified as new to science: Paradiplozoon moroccoensis n. sp. from the Moroccan endemic Luciobarbus lepineyi; Paradiplozoon ibericus n. sp. from Iberian endemic cyprinids and leuciscids and Paradiplozoon helleni n. sp. from the Greek endemic Scardinius acarnicus and Tropidophoxinellus hellenicus (descriptions provided herein). In addition, new host records for P. homoion and P. megan are presented, with the former being most prevalent in the investigated region. Phylogenetic analysis supported paraphyly of the genus Paradiplozoon, and suggests the need for a careful taxonomic re-evaluation of this genus. Furthermore, the results showed that endemic Paradiplozoon of the peri-Mediterranean do not form a monophyletic group, suggesting multiple origins of this parasite groups in different peri-Mediterranean regions.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , África do Norte , Animais , Biodiversidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Região do Mediterrâneo , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 553-561, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415397

RESUMO

Associated with the spreading in (north)western direction of Fascioloides magna from its historic endemic area in Bohemia with its cervid hosts, unusual noticeable hepatic lesions (black-colored tissue, hemorrhage) were observed in deer harvested in hunting grounds and one deer farm located in the Upper Palatinate Forest close to the border to the Czech Republic, initially in the years of 2007 and 2009, respectively. Confirmation of the suspected diagnosis of F. magna infection in October 2011 prompted investigations on the occurrence of "fascioloidosis" among wild ungulates in that locality. From October 2011 to January 2014, livers from 89 cervids and two wild boars were examined for flukes. Thirty-seven livers (40.6%) harbored F. magna: 17 of 21 red deer, nine of 24 sika deer, six of eight fallow deer, four of 36 roe deer, one of two wild boars. Fluke burdens ranged from 2 up to 151 in red deer, from 2 up to 37 in fallow deer, and from 1 up to 7 in sika deer and in roe deer; one fluke was recovered from the liver of one wild boar. No other parasites were recovered from the livers. The rate of recovery of F. magna differed significantly (p < 0.001) among the species of deer (red deer, 81.0%; sika deer, 37.5%; fallow deer, 75.0%; roe deer, 11.1%) and between the age groups (< 1 year: 22.2%, 1 to 2 years: 26.0%, and > 2 years: 70.0%, respectively). There was no association (p > 0.1) between the rate of recovery of F. magna and the sex of the combined 80 deer of ≥ 1 year of age (male: 41.8% and female: 31.4%). The occurrence of F. magna in the wild ungulates in the Upper Palatinate Forest area in northeastern Bavaria is of epidemiological importance for the further spreading of the parasite into Germany with migrating deer.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Fasciolidae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Florestas , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Masculino , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 971-977, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409642

RESUMO

Two digenean species, Infidum infidum Faria, 1910 (Dicrocoeliidae) and Travtrema stenocotyle Cohn, 1902 (Plagiorchiidae), were collected in the large pit viper Bothrops moojeni Hoge, 1966 from Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Cisalpina, municipality of Brasilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. In this study, we provide the first molecular characterisation using the 28S rDNA and phylogenetic position data of these two common digeneans from B. moojeni. The molecular framework revealed topologies with strongly supported clades using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, positioned I. infidum among Plagiorchiidae and not among Dicrocoeliidae as expected and T. stenocotyle (Plagiorchiidae) surprisingly grouped as a sister group to Allassogonoporidae, Microphallidae, Pleurogenidae, and Prosthogonimidae, not related to plagiorchids. Our molecular phylogenetic data showed that these species may not correspond to their assigned families and encourage future studies on the systematic of these understudied groups.


Assuntos
Bothrops/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 949-962, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426572

RESUMO

Foodborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections are common neglected tropical diseases in Southeast Asia. Their complicated life cycles involve freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa provinces in North and Central Vietnam, to investigate the diversity of cercariae of potential FZT and to construct the phylogenetic relationship of trematode cercariae based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region. Among 17 snail species collected from various habitats, 13 were infected by 10 cercarial groups among which parapleurolophocercous, pleurolophocercous, and echinostome cercariae were of zoonotic importance. The monophyletic tree separated cercarial sequences into different groups following the description of the cercariae families in which Haplorchidae, Opisthorchiidae, Echinochasmidae, and Echinostomatidae are important families of FZT. The overall prevalence was different among snail species and habitats and showed a seasonal trend. Parapleurolophocercous and echinostome cercariae emerged as the most common cercariae in snails in Yen Bai, while monostome, echinostome, and megalura cercariae were most common in Thanh Hoa. Using a molecular approach, we identified Parafossarulus striatulus as the first intermediate snail host of Clonorchis sinensis in Thac Ba Lake. Melanoides tuberculata and Bithynia fuchsiana were we identified preferred intermediate snail hosts of a diverse range of trematode species including intestinal flukes (i.e., Haplorchis pumilio and Echinochasmus japonicus) in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Cercárias/classificação , Cercárias/genética , Cercárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cercárias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Caramujos/classificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 899-910, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432440

RESUMO

During their different life stages, parasites undergo remarkable morphological, physiological, and behavioral "metamorphoses" to meet the needs of their changing habitats. This is even true for ectoparasites, such as the monogeneans, which typically have a free-swimming larval stage (oncomiracidium) that seeks out and attaches to the external surfaces of fish where they mature. Before any obvious changes occur, there are ultrastructural differences in the oncomiracidium's outer surface that prepare it for a parasitic existence. The present findings suggest a distinct variation in timing of the switch from oncomiracidia epidermis to the syncytial structure of the adult tegument and so, to date, there are three such categories within the Monogenea: (1) Nuclei of both ciliated cells and interciliary cytoplasm are shed from the surface layer and the epidermis becomes a syncytial layer during the later stages of embryogenesis; (2) nuclei of both ciliated cells and interciliary syncytium remain distinct and the switch occurs later after the oncomiracidia hatch (as in the present study); and (3) the nuclei remain distinct in the ciliated epidermis but those of the interciliary epidermis are lost during embryonic development. Here we describe how the epidermis of the oncomiracidium of Discocotyle sagittata is differentiated into two regions, a ciliated cell layer and an interciliary, syncytial cytoplasm, both of which are nucleated. The interciliary syncytium extends in-between and underneath the ciliated cells and sometimes covers part of their apical surfaces, possibly the start of their shedding process. The presence of membranous whorls and pyknotic nuclei over the surface are indicative of membrane turnover suggesting that the switch in epidermis morphology is already initiated at this stage. The body tegument and associated putative sensory receptors of subadult and adult D. sagittata are similar to those in other monogeneans.


Assuntos
Epiderme/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Salmonidae/parasitologia , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brânquias/parasitologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 831-848, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409628

RESUMO

The genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 represents one of the most diverse and widespread taxa within Monogenea, with approximately 500 species described worldwide. Thirty-three species of Gyrodactylus have been recorded in Mexico, and in the last two decades, at least 26 new species have been described mainly from freshwater fish families such as poeciliids, goodeids, profundulids, characids, and cichlids. In this study, we describe two new species of Gyrodactylus infecting freshwater cyprinids based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Gyrodactylus ticuchi n. sp. and Gyrodactylus tobala n. sp. were recovered from Notropis moralesi de Buen and N. imeldae Cortés, respectively, captured in five localities from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. The new species differ slightly from their congeners in the morphology of the haptoral hard parts and the male copulatory organ. Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1), and the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit (28S rDNA) were obtained from multiple specimens and analyzed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). Phylogenetic hypotheses using ITS rDNA, cox1, and 28S rDNA genes recovered two new species of Gyrodactylus from N. moralesi and N. imeldae; we briefly discuss their phylogenetic relationship with other congeners. These gyrodactylids represent the first species described in species of Notropis from southern Mexico, the cyprinids exhibiting the southernmost distribution in the New World.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Characidae/parasitologia , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Masculino , México , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 819-830, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415387

RESUMO

The monogenean genus Heterobothrium (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) currently consists of 12 accepted species described globally from various pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae). This includes the economically important Heterobothrium okamotoi Ogawa 1991 that causes severe disease in the cultured tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes in Japan. During parasitological surveys targeting near shore marine fishes of South Africa, a new Heterobothrium was discovered on the gills of five evileye pufferfish Amblyrhynchotes honckenii with a prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 23 (4-72). Specimens were morphologically studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy and molecularly characterized by sequencing the partial ribosomal gene 28S. Heterobothrium victorwepeneri n. sp. differs from its 12 congeners by a combination of morphological characters, such as fourth clamp pair (anteriormost, 180° inverted) as the smallest with some of the sclerites differing in shape from the other pairs, 8 to 9 genital hooks, number of testes 40-50, and absent isthmus. The 28S tree depicted two main branches, one clustering together species of mazocraeidean families while the other clustered together only species of the Diclidophoridae. Heterobothrium victorwepeneri n. sp. is the first species of its genus to be recorded and described from South Africa and from the tetraodontid A. honckenii. This study also provides for the first time 28S sequence for a species of this highly host-specific genus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Tetraodontiformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , África Austral , Animais , Brânquias/parasitologia , Japão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 887-897, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426573

RESUMO

Neoheterobothrium papillosum n. sp. (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) is described based on specimens collected from the gills of the dusky flounder Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus) (Paralichthyidae) in the Yucatan Shelf. The new species can be differentiated from other congeneric species by the following characteristics: (1) number of hooks in the genital atrium (8 hooks), (2) number of testes (20-34), (3) pharynx size, (4) peduncle length, and (5) egg size. Neoheterobothrium papillosum n. sp. resembles Neoheterobothrium syacii; however, detailed morphological analysis allowed for their separation into two different species. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA partial 28S and ITS1 were obtained and compared with available sequences of other species and genera of the family Diclidophoridae from GenBank. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted, including 33 sequences, 18 of which represented 17 species and 11 genera of the family Diclidophoridae. The phylogenetic tree showed that Diclidophoridae is a monophyletic family and species of Diclidophora were grouped as the sister group of Neoheterobothrium papillosum n. sp. Our phylogenetic analyses were consistent with Mamaev's hypothesis, who divided Diclidophoridae into Diclidophorinae and Choricotylinae and concluded that Neoheterobothrium was a genus belonging to Diclidophorinae.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Linguados/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , México , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 849-859, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481091

RESUMO

Different groups parasitize the gills of fishes, and the organisms can interact in positive, negative, or neutral ways, depending on parasitic abundance, environmental conditions, and the availability of resources. Here, we studied the distribution of ectoparasites on the gills of the mullet Mugil curema in the Cabedelo port region (Brazil), asking if (1) the gill parasites of M. curema fix on specific host gill arches and/or (2) co-occur in the same gill arches within a host individual; (3) if the abundance of one parasite taxon affects the abundance of another on the same gill arches; and (4) considering distinct major groups, if parasites present patterns of co-occurrence on hosts and gill arches different from the expected at random. We used generalized linear models, generalized linear mixed models, and models with zero inflation to define the microhabitats (arches) with the highest abundances of parasites and null models to analyze the co-occurrences of gill parasite groups. Three taxa of Monogenea (Ligophorus brasiliensis Abdallah, Azevedo & Luque, 2009, Ligophorus sp. 1 and Ligophorus sp. 2) and six species of Copepoda were recorded (Bomolochus nitidus Wilson, 1911; Caligus praetextus Bere, 1936; Ergasilus atafonensis Amado & Rocha, 1997; Ergasilus bahiensis Amado & Rocha, 1997; Ergasilus caraguatatubensis Amado & Rocha, 1997 and Ergasilus lizae Krøyer, 1863). We found that, in general, the gill parasites were more abundant/prevalent on specific arches (I and II) of the hosts, shared such preferences and co-occurred on the gill arches. The presence of one taxon influenced the occurrence of another only in the arches I and II; as a result, the infracommunities were characterized as interactive in the gills of this host species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
13.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 755-771, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326587

RESUMO

Sea turtles are difficult to sample because of their protected status; however, museum collections and sea turtle stranding networks provide unique opportunities for parasitological research. Four gastrointestinal tracts from stranded, endangered green turtles, Chelonia mydas, were collected between 1993 and 1995 from the upper Texas coast and opportunistically sampled for parasite fauna. Two new species of Telorchis, a common freshwater amphibian and reptilian intestinal parasite genus, were found and described. Telorchis marinus n. sp. differs from Telorchis mydas n. sp. by its short body length, lack of pharyngeal glands, long esophagus relative to total body length, short and straight cirrus sac, short ventral sucker to ovary length relative to total body length, and an ovary located in the anterior one-third of body; it differs from its congeners in the number of ovary lengths between the ventral sucker and ovary, the number of ventral sucker lengths the cirrus sac extends beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and the vitelline field extent. Telorchis mydas differs from its congeners in the number of ovary lengths between the ventral sucker and ovary, the number of ventral sucker lengths the cirrus sac extends beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and the combination of having its ovary position near the midbody and a long, sinuous cirrus sac that is 35-44% of the total body length. Given the taxonomic complexities within Telorchis, a revised key to North American species is provided using morphological characteristics to assist future researchers in delineating true species and appropriate synonymies with molecular explorations. We reject the majority of synonymies in the genus until molecular data are available; we accept the synonymies of Telorchis necturi as Telorchis stunkardi and Telorchis gutturosi as Telorchis chelopi. Both Telorchis linstowi and Telorchis stossichi should be considered as species inquirenda. This is the first confirmed report of Telorchis from a marine host and the first report on parasites of cheloniid sea turtles in Texas, and this study adds to the ever-growing evidence that collections are essential to understanding biodiversity.


Assuntos
Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Água do Mar , Texas/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
14.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 802-808, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351947

RESUMO

Metagonimiasis is foodborne intestinal parasitism occurring by the definitive hosts' ingestion of raw or undercooked fish, mostly commonly sweetfish. Most Metagonimus infection is caused by Metagonimus yokogawai but also rarely by Metagonimus takahashii as well as Metagonimus miyatai. Despite recent molecular work on Metagonimus spp., there are still insufficient data to reveal the genetic characteristics of ancient M. yokogawai in a wide geo-historical scope. In this study, we were successful in the analysis of M. yokogawai ancient DNA (aDNA) using coprolite samples retrieved from 16th- to 17th-century Korean mummies. In BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, M. yokogawai 28S rDNA of Korean mummies were clustered along with the 28S rDNA taxa of M. takahashii and M. miyatai in GenBank. Conversely, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. yokogawai aDNA from Korean mummies was distinctly clustered apart from M. takahashii and M. miyatai sequences. This study is the first report of its kind to identify M. yokogawai aDNA retrieved from the archaeological specimens and confirms the usefulness of COI in molecular diagnosis of M. yokogawai. Considering the rarity of reports on the genetics of genus Metagonimus spp., our study will be fundamental for the future study of M. yokogawai paleogenetics.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Múmias/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/história , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/história , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Heterophyidae/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 373-386, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871631

RESUMO

Fish-borne heterophyid trematodes are known to have a zoonotic potential, since at least 30 species are able to infect humans worldwide, with a global infection of around 7 million people. In this paper, a 'state-of-the-art' review of the South American heterophyid species is provided, including classical and molecular taxonomy, parasite ecology, host-parasite interaction studies and a list of species and their hosts. There is still a lack of information on human infections in South America with undetected or unreported infections probably due to the information shortage and little attention by physicians to these small intestinal flukes. Molecular tools for specific diagnoses of South American heterophyid species are still to be defined. Additional new sequences of Pygidiopsis macrostomum, Ascocotyle pindoramensis and Ascocotyle longa from Brazil are also provided.


Assuntos
Heterophyidae , Animais , Cianobactérias , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Heterophyidae/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
16.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764186

RESUMO

Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Goto, 1891) Khotenovsky, 1985 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae), is known to parasitise Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and species of Carassius. In this study, we conducted a taxonomic re-examination of E. nipponicum using genetic analysis and morphological comparisons from different host species from a single water system. rDNA nucleotide sequences of the internal transcription spacer 2 (ITS-2) region (645 bp) showed interspecific-level genetic differences among diplozoids from species of Carassius and C. carpio (p-distance: 3.1-4.0%) but no difference among those from different species of Carassius (0-0.4%) or between those from C. carpio collected in Asia and Europe (0-1.1%). Large variation was observed among 346 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences (0.3-16.0 %); the topology of the phylogenetic tree showed no relationship to host genera or geographical regions of origin. Morphological observation showed that average clamp size of diplozoids from C. carpio was larger than those from Carassius spp. The number of folds on the hindbody was 10-25 for diplozoids from C. carpio and 12-19 for those from Carassius spp. Thus, our ITS-2 sequence and morphological comparison results indicate that diplozoids from C. carpio and species of Carassius belong to different species. The scientific name E. nipponicum should be applied to the species infected to the type host, Carassius sp. of Nakabo (2013) (Japanese name ginbuna). The diplozoid infecting C. carpio (Eurasian type) should be established as a new species: Eudiplozoon kamegaii sp. n. A neotype of E. nipponicum is designated in this report because the original E. nipponicum specimens are thought to have been lost.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2511-2520, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562066

RESUMO

Zygocotyle lunata inhabits the caecum of birds and mammals from the American continent. This amphistome parasite is easily maintained in the laboratory and serves as a model organism in life-cycle studies, but it has seldom been studied using molecular data. Neither the position of Z. lunata in the superfamily Paramphistomoidea nor the monophyly of the Zygocotylidae has been evaluated with molecular phylogenetic methods. In the present study, adult specimens of Z. lunata obtained experimentally in mice from Brazil were submitted to molecular studies. Partial sequences of nuclear (1261 bp of 28S and 418 bp of 5.8S-ITS-2) and mitochondrial (1410 bp of cytochrome c oxidase 1, cox1) markers were compared with published data. In the most well-resolved phylogeny, based on 28S sequences, Z. lunata clustered in a well-supported clade with Wardius zibethicus, the only other species currently included in the Zygocotylidae, thus confirming the validity of this family. Divergence of 28S sequences between these species was 2.2%, which falls in the range of intergeneric variation (0.9-5.6%) observed in the other two monophyletic groups in the 28S tree, i.e., representatives of Gastrodicidae and Neotropical cladorchiids (Cladorchiidae). Analysis of ITS-2 and two parts of the cox1 gene placed Z. lunata within poorly resolved clades or large polytomies composed of several paramphistomoid families, without clarifying higher-level phylogenetic relationships. The cox1 of a Brazilian isolate of Z. lunata is 99.6% similar to a Canadian isolate, confirming the pan-American distribution of the species. Finally, our phylogenetic reconstructions of Paramphistomoidea revealed a complex scenario in the taxonomic composition of some amphistome families, which highlights a need for further integrative studies that will likely result in rearrangements of traditional morphology-based classifications.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Paramphistomatidae/genética , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Canadá , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Camundongos , Paramphistomatidae/classificação , Paramphistomatidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2531-2537, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562067

RESUMO

Human cercarial dermatitis is a parasitic disease that causes an allergic reaction in the skin (swimmer's itch) as a consequence of contact with cercariae of bird schistosomes present in water, mainly of the genus Trichobilharzia Skrjabin et Zakarow, 1920. The main objective of the study was to confirm the presence of the zoonotic disease agent following reports of human infections in recreational water in Slovakia. We identified two species of freshwater snails at Kosice Lake, Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) and Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805). Trematode infections were observed only in R. auricularia. Of the 62 snails collected, 11 (17.7%) were infected with 5 different species of larval stages of trematodes. The blood fluke Trichobilharzia franki was found in 2 (3.2%) of the examined snails. The present record provides the first evidence that T. franki from the pulmonate snail R. auricularia represents a source of human cercarial dermatitis in recreational water in Slovakia. Our finding complements the easternmost records of both swimmer's itch and the confirmed occurrence of a bird schistosome in a waterbody in Europe. The present work suggests that the health risks associated with trichobilharziasis need to be further studied by detailed monitoring of the occurrence of the major causative agent of human cercarial dermatitis, T. franki.


Assuntos
Dermatite/parasitologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Schistosomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Schistosomatidae/classificação , Schistosomatidae/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590020

RESUMO

Complex life cycle parasites can manipulate the behavior of intermediate hosts in order to reduce their fitness and increase the chance of completing life cycle. In order to understand the effects of the trematode parasites of the genus Clinostomum on host fish Loricariichthys platymetopon, a filmed experiment was carried out to quantify the foraging activity of hosts with different intensities of infection. The results suggest that hosts with higher parasite intensities reduced foraging activity early in the morning when compared to hosts with low intensities. This period may be critical for hosts since birds, the target hosts of such trematodes, forage intensively at dawn.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Prevalência , Rios , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/fisiopatologia , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2439-2462, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591866

RESUMO

In 2018 and 2019, salmonid fishes, Salmo trutta L. and Salvelinus alpinus (L.) from lakes in Iceland were assessed for trematodes during a parasitological examination. Combined morphological and molecular analyses revealed the presence of four trematode species, two of which were previously known to parasitise salmonids in Iceland, Crepidostomum farionis (Müller, 1780) and Phyllodistomum umblae (Fabricius, 1780), and the two remaining species were recognised as new to science. Morphologically and genetically, Crepidostomum brinkmanni n. sp. and C. pseudofarionis n. sp. are closely related to two European species, namely C. metoecus and C. farionis. However, C. brinkmanni n. sp. is distinct by the position of maximum body width and arrangement of vitelline follicles; C. pseudofarionis n. sp. is distinct by its stout body, position of maximum body width, size of muscular papillae relative to oral sucker and the anterior extent of vitelline follicles. The new species were previously molecularly detected in their intermediate and definitive hosts in Norway and Ukraine, but their sequences were not supplemented with any morphological characterisation. In the present study, we provide detailed morphological descriptions and molecular sequences (28S rDNA and ITS2) of the four species of trematodes detected in Iceland. The discovery of the two new species of Crepidostomum indicates that the trematode diversity in fishes in the north is higher than previously known; our finding doubles the species spectrum of fish trematodes for Iceland. The record of C. brinkmanni from Ukraine indicates that its distribution might not be limited to northern latitudes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Salmonidae/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Islândia/epidemiologia , Lagos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia
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