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1.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(7): 36, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009478

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The newer, higher-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS)-orals and monoclonals-have more profound immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties than the older, injectable therapies and require risk mitigation strategies to reduce the risk of serious infections. This review will provide a systematic framework for infectious risk mitigation strategies relevant to these therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: We classify risk mitigation strategies according to the following framework: (1) screening and patient selection, (2) vaccinations, (3) antibiotic prophylaxis, (4) laboratory and MRI monitoring, (5) adjusting dose and frequency of DMT, and (6) behavioral modifications to limit the risk of infection. We systematically apply this framework to the infections for which risk mitigations are available: hepatitis B, herpetic infections, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and tuberculosis. We also discuss up-to-date recommendations regarding COVID-19 vaccinations for patients on DMTs. We offer a practical, comprehensive, DMT-specific framework of derisking strategies designed to minimize the risk of infections associated with the newer MS therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1122): 20201204, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979202

RESUMO

Localizing the sites of infection in the body is possible in nuclear medicine using a variety of radiopharmaceuticals that target different components of the infective and inflammatory cascade. Gamma(γ)-emitting agents such as [67Ga]gallium citrate were among the first tracers used, followed by development of positron-emitting tracers like 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). Though these tracers are quite sensitive, they have limited specificity for infection due to their concentration in sites of non-infective inflammation. White blood cells (WBC) labelled with γ or positron emitters have higher accuracy for differentiating the infective processes from the non-infective conditions that may show positivity with tracers such as 18F-FDG. We present a pictorial review of potential clinical applications of PET/CT using 18F-FDG labelled WBC.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Leucócitos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 224, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a devastating pathogen of many Pinus species in China. The aim of this study was to understand the interactive molecular mechanism of PWN and its host by comparing differentially expressed genes and candidate effectors from three transcriptomes of B. xylophilus at different infection stages. RESULTS: In total, 62, 69 and 46 candidate effectors were identified in three transcriptomes (2.5 h postinfection, 6, 12 and 24 h postinoculation and 6 and 15 d postinfection, respectively). In addition to uncharacterized pioneers, other candidate effectors were involved in the degradation of host tissues, suppression of host defenses, targeting plant signaling pathways, feeding and detoxification, which helped B. xylophilus survive successfully in the host. Seven candidate effectors were identified in both our study and the B. xylophilus transcriptome at 2.5 h postinfection, and one candidate effector was identified in all three transcriptomes. These common candidate effectors were upregulated at infection stages, and one of them suppressed pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) PsXEG1-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that B. xylophilus secreted various candidate effectors, and some of them continued to function throughout all infection stages. These various candidate effectors were important to B. xylophilus infection and survival, and they functioned in different ways (such as breaking down host cell walls, suppressing host defenses, promoting feeding efficiency, promoting detoxification and playing virulence functions). The present results provide valuable resources for in-depth research on the pathogenesis of B. xylophilus from the perspective of effectors.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Infecções/genética , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/parasitologia , Parasitos/genética , Pinus/parasitologia , Virulência/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054828

RESUMO

IL-36 is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family, which is currently experiencing a renaissance due to the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response. The immunological role of IL-36 has revealed its profound and indispensable functional roles in psoriasis, as well as in several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer. More recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that IL-36 plays a crucial role in viral, bacterial and fungal infections. There is a growing interest as to whether IL-36 contributes to host protective immune responses against infection as well as the potential implications of IL-36 for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding cellular expression, regulatory mechanisms and biological roles of IL-36 in infectious diseases, which suggest more specific strategies to maneuver IL-36 as a diagnostic or therapeutic target, especially in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Infecções/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , /fisiologia , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 26, 2021. 11 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1179092

RESUMO

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 15/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS. Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda. Fiebre tifoidea


Summary of notification events up to SE 15/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease. Typhoid fever


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Notificação , Publicações Eletrônicas , Infecções
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924514

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the effects of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotic short and long chain inulin-type oligosaccharides on health outcomes, safety and tolerance, as well as on fecal microbiota composition during the first year of life. In a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, n = 160 healthy term infants under 4 months of age were randomized to receive either an infant formula enriched with 0.8 g/dL of Orafti®Synergy1 or an unsupplemented control formula until the age of 12 months. Growth, fever (>38 °C) and infections were regularly followed up by a pediatrician. Digestive symptoms, stool consistency as well as crying and sleeping patterns were recorded during one week each study month. Fecal microbiota and immunological biomarkers were determined from a subgroup of infants after 2, 6 and 12 months of life. The intention to treat (ITT) population consisted of n = 149 infants. Both formulae were well tolerated. Mean duration of infections was significantly lower in the prebiotic fed infants (p < 0.05). The prebiotic group showed higher Bifidobacterium counts at month 6 (p = 0.006), and higher proportions of Bifidobacterium in relation to total bacteria at month 2 and 6 (p = 0.042 and p = 0.013, respectively). Stools of infants receiving the prebiotic formula were softer (p < 0.05). Orafti®Synergy1 tended to beneficially impact total daily amount of crying (p = 0.0594). Supplementation with inulin-type prebiotic oligosaccharides during the first year of life beneficially modulates the infant gut microbiota towards higher Bifidobacterium levels at the first 6 months of life, and is associated with reduced duration of infections.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/efeitos adversos , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Inulina/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Alimentação Artificial/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Recém-Nascido , Infecções/imunologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Inulina/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915818

RESUMO

The regulation of infection and inflammation by a variety of host peptides may represent an evolutionary failsafe in terms of functional degeneracy and it emphasizes the significance of host defense in survival. Neuropeptides have been demonstrated to have similar antimicrobial activities to conventional antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum action against a variety of microorganisms. Neuropeptides display indirect anti-infective capacity via enhancement of the host's innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms. However, more recently concerns have been raised that some neuropeptides may have the potential to augment microbial virulence. In this review we discuss the dual role of neuropeptides, perceived as a double-edged sword, with antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa but also capable of enhancing virulence and pathogenicity. We review the different ways by which neuropeptides modulate crucial stages of microbial pathogenesis such as adhesion, biofilm formation, invasion, intracellular lifestyle, dissemination, etc., including their anti-infective properties but also detrimental effects. Finally, we provide an overview of the efficacy and therapeutic potential of neuropeptides in murine models of infectious diseases and outline the intrinsic host factors as well as factors related to pathogen adaptation that may influence efficacy.


Assuntos
Infecções/imunologia , Neuropeptídeos/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Infecções/microbiologia , Infecções/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Virulência
8.
Hematology ; 26(1): 328-339, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the data of HSCT patients who were admitted to our Hematology ICU due to infections or infectious complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HSCT patients who were admitted to our Hematology ICU between 01 January 2014 and 01 September 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: 62 HSCT patients were included in this study. The median age was 55.5 years and 58% of the patients were allogeneic HSCT patients. Major underlying hematologic disorders were multiple myeloma (29%) and lymphoma (27.4%). The most common reasons for ICU admission were sepsis/septic shock (61.3%) and acute respiratory failure (54.8%). Overall ICU mortality rate was 45.2%. However, a lot of factors were related with ICU mortality of HSCT patients in univariate analysis, only APACHE II score was found to be an independent risk factor for ICU mortality. While there was infection in 58 patients at ICU admission, new infections developed in 38 patients during ICU stay. The most common new infection was pneumonia/VAP, while the most frequently isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii. Length of ICU stay, sepsis/septic shock as a reason for ICU admission and the presence of urinary catheter at ICU admission were determined factors for ICU-acquired infections. There was no difference between autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients in terms of ICU morbidities and mortality. However, pneumonia/VAP developed in the ICU was higher in autologous HSCT patients, while bloodstream/catheter-related bloodstream infection was higher in allogeneic HSCT patients. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that early or late post-HSCT infections and related complications (sepsis, organ failure, etc.) constituted a major part of the reasons for ICU admission, ICU mortality and ICU morbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Micoses/etiologia , APACHE , Infecções por Acinetobacter/etiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808734

RESUMO

(1) Background: Sleep apnea may be a risk factor for deep neck infection (DNI). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep apnea on DNI. (2) Methods: In this first nationwide retrospective cohort study on the sleep apnea-DNI correlation, we obtained data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between 1997 and 2012 were identified, and patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio in age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. The primary outcome of this study was DNI occurrence. The treatment modalities for sleep apnea and the comorbidities that occurred during the study period were also analyzed. (3) Results: Our sleep apnea and comparison (non-sleep apnea) cohorts comprised 6114 and 24,456 patients, respectively. We compared the cumulative incidence of DNI between these cohorts and found a greater incidence of DNI in the sleep apnea cohort (p < 0.001). A strong sleep apnea-DNI association was found following analysis via the adjusted Cox proportional-hazards model (full model hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.28; p < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, sleep apnea increased DNI risk in men, in those aged < 50 years, and in those without diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, liver cirrhosis, autoimmune disease, obesity, tonsillectomy, or adenotonsillectomy. (4) Conclusions: Our results confirmed sleep apnea to be an independent risk factor for DNI. Physicians should be aware of the potential occurrence of DNI in patients with sleep apnea.


Assuntos
Infecções , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(2): 379-394, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863466

RESUMO

Infections in elderly patients can prove diagnostically challenging. Age-related factors affecting the immune system in older individuals contribute to nonspecific presentations. Other age-related factors and chronic conditions have symptoms that may or may not point to an infectious diagnosis. Delay in administration of antimicrobials can lead to poor outcomes; however, unnecessary administration of antimicrobials can lead to increased morbidity and contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. Careful clinical assessment and consideration of patient history and risk factors is crucial. When necessary, antimicrobials should be chosen that are appropriate for the diagnosis and deescalated as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Humanos , Imunossenescência , Incidência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 395, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe the spectrum of ICD-10 classified causes for hospitalisations occurring between 2011 and 2018 in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: This sub-study includes 798 PLHIV participating in the Antiretroviral, Sexual Transmission Risk and Attitudes (ASTRA) questionnaire study who were recruited from a large London centre. A medical record review identified the occurrence and causes of hospitalisation from the date of questionnaire completion (February-December 2011) until 1 June 2018. Up to five causes were classified by an HIV clinician using the ICD-10 system. RESULTS: There were 274 hospitalisations in 153 people (rate = 5.8/100 person-years; 95% CI: 5.1, 6.5). Causes were wide-ranging; the most common were circulatory (16.8%), digestive (13.1%), respiratory (11.7%), infectious diseases (11.0%), injury/poisoning (10.6%), genitourinary diseases (9.9%) and neoplasms (9.1%). A tenth (27/274) of hospitalisations were related to at least one AIDS-defining illness. Median duration of hospitalisation was 5 days (IQR 2-9). At the time of hospitalisation, median CD4 count was high (510 cells/µl; IQR: 315-739), while median CD4 nadir was relatively low (113 cells/µl; IQR: 40-239). At admission, half of individuals (51%) had a previous AIDS-defining illness and 21% had viral load > 50 copies/ml. Individuals admitted for infectious diseases were particularly likely to have unfavourable HIV-related clinical characteristics (low CD4, viral non-suppression, not on antiretroviral therapy (ART), previous AIDS). CONCLUSIONS: In the modern combination antiretroviral therapy era, the spectrum of causes of hospitalisation in PLHIV in the UK is wide-ranging, highlighting the importance of holistic care for PLHIV, including prevention, early detection and treatment of comorbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914803

RESUMO

The aim was to analyze the characteristics and predictors of unfavorable outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) with COVID-19. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 210 consecutive SOTRs hospitalized with COVID-19 in 12 Spanish centers from 21 February to 6 May 2020. Data pertaining to demographics, chronic underlying diseases, transplantation features, clinical, therapeutics, and complications were collected. The primary endpoint was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or death. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with these unfavorable outcomes. Males accounted for 148 (70.5%) patients, the median age was 63 years, and 189 (90.0%) patients had pneumonia. Common symptoms were fever, cough, gastrointestinal disturbances, and dyspnea. The most used antiviral or host-targeted therapies included hydroxychloroquine 193/200 (96.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir 91/200 (45.5%), and tocilizumab 49/200 (24.5%). Thirty-seven (17.6%) patients required ICU admission, 12 (5.7%) suffered graft dysfunction, and 45 (21.4%) died. A shorter interval between transplantation and COVID-19 diagnosis had a negative impact on clinical prognosis. Four baseline features were identified as independent predictors of intensive care need or death: advanced age, high respiratory rate, lymphopenia, and elevated level of lactate dehydrogenase. In summary, this study presents comprehensive information on characteristics and complications of COVID-19 in hospitalized SOTRs and provides indicators available upon hospital admission for the identification of SOTRs at risk of critical disease or death, underlining the need for stringent preventative measures in the early post-transplant period.


Assuntos
/complicações , Infecções/etiologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801524

RESUMO

Tight junctions play a major role in maintaining the integrity and impermeability of the intestinal barrier. As such, they act as an ideal target for pathogens to promote their translocation through the intestinal mucosa and invade their host. Different strategies are used by pathogens, aimed at directly destabilizing the junctional network or modulating the different signaling pathways involved in the modulation of these junctions. After a brief presentation of the organization and modulation of tight junctions, we provide the state of the art of the molecular mechanisms leading to permeability breakdown of the gut barrier as a consequence of tight junctions' attack by pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Enteropatias/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Humanos , Infecções/microbiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920819

RESUMO

CD5L, a protein expressed and secreted mainly by macrophages, is emerging as a critical immune effector. In addition to its well-defined function as an anti-apoptotic protein, research over the last decade has uncovered additional roles that range from pattern recognition to autophagy, cell polarization, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. By modulating all these processes, CD5L plays a key role in highly prevalent diseases that develop by either acute or chronic inflammation, including several infectious, metabolic, and autoimmune conditions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of CD5L and focus on the relevance of this protein during infection- and sterile-driven inflammatory pathogenesis, highlighting its divergent roles in the modulation of inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/metabolismo , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Humanos , Infecções/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fagocitose
15.
Vet J ; 271: 105655, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840482

RESUMO

Porcine ear necrosis (PEN) is a condition that mainly occurs in intensive pig production systems and mostly affects piglets after weaning. The syndrome manifests itself with lesions on the pinna, which can heal or become more severe resulting in partial loss of the ear. The pathogenesis of the condition is not fully known. Three different hypotheses for the development of PEN are described in this review: (1) damage of the epidermis due to Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins; (2) occlusion of small blood vessels; and (3) ear biting with subsequent ß-hemolytic streptococcal infection. Risk factors have not been completely elucidated, but viral and bacterial infections, and husbandry factors such as environment, housing conditions and management, have been suggested. It is also possible that some cases are due to a combination of these factors. The role of parasitic infestations has been not investigated. Due to bacterial involvement, severely affected pigs can be treated with antimicrobials. Control and preventive measures should focus on reducing potential risk factors by implementing herd immunization, as well as improvement of sanitary conditions, feed quality (with respect to mycotoxin contamination), management (appropriate stocking density), and environmental conditions (e.g. number of drinkers and feeders and/or optimal ventilation). Further research is needed to better understand the precise etiology and pathogenesis of PEN, so that risk factors can be identified and more targeted control measures can be implemented.


Assuntos
Orelha/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abrigo para Animais , Infecções/veterinária , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia , Desmame
16.
Vet J ; 271: 105648, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840487

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play an important role in the immune response of animals and humans. A number of studies reviewed here have evaluated the use of human, canine and feline IFNs as treatments for infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disease in dogs and cats. Recombinant canine IFN-γ is deemed an efficacious therapy for canine atopic dermatitis. Recombinant feline IFN-ω is effective against canine parvoviral enteritis and has also been recommended for canine atopic dermatitis. Based on limited evidence, recombinant canine IFN-α could be a topical treatment option for dogs with gingivitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusive evidence is lacking for other diseases and large randomised controlled trials are needed before IFNs can be recommended for other indications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/veterinária , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/veterinária , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/veterinária
17.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 20, 2021. 11 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1178325

RESUMO

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 14/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS. Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda. Fiebre tifoidea


Summary of notification events up to SE 14/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease. Typhoid fever


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Publicações Eletrônicas , Vigilância , Infecções
18.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 137-142, 20210000.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178959

RESUMO

El desbridamiento temprano seguido de cobertura con piel autóloga ha demostrado reducir la mortalidad en los pacientes quemados. En pacientes con quemaduras extensas, la carencia de zonas de piel donante es un factor limitante a la hora del tratamiento. El hecho de que no se pueda lograr un desbridamiento y cobertura completos en un primer tiempo favorece la infección de la quemadura y la septicemia, pudiendo tener consecuencias nefastas. Por tanto, es necesario disponer de otras opciones distintas a los injertos mallados de piel parcial, el tratamiento estándar hoy día. Presentamos el caso clínico de un niño con quemaduras severas y describimos los resultados obtenidos con el uso de la membrana amniótica como cobertura temporal y al injerto mallado tipo MEEK.


Early debridement followed by coverage with autologous skin has been shown to reduce mortality in burn patients. In patients with extensive burns, the lack of areas of donor skin is a limiting factor at the time of treatment. The fact that a complete debridement and coverage cannot be achieved in the first stage favors the infection of the burn and septicemia, which can have dire consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to have other options than partial skin mesh grafts, the standard treatment today. We present the clinical case of a child with severe burns and describe the results obtained with the use of the amniotic membrane as temporary covering and the MEEK-type mesh graft.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Sepse , Transplantes , Âmnio , Infecções
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930760, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Patients with hip joint infections in childhood often have many aftereffects of different degrees, regardless of the kind of treatment or natural course. Total hip arthroplasty is currently the most effective treatment for sequelae of childhood hip septic or tuberculous infection. This is a mid-term follow-up study of treatment results of patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) with cementless prostheses. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed and followed 45 patients (45 hips) who underwent THA with cementless prostheses between 2010 and 2017. There were 45 patients, including 17 men and 28 women. The average age of the patients was 46 years (range, 18-67 years). All hip infections occurred in early childhood or adolescence, and the mean interval between initial infection and THA was 38.2 years (range, 15-60 years). The mean follow-up was 6.1 years (range, 2.7-9.5 years). RESULTS Two patients underwent revision surgery because of loosening of the prosthesis, and 1 patient underwent revision surgery because of a new infection with no relationship with childhood infection during the follow-up. The average Harris hip scores significantly increased from 43.1 to 86.4 (P<0.01), and the average visual analog scale significantly increased from 4.6 to 1.7 (P<0.01). The hip dysfunction and osteoarthritis outcome scores were also significantly changed (P<0.01) at the final follow-up. There were 2 cases of transient sciatic nerve palsy and intraoperative periprosthetic fractures in 3 cases. During follow-up, single revision was performed after 6 years of primary arthroplasty because of aseptic loosening in 2 cases and prosthesis infection in 1 case, which was not related to childhood pathogens. CONCLUSIONS THA for patients with sequelae of hip joint infection has a satisfactory effect that can effectively relieve joint pain and improve hip function. The recurrence rate of infection after either pyogenic infection or tuberculous is very low. The mid-term outcomes of THA in this setting were satisfactory, with high prosthesis survivorship and hip function scores.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Idoso , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Quadril/cirurgia , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Reoperação/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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