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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20885, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relapse is character of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The therapeutic goal is to reduce the risk of relapse. Factors associated with relapses can help to manage and prevent relapses. In addition, patients and doctors all pay attention to it. However, there are differences between studies. Our aim is to summarize factors associated with relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, Cochrane library, CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, and VIP were searched to identify risk factors about relapses in RRMS, which should be in cohort or case-control studies. This article was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The quality of studies was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis, subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were all performed with Stata. This research has been registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42019120502). RESULTS: 43 articles were included. Infection, postpartum period, risk gene, stress, and vitamin D were risk factors for relapses in RRMS. Pregnancy period was the protective factor. Among those, infection increased the risk of relapses in infection period (relative risk [RR], 2.07 [confidence interval (CI), 1.64 to 2.60]). Women in the postpartum period increased the risk of relapses compared with women before pregnancy (RR, 1.43 [CI, 1.19 to 1.72]), or women in pregnancy period (RR, 2.07 [CI, 1.49 to 2.88]). Women in the pregnancy period decreased the risk of relapses (RR, 0.56 [CI, 0.37 to 0.84]) compared with women before pregnancy. However, fewer studies, heterogeneity, and sample size were the limitations. CONCLUSION: It is reliable to adopt results about infection, pregnancy period, and postpartum period.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue
3.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. METHODS: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. RESULTS: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
4.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 695-705, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681870

RESUMO

Wound healing is affected by several factors. Preexisting diagnoses may significantly alter, delay, or inhibit normal wound healing. This is most commonly seen with chronic disorders, such as diabetes and renal failure, but also occurs secondary to aging and substance abuse. Less commonly, genetic or inflammatory disorders are the cause of delayed wound healing. In some cases, it is not the illness, but the treatment that can inhibit wound healing. This is seen in patients getting chemotherapy, radiation, steroids, methotrexate, and a host of other medications. Understanding these processes may help treat or avoid wound healing problems.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
7.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 38-44, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621598

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of odontogenic infection in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren and evaluate its association with the subjective variables of oral health-related quality of life and dental pain. In this cross-sectional study, 230 schoolchildren aged eight to ten years old underwent a clinical oral survey in which the DMFT/dmft and PUFA/pufa indexes were measured. Afterward, children responded individually to the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10) and self-reports of dental pain were collected. Data were statistically analyzed using MannWhitney or Kruskal-Wallis test with a post-test by Dunn's and Pearson correlation. Of the children evaluated, 42.6% had odontogenic infection and 80% reported experiencing dental pain. Children's age (p = 0.034) and past experience of dental pain (p < 0.002) were associated with odontogenic sepsis, in addition to impairment of their emotional well-being (p = 0.008), social welfare (p = 0.009) and overall impact on quality of life (p = 0.019). Toothache intensity (p < 0.001), frequency (p < 0.001) and duration (p < 0.001) were correlated to the overall impact on children's quality of life. The prevalence of odontogenic infection remains high among low-income Brazilian schoolchildren. Pediatric infection and its related pain induce not only various biological disorders but also impair children's self-perception of quality of life.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Infecções/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Odontalgia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Saúde Bucal , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia/psicologia
8.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(6): 686-690, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level and changing trend of microparticles (MPs) in super-elderly infected patients, and explore its early warning effect on infection. METHODS: The infected patients ≥ 85 years old admitted to the Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from December 2018 to March 2019 were selected as the observation group, and the healthy volunteers ≥ 85 years old in the same period were selected as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected at the 2nd hour, the 2nd day and the 7th day after fever, and the inflammatory markers such as white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NEUT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured. The levels of MPs were determined by flow cytometry. Annexin V labeled CD11b positive MPs (Annexin V+/CD11b+ MPs) represented leukocyte microparticles (LMPs), and Annexin V labeled CD66b positive MPs (Annexin V+/CD66b+ MPs) represented neutrophil microparticle (NMPs). The differences of each index at different time points between the two groups were compared, and the predictive value of each index to the infection of elderly patients was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: A total of 38 subjects were enrolled, including 28 cases in the observation group and 10 cases in the control group. The levels of LMPs and NMPs in the observation group increased to the peak at the 2nd hour after fever, and were significantly higher than those in the control group [LMPs (cells/µL): 55.0 (28.8, 197.2) vs. 19.0 (13.5, 28.3), NMPs (cells/µL): 226.5 (123.3, 516.5) vs. 26.5 (22.0, 48.8), both P < 0.01]. With the control of the disease, LMPs and NMPs decreased gradually. The NMPs on the 2nd day was significantly lower than that at the 2nd hour of fever [cells/µL: 106.0 (40.0, 309.0) vs. 226.5 (123.3, 516.5), P < 0.05], and the LMPs and NMPs on the 7th day were significantly lower than those on the 2nd day [LMPs (cells/µL): 17.0 (12.5, 43.8) vs. 42.0 (13.0, 117.0), NMPs (cells/µL): 30.0 (15.8, 62.0) vs. 106.0 (40.0, 309.0), both P < 0.05]. There was no significant difference in the levels of LMPs and NMPs between the two groups on the 7th day. Among the inflammatory markers, the NEUT in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group at the 2nd hour of fever (0.70±0.09 vs. 0.59±0.04, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in WBC, CRP and PCT between the two groups. On the 2nd day, the inflammatory markers in the observation group reached the peak and were significantly higher than those in the control group [WBC (×109/L): 9.33±2.44 vs. 6.37±1.28, NEUT: 0.78±0.08 vs. 0.57±0.04, CRP (mg/L): 5.67±2.99 vs. 0.33±0.18, PCT (µg/L): 0.80±0.67 vs. 0.07±0.03, all P < 0.01]. On the 7th day, the inflammatory markers in the observation group decreased significantly, and there was no significant difference between the observation group and the control group. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of LMPs and NMPs on the day of fever were higher than those of WBC, NEUT, CRP and PCT [0.888 (0.763-1.000), 0.973 (0.931-1.000) vs. 0.679 (0.346-0.811), 0.829 (0.700-0.958), 0.607 (0.404-0.811), 0.554 (0.358-0.749)]. CONCLUSIONS: LMPs and NMPs are significantly increased in the early stage of fever, which can predict the incidence of infection in the super-elderly patients.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa , Calcitonina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Humanos , Pró-Calcitonina , Prognóstico , Precursores de Proteínas , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(6): 716-720, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of polymyxin B-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe infections caused by extensive drug resistance Gram negative bacteria (XDR-GNB) in intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A retrospective study of adult patients with severe infection who received polymyxin B for more than 3 days in the department of critical care medicine of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School from April 1st 2018 to January 31st 2020 were performed. AKI was diagnosed by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The baseline data, indicators during treatment period and prognostic factors were compared between AKI group and non-AKI group. Factors with statistically significant difference in univariate analysis and important clinical factors were included in the Logistic regression model to analyze the risk factors of AKI. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were treated with polymyxin B for more than 3 days. Forty-nine patients were finally enrolled, with 32 patients developing polymyxin B-associated AKI, and the incidence was 44.4%. The baseline data was balanced in AKI group and non-AKI group, and there was no significant difference in the prognosis [death or discharge without medial order (cases): 14 vs. 6, discharged for improvement (cases): 18 vs. 11, χ2 = 0.329, P = 0.566]. Polymyxin B-associated AKI occurred from 1 day to 14 days after treatment, with an average of (6.8±3.8) days. Among the 32 AKI patients, 2 cases were lost to follow up after discharge, while renal function recovered in 18 cases and unrecovered in 12 cases. The prognosis of patients without recovery of renal function was significantly worse than that of patients with renal function recovery [death or discharge without medial order (cases): 12 vs. 2, discharged for improvement (cases): 0 vs. 16, P = 0.000]. Single factor analysis showed that daily dosage of polymyxin B in AKI group was higher than that in non-AKI group (mg: 151.6±23.7 vs. 132.4±30.3), numbers of patients with daily polymyxin B dose ≥ 150 mg, using vasoactive drugs, or severe hypoalbuminemia (albumin ≤ 25 g/L) were higher than those in non-AKI group (cases: 29 vs. 10, 18 vs. 4, 9 vs. 0), with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that daily dosage of polymyxin B ≥ 150 mg and use of vasoactive drugs were independent risk factors for polymyxin B-associated AKI [odds ratio (OR) = 37.466, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 2.676-524.586, P = 0.007; OR = 22.960, 95%CI was 1.710-308.235, P = 0.018]. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing with non-AKI patients, more patients with polymyxin B-associated AKI had severe hypoalbuminemia, and the probability of using vasoactive drugs and the daily dose of polymyxin B were higher than non-AKI patients. Daily dose of polymyxin B ≥ 150 mg and using vasoactive drugs were independent risk factors for polymyxin B-associated AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Infecções , Polimixina B/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4067-4074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of postoperative infectious complications on long-term outcomes after curative resection of gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer at Yokohama City University and Kanagawa Cancer Center from January 2000 to August 2015 were retrospectively selected from medical records. Clinicopathological factors between patients with and without infectious complications were compared. Prognostic factors of long-term survival were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: A total of 2,254 patients were eligible for inclusion in the present study. Fifty-eight patients had postoperative infectious complications (IC group); 2,196 had no postoperative infectious complications (NC group). In the IC group, the median age (p=0.031), body mass index (p=0.004), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (p=0.006) and percentage of male patients (p<0.001) were higher in comparison to the NC group. The operation time was longer (p<0.001) and the incidence of intestinal-type histology was higher (p=0.017) in the IC group. The 5-year overall survival rates of the IC and NC groups were 59.8% and 83.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that postoperative infectious complications were a significant risk factor for poorer overall survival (hazard ratio=2.38; 95% confidence interval=1.47-3.85, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Perioperative management is necessary to reduce the incidence of postoperative infectious complications and improve the survival of patients after curative resection of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Infecções/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Infecções/mortalidade , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(4): 372-376, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584271

RESUMO

AIM: The review is to highlight the use of antibiotics in periodontal infections and prevent indiscriminate use of antibiotics. BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the most common disease of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and its etiological factor can be related to the existence of virulent microorganisms in the dental plaque biofilm which harbors millions of microorganisms. In addition, the pathogenesis of this disease is greatly influenced by the host immune response that leads to the cyclic destruction and healing pattern. REVIEW RESULTS: Periodontitis is mostly treated through mechanical debridement using surgical and nonsurgical therapy. However, many times, this treatment does not render desired results due to poor patient compliance, altered immune response, or other host-related factors. This leads to the administration of antibiotics as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. Antibiotics are useful in eliminating periodontopathic microbes, but these agents should be cautiously used and prescribed only if indicated. CONCLUSION: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to unforeseen adverse effects as well as the development of resistant strains of microorganisms. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, it is crucial for the dentists to know the indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, correct choice, and dosage of the antimicrobial agent before prescribing it to their patients thereby ensuring the success of periodontal therapy. Thus, the clinician should keep in mind that the antibiotics are merely adjuncts to mechanical therapy and not its replacement.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções , Periodontite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Humanos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 382(23): 2207-2219, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab added to chemotherapy prolongs survival among adults with B-cell cancer. Data on its efficacy and safety in children with high-grade, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are limited. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, international, randomized, phase 3 trial involving patients younger than 18 years of age with high-risk, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage III with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level or stage IV) or acute leukemia to compare the addition of six doses of rituximab to standard lymphomes malins B (LMB) chemotherapy with standard LMB chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was event-free survival. Overall survival and toxic effects were also assessed. RESULTS: Analyses were based on 328 patients who underwent randomization (164 patients per group); 85.7% of the patients had Burkitt's lymphoma. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Events were observed in 10 patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and in 28 in the chemotherapy group. Event-free survival at 3 years was 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 96.7) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and 82.3% (95% CI, 75.7 to 87.5) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for primary refractory disease or first occurrence of progression, relapse after response, death from any cause, or second cancer, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66; one-sided P = 0.00096, which reached the significance level required for this analysis). Eight patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group died (4 deaths were disease-related, 3 were treatment-related, and 1 was from a second cancer), as did 20 in the chemotherapy group (17 deaths were disease-related, and 3 were treatment-related) (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.82). The incidence of acute adverse events of grade 4 or higher after prephase treatment was 33.3% in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and 24.2% in the chemotherapy group (P = 0.07); events were related mainly to febrile neutropenia and infection. Approximately twice as many patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group as in the chemotherapy group had a low IgG level 1 year after trial inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab added to standard LMB chemotherapy markedly prolonged event-free survival and overall survival among children and adolescents with high-grade, high-risk, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was associated with a higher incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia and, potentially, more episodes of infection. (Funded by the Clinical Research Hospital Program of the French Ministry of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01516580.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-06-18.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52304

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This disease is highly endemic in some regions of North America, Central America, and South America and is also reported in certain countries of Asia and Africa. It often affects people with impaired immunity, including people living with HIV, among whom the most frequent clinical presentation is disseminated histoplasmosis. The symptoms of disseminated histoplasmosis are non-specific and may be indistinguishable from those of other infectious diseases, especially disseminated tuberculosis (TB), thus complicating diagnosis and treatment. Histoplasmosis is one of the most frequent opportunistic infections caused by fungal pathogens among people living with HIV in the Americas and may be responsible for 5–15% of AIDS-related deaths every year in this Region. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disseminated histoplasmosis in persons living with HIV. Although the burden of disease is concentrated in the Americas, the recommendations presented within these guidelines are applicable globally. These guidelines were produced in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) handbook for guideline development. The Guideline Development Group elaborated the final recommendations based on a systematic review of scientific literature and critical evaluation of the evidence available using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. These guidelines are intended for health-care providers, HIV program managers, policy-makers, national treatment advisory boards, researchers, and other professionals involved in caring for people who either have or may be at risk of developing disseminated histoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções , HIV , Doenças Transmissíveis
18.
Pediatr Rev ; 41(6): 265-275, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482689

RESUMO

Pediatric rhabdomyolysis is a common diagnosis that pediatricians need to be able to recognize because prompt treatment can prevent potential complications, such as acute kidney injury. The triggers for rhabdomyolysis are extensive, with viruses being the most common cause in pediatric patients. The pathophysiology behind rhabdomyolysis is complex and still being researched, but having a firm understanding of the cascade that results when muscle injury occurs is essential for proper management. Guidelines for managing pediatric rhabdomyolysis currently do not exist, but this article aims to review the available literature and give clinicians a general approach to aid in history taking, physical examination, diagnosis, acute management, follow-up, and prevention.


Assuntos
Rabdomiólise , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Rabdomiólise/fisiopatologia , Rabdomiólise/terapia
20.
Water Res ; 181: 115900, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504909

RESUMO

Bacteriophages and engineered nano-material (AgNPS) interactions is a relatively unexplored area of research. To answer the fundamental question whether bacteriophage lytic growth cycle is affected by the presence of AgNPs, laboratory experiments were performed with phages of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Delftia tsuruhatensis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with coating materials. One-step growth curves of bacteriophages indicated that the presence of these nanoparticles, and the associated ions of silver, produced pronounced effects on the lytic infection of certain bacteriophages. Effects included 96% reductions in post-infection phage yield in terms of plaque forming units (PFUs) after phages were incubated with silver nanoparticles and 28%-43% reductions from the presence of Ag+ alone. However, when Klebsiella pneumonia phage KL and Salmonella typhimurium phage Det7 were exposed to silver nanoparticles coated with poly-N-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone (PVP), an increase in final phage yield by as much as 250% was observed compared with the same phage not incubated with nanoparticles. A proposed mechanism, observed by transmission electron microscopy and verified using synthetic biology by which the nanoparticle binding phenotype can be produced, is that the binding of metal nanomaterial to phage virions results in potentially inhibitory effects. This binding was found to be dependent on the presence of exposed positively charged C-terminal amino-acid residues on the phage capsid surface, implied at first by amino-acid sequence comparisons between capsid proteins of the different phages used in this study. This was then proven experimentally using targeted DNA editing methods to fuse positive charged amino-acid residues to the coat protein C-terminus of non-binding phage. This induced the AgNP binding phenotype, as observed by TEM, DLS size measurements, and growth curve data that show the mutant constructs to be functionally inhibited after exposure to AgNPs. This research sets up a first platform for further research in the unexplored area of phage and AgNP interactions and provides useful findings.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Prata
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