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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-9, mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151628

RESUMO

La terapia con fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa ha sido beneficiosa en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades como las del tejido conectivo e inflamatorias del intestino, pero no está exenta de riesgos. Las principales complicaciones de estas drogas inmunosupresoras son las infecciones, y la tuberculosis pulmonar es una de las principales afecciones, que se pueden observar en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamiento.Se presentó una mujer de 31 años, atendida en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana, Cuba, con antecedentes de colitis ulcerativa, que hace 3 meses recibe terapia con Infliximab. Acude al hospital por referir 4 días previos al ingreso, fiebre de 390 C dos veces al día, acompañándose de cefalea, pérdida del apetito y dolor en la región perineal. Se le realizó radiografía de tórax, donde se describe radiopacidad heterogénea que va desde el cuerno superior del hilio derecho hasta planos axilares, en la tomografía axial de tórax reportan consolidación en segmento anterior del lóbulo superior derecho con presencia de broncograma aéreo y en el lavado bronquial microbiológico para bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes se informó codificación 8, positivo a Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El diagnóstico preciso de tuberculosis relacionada con el uso de fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa requiere un alto índice de sospecha y una investigación detallada. Existe un alto grado de complejidad diagnóstica, por la existencia de un amplio espectro clínico y la necesidad de excluir otras enfermedades.


Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drug therapy has been beneficial in the treatment of several diseases such as connective tissue and inflammatory bowel diseases, but it is not without risks. The main complications of these immunosuppressive drugs are infections, and pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the main conditions, which can be observed in patients with this type of treatment. A 31-year-old woman, treated at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, Havana, Cuba, with a history of ulcerative colitis, who has been receiving Infliximab therapy for 3 months, presented. He went to the hospital for referring 4 days prior to admission, a fever of 390 C twice a day, accompanied by headache, loss of appetite and pain in the perineal region. A chest X-ray was performed, which described heterogeneous radiopacity that goes from the upper horn of the right hilum to axillary planes, in the chest axial tomography they report consolidation in the anterior segment of the right upper lobe with the presence of air bronchogram and in the bronchial lavage microbiological for acid-fast bacilli coding 8, positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis was reported. Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis related to the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drugs requires a high index of suspicion and detailed investigation. There is a high degree of diagnostic complexity, due to the existence of a wide clinical spectrum and the need to exclude other diseases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Infecções/etiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24762, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725942

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chemokines are majorly involved in inflammatory and immune responses. The interferon-γ-inducible chemokines C-X-C motif chemokines 9 and 10 (CXCL9 and CXCL10) are considerably associated with Th1 cells and monocytes, and their expression levels rapidly increase during the early episodes of renal allograft rejection and various infectious diseases. CXCL13 is one of the most potent B-cell and T follicular helper-cell chemoattractants. The expression of CXCL13 in the presence of infection indicates an important chemotactic activity in multiple infectious diseases. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) can attract monocytes and macrophages during inflammatory responses. However, there are no studies on the role of these chemokines in posttransplant infection in kidney transplant recipients.In this study, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL13, and CCL2 were analyzed using the Bio-Plex suspension array system before transplant and 30 days after transplant.The serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL13 30 days after kidney transplant were associated with infection within 1 year after transplant (P = .021 and P = .002, respectively). The serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL13 before surgery and those of CCL2 and CXCL10 before and after surgery were not associated with infection within 1 year after transplant (P > .05). The combination of postoperative day (POD) 30 CXCL9 and postoperative day 30 CXCL13 provided the best results with an area under the curve of 0.721 (95% confidence interval, 0.591-0.852), with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 68.5% at the optimal cutoff value of 52.72 pg/mL.As important chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL13 could be used to predict the occurrence of infection after kidney transplant.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL13/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL9/sangue , Infecções/etiologia , Nefropatias/sangue , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24430, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS: Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(4): 277-289, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514942

RESUMO

Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema, which manifest in utero or during the first 3 months of life. The main cause of CNS is genetic defects in podocytes; however, it can also be caused, in rare cases, by congenital infections or maternal allo-immune disease. Management of CNS is very challenging because patients are prone to severe complications, such as haemodynamic compromise, infections, thromboses, impaired growth and kidney failure. In this consensus statement, experts from the European Reference Network for Kidney Diseases (ERKNet) and the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) summarize the current evidence and present recommendations for the management of CNS, including the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, diuretics, anticoagulation and infection prophylaxis. Therapeutic management should be adapted to the clinical severity of the condition with the aim of maintaining intravascular euvolaemia and adequate nutrition, while preventing complications and preserving central and peripheral vessels. We do not recommend performing routine early nephrectomies but suggest that they are considered in patients with severe complications despite optimal conservative treatment, and before transplantation in patients with persisting nephrotic syndrome and/or a WT1-dominant pathogenic variant.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/terapia , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Hidratação , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/terapia , Nefrectomia , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
5.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1574-e1584, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess safety outcomes for the induction therapies alemtuzumab and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) compared to noninduction disease-modifying therapies. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study linking the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register to national health care registers. Alemtuzumab, AHSCT, and a matched reference group of noninduction therapies (natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, rituximab, fingolimod) were included if started between 2008 and 2017. Main outcomes were death, thyroid disease, nonthyroid autoimmune disease, and infection. RESULTS: We identified 132 alemtuzumab-treated and 139 AHSCT-treated (68% high-dose cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin [ATG], 32% BCNU, etoposide, cytosine-arabinoside, and melphalan/ATG) patients, together with 2,486 matched patients treated with noninduction therapies. Four patients in the alemtuzumab group died (incidence rate [IR] per 1,000 person-years 8.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-22.0) compared to 1 patient in the AHSCT group (IR 1.7, 95% CI 0.0-9.6), and the mortality rate in the reference group was 0.7 (95% CI 0.3-1.3). Thyroid disease was most frequent in the alemtuzumab group (IR 109, 95% CI 75-154) but also occurred more often for AHSCT (IR 34, 95% CI 18-56) compared to the reference (IR 5.3 95% CI 3.9-7.1). The incidence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease was similar in all groups. IR for infection diagnosed ≥6 months from therapy initiation was 53 (95% CI 30-87) for alemtuzumab, 108 (95% CI 75-150) for AHSCT, and 51 (95% CI 46-57) for the reference. CONCLUSION: We confirmed a high incidence of thyroid disease in alemtuzumab- and, to a smaller extent, AHSCT-treated patients and found a higher incidence of infection for AHSCT compared to both alemtuzumab and noninduction therapies. The incidence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease was low for both therapies. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence of an increased risk of thyroid disease with alemtuzumab and an increased risk of infection with AHSCT treatment.


Assuntos
Alemtuzumab/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Transplante Autólogo/efeitos adversos
6.
Ann Hematol ; 100(3): 645-651, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515047

RESUMO

Management of adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is often unsatisfactory, due to variable efficacy of treatment, risk of life-threatening bleeding if disease control is poor, and side effects associated with treatment. Lack of data on the platelet count threshold associated with bleeding and infection risk associated with ITP treatment limits risk/benefit clinical decision making. We reviewed medical records of all ITP patients who were admitted to our hospital between 2012 and 2017 to evaluate the platelet count threshold for bleeding, infection burden associated with treatment, and real-world efficacy of second-line treatment. We demonstrated fair discrimination between platelet count and occurrence of bleeding, with 15 × 109/L being the optimal cut-off for predicting any bleeding while 20 × 109/L had the highest negative predictive value for severe bleeding. In multivariable analyses, patients who were treated with corticosteroids for at least 2 months were 5.3 times as likely to have an infection. In addition, rituximab response was strongly associated with response to frontline corticosteroids and infection was associated with older age ≥ 65 years and corticosteroid dependence. If corticosteroids are initiated, physicians should aim for the shortest duration of treatment before switching to effective second-line agents for hemostatic platelet counts.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Plaquetas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Singapura/epidemiologia , Esplenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ann Hematol ; 100(4): 987-993, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495922

RESUMO

The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax is transforming the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), given its high efficacy in relapsed/refractory CLL as observed in both early-phase and randomized clinical trials. The present study aimed to determine whether venetoclax is effective and well tolerated in patients with CLL or Richter's syndrome (RS) in a real-world setting and to highlight factors impacting survival. Data from a venetoclax French compassionate use program were collected for 67 patients (60 with CLL and 7 with RS). Most patients presented adverse genetic features, such as TP53 disruption (74%) or complex karyotype (58%). Tumor lysis syndrome was observed in 14 (22%) patients, and 16 (24%) patients were hospitalized for grade III/IV infection. In the CLL cohort, ORR was 75 %, 1-year PFS was 61% (95% CI = 47-72%) and 1-year OS 70% (95% CI = 56-80%). No impact of TP53 disruption was noted while complex karyotype was identified as a predictor of both inferior PFS (HR = 3.46; 95% CI = 1-12; log-rank p = 0.03) and OS (HR = 3.2; 95% CI = 0.9-11.4, log-rank p = 0.047). Among the seven patients with RS, two achieved an objective response to venetoclax; however, the median OS was only 1.1 month. The well-balanced safety/efficacy profile of venetoclax is confirmed in this real-world setting. Complex karyotype should be evaluated as a predictive factor of survival for patients treated by venetoclax.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Cariótipo Anormal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Feminino , França , Genes p53 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/etiologia
8.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 40-45, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412632

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics, the potential relative factors for postoperative abdominal septic complications, and prognosis factors of surgical recurrence of Crohn disease (CD) patients after the first surgery. Methods: All the CD patients from Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University who had undergone at least one abdominal surgery from January 2007 to December 2017 were included for retrospective analysis. Hospital records were reviewed for information on clinical characteristics. Relative factors of postoperative abdominal septic complications were accessed by Logistic regression models, and prognosis factors of surgical recurrence were accessed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: There were 1 048 patients included (733 males and 315 females), accounting for 1 513 operations. The age was 31(17) years and the length of resected small bowel was 30.0(40.0) cm at the first resection, 20.0(35.0) cm at the second resection, and 20.0(23.5) cm at the third resection. The length of resected small bowel was 25.0(40.0) cm at any resection. At the first abdominal surgery, 70.99%(744/1 048) patients were aged between 17 and 40 years, 66.98%(702/1 048) patients had ileocolonic disease, and 60.40%(633/1 048) patients had penetrating behavior. Penetrating behavior (OR=8.594, 95%CI: 3.397 to 21.740, P<0.01) and current smoking status (OR=2.671, 95%CI: 1.044 to 6.832, P=0.040) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative septic complications, whereas staged operation (OR=0.360, 95%CI: 0.184 to 0.707, P=0.003) was associated with a decreased risk. Male gender (HR=1.500, 95%CI: 1.128 to 1.995, P=0.005), upper gastrointestinal disease (HR=1.526, 95%CI: 1.033 to 2.255, P=0.034), penetrating behavior (HR=1.506, 95%CI: 1.132 to 2.003, P=0.005) and emergency surgery (HR=1.812, 95%CI: 1.375 to 2.387, P<0.01) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical recurrence, whereas staged operation (HR=0.361, 95%CI: 0.227 to 0.574, P<0.01) was significantly associated with a decreased risk. Conclusions: In this cohort of CD patients receiving abdominal surgery from an inflammatory bowel disease center, the median age was 31 years and the median length of resected small bowel was 30 cm, at first resection. Patients who have risk factors of adverse postoperative outcome may be benefited from staged surgical approach.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(1): 3-12, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is complicated by an increased risk for skin and systemic infections. Preventive therapy for AD is based on skin barrier improvement and anti-inflammatory treatments, whereas overt skin and systemic infections require antibiotics or antiviral treatments. This review updates the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, controversy of antibiotic use, and potential treatments of infectious complications of AD. DATA SOURCES: Published literature obtained through PubMed database searches and clinical pictures. STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies relevant to the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and potential therapy of infectious complications of AD. RESULTS: Skin barrier defects, type 2 inflammation, Staphylococcusaureus colonization, and cutaneous dysbiosis are the major predisposing factors for the increased infections in AD. Although overt infections require antibiotics, the use of antibiotics in AD exacerbation remains controversial. CONCLUSION: Infectious complications are a comorbidity of AD. Although not common, systemic bacterial infections and eczema herpeticum can be life-threatening. Preventive therapy of infections in AD emphasizes skin barrier improvement and anti-inflammatory therapy. The use of antibiotics in AD exacerbation requires further studies.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Infecções/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Disbiose , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(3): 1032-1046, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380171

RESUMO

Innate immune cells can develop exacerbated immunologic response and long-term inflammatory phenotype following brief exposure to endogenous or exogenous insults, which leads to an altered response towards a second challenge after the return to a nonactivated state. This phenomenon is known as trained immunity (TI). TI is not only important for host defense and vaccine response but also for chronic inflammations such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis. TI can occur in innate immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages, natural killer cells, endothelial cells (ECs), and nonimmune cells, such as fibroblast. In this brief review, we analyze the significance of TI in ECs, which are also considered as innate immune cells in addition to macrophages. TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, including lipopolysaccharides, BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guerin), and oxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein), which are defined as risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, TI in ECs is functional for inflammation effectiveness and transition to chronic inflammation. Rewiring of cellular metabolism of the trained cells takes place during induction of TI, including increased glycolysis, glutaminolysis, increased accumulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and acetyl-coenzyme A production, as well as increased mevalonate synthesis. Subsequently, this leads to epigenetic remodeling, resulting in important changes in chromatin architecture that enables increased gene transcription and enhanced proinflammatory immune response. However, TI pathways and inflammatory pathways are separated to ensure memory stays when inflammation undergoes resolution. Additionally, reactive oxygen species play context-dependent roles in TI. Therefore, TI plays significant roles in EC and macrophage pathology and chronic inflammation. However, further characterization of TI in ECs and macrophages would provide novel insights into cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Metabolismo Energético , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Memória Imunológica , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/imunologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Pediatr Rev ; 41(10): 501-510, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004662

RESUMO

Natural disasters, particularly flooding, are associated with many environmental changes, and the chances of infections after a disaster increase. Dead bodies are not associated with increased infections, but many other factors contribute to the increase in infections and possible outbreaks. This article discusses the factors associated with increased risk of infections and the types of infections that may occur after a natural disaster. This article also presents a brief discussion of infection prevention and mitigation after a natural disaster.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Controle de Infecções , Infecções , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Infecções/classificação , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/transmissão , Pediatria/educação , Socorro em Desastres , Fatores de Risco
12.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (10): 29-35, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine diagnostic value of neutrophil CD64 index (iCD64n) in the diagnosis of postoperative infectious complications after colorectal resections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent colorectal surgery for the period from January to December 2018. These patients were included into a single-center study. Peripheral blood samples were taken on 3 and 6 postoperative days (POD) to check iCD64n level. We analyzed incidence of postoperative infectious complications, sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of postoperative iCD64n level on the 3rd and 6th POD. RESULTS: Postoperative infectious complications developed in 10 (13.7%) patients. Median iCD64n was significantly higher (p=0.0017 for POD 3; p=0.018 for POD 6) in patients with infectious complications (1.6 on POD 3; 1.3 on POD 6) compared to those without complications (1.1 on POD 3; 0.9 on POD 6). Area under curve (AUC) on the 3rd POD was 0.8 with the cut-off value of 1.4, Se - 70%, Sp - 93.7% (p=0.002). On the 6th POD, AUC was 0.91 with cut-off value of 1.23, Se - 80%, Sp - 93.7% (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Neutrophil CD64 index is a valuable predictor for the diagnosis of postoperative infectious complications after colorectal resections. It is a useful tool to ensure a safe early discharge.The study is registered on the website «clinictrials.gov¼ (registration number NCT03559335).


Assuntos
Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Infecções/sangue , Infecções/diagnóstico , Receptores de IgG/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 699, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and death in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The increased susceptibility to infection is complicated and multifactorial. However, no studies have explored the spectrum and risk factors of infections in newly diagnosed MM patients at the first admission. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide ideas for the assessment, prevention and treatment of infection in newly diagnosed MM patients when admitted for the first time. METHODS: Retrospectively, the data from electronic medical records for 161 patients newly diagnosed with MM from May 2013 to December 2018 were analysed. All the information was collected at the time of admission, and the patients had received no antineoplastic therapy previously. Independent risk factors of infection in multiple myeloma were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Newly diagnosed patients with MM were highly susceptible to viruses (43.9%), especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (24.4%) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) (17.1%). Advanced stage (ISS stage III, P = 0.040), more severe anaemia (Hb < 90 g/L, P = 0.044) and elevated CRP (> 10 mg/L, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors for infection. Moreover, infections represented a major survival threat to patients with newly diagnosed MM (P = 0.033), and the existence of risk factors for infection was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P = 0.011), especially ISS stage III (P = 0.008) and lower haemoglobin level (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Newly diagnosed MM patients are highly susceptible to viruses. Advanced ISS stage, more severe anaemia and the elevation of CRP are independent risk factors of infection, which also have a strong impact on prognosis. Our results suggest that viral infection should be taken into account if antibacterial drugs are not effective, and the prevention of infection and improvement of prognosis should be paid more attention in newly diagnosed patents with advanced stage and more severe anaemia.


Assuntos
Infecções/etiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/etiologia , Humanos , Infecções/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202524, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify predictive factors for lethality and complications of deep fascial space infections of the neck (DFSIN), establishing an early and aggressive treatment in the neck before the progression to descending mediastinitis. METHODS: we retrospectively analyzed 133 cases of DFSIN treated at Discipline of Head and Neck Surgery of the Medicine School of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. We accessed demographic characteristics, associated diseases, clinical presentation, laboratorial tests, length of hospital stay, number of involved anatomic neck spaces, intra-operative and microbiology findings. We analyzed these data using logistic regression to predict DFSIN lethality and life threatening complications (mediastinitis, septic shock, pneumonia, pleural empyema, skin necrosis). RESULTS: lethality and complication ratios were 9% and 50.3%, respectively. The logistic regression model showed that patients with septic shock were more likely to have progression to death (p < 0.001) and, the presence of more than two involved neck spaces (p < 0.001) and older individuals (p = 0.017) were more likely to have complicated deep neck infections. Descending necrotizing mediatinitis increased the lethality ratio by 50%, and was associated to necrotizing fasciitis (p=0.012) and pleural empyema (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: septic shock is a lethal predictive factor and age as well as more than two involved neck spaces are the predictive factors for complications. Necrotizing fasciitis is an important factor for complications and death. Therefore, its surgical treatment must be more aggressive. Descending mediastinitis has a high lethal rate and the successful treatment is based on early diagnosis and aggressive surgical approach.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante/mortalidade , Infecções , Pescoço , Adulto , Empiema Pleural , Fáscia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(7): 797-802, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical feature of adult patients with infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS), and to improve the ability of clinicians to diagnose and treat IAHS. METHODS: A retrospectively study was performed. The clinical data of 32 adult patients with IAHS admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from July 2014 to November 2019 were analyzed. The general data, clinical manifestations, laboratory results, imaging findings, pathogen and clinical outcomes were collected, and the patients were divided into survival group and death group according to the 28-day prognosis. The clinical data between the two groups were compared, and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the variables with statistical significance in univariate analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to analyze the predictive value of variables with statistical significance in univariate analysis for 28-day prognosis of adult patients with IAHS. RESULTS: Among 32 adult patients with IAHS, there were 17 males (53.1%) and 15 females (46.9%). Eighteen patients were bacterial infection, most of which were Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli; 14 patients were viral infection, mainly EB virus; and the overall 28-day mortality was 62.5% (20/32). (1) Compared with the survival group (n = 12), the levels of white blood cell (WBC), neutrocyte (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM), platelet (PLT) and oxygenation index (OI) in the death group (n = 20) were lower, while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), K+, serum ferritin (SF) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were higher [WBC (×109/L): 3.90±3.36 vs. 9.57±6.48, NEU (×109/L): 2.69±2.09 vs. 7.01±6.34, LYM (×109/L): 0.36 (0.23, 0.84) vs. 1.24 (0.61, 2.36), PLT (×109/L): 51.15±27.60 vs. 108.42±80.26, OI (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 134.0 (77.5, 192.0) vs. 292.0 (187.0, 329.0), AST (U/L): 254.00 (67.80, 452.50) vs. 85.50 (38.38, 111.25), K+ (mmol/L): 4.06 (3.65, 4.51) vs. 3.52 (3.26, 3.76), SF (µg/L): 6 290.0 (1 851.0, 13 904.8) vs. 1 777.1 (1 228.5, 3 486.3), LDH (µmol×s-1×L-1): 19.3 (11.9, 27.0) vs. 9.8 (6.9, 11.1), all P < 0.05]. In death group, duration of having a fever after admission was prolonged [days: 13.5 (9.0, 17.2) vs. 6.0 (2.5, 8.0), P < 0.05] and the incidence of cyanosis was higher (40.0% vs. 0%, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other indicators between the two groups. (2) Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that low OI combined with high LDH were risk factors for 28-day mortality of adult patients with IAHS [odds ratio (OR) was 0.967 and 1.007, respectively, both P < 0.05]. (3) It was shown by ROC curve analysis that WBC, NEU, AST, SF, LDH and OI had predictive value for 28-day prognosis of adult patients with IAHS (both P < 0.05), and the area under ROC curve (AUC) of OI and LDH was higher, that was both 0.847. When the best cut-off of OI was 145.5 mmHg, the sensitivity was 63.2%, and the specificity was 100%. When the best cut-off of LDH was 13.4 µmol×s-1×L-1, the sensitivity was 72.2%, and the specificity was 91.7%. CONCLUSIONS: OI < 145.5 mmHg, and LDH > 13.4 µmol×s-1×L-1 were significant predictors for poor 28-day prognosis of adult patients with IAHS.


Assuntos
Infecções/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 58(8): 1029-1033, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811723

RESUMO

Cervicofacial infections of dental aetiology can be life-threatening and with the closure of dental practices following the onset of the COVID-19, it would be anticipated that their prevalence presenting to maxillofacial surgery would increase and services may be overwhelmed, with patients presenting later with a potential subsequent increase in morbidity. A retrospective analysis of patients with cervicofacial infection of dental aetiology referred to maxillofacial surgery during the initial six weeks of COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 was carried out and compared with the equivalent period in the two preceding years. Unexpectedly, during COVID-19 lockdown, there was a reduction in patients seen with cervicofacial infection of dental aetiology. This may have resulted from patient adherence to government guidelines "Stay at home", successful triaging of patients in primary care and emergency treatment provided by urgent dental care centres. Proportionally more patients who presented to hospital had received prior antibiotic therapy and required in-patient admission. All patients admitted received incision and drainage, with an increase extraoral drainage and an associated reduction in length of stay. During COVID-19 lockdown, maxillofacial managed a reduced number of patients with cervicofacial infection, likely resulting from primary and secondary dental care working together. The rate of incision and drainage of patients not admitted increased under local anaesthesia with increase of extraoral drainage and reduced length of stay for those admitted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Doenças da Boca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2405-2416, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813071

RESUMO

Predictive factors of response to hypomethylating agents (HMA) in elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients remain unclear in the real-life setting and no direct comparison between azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DEC) has been carried out. We retrospectively evaluated 110 AML patients treated with HMA (78 AZA, 32 DEC) as first-line therapy outside of clinical trials. Median age was 75 years (range 58-87). The median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 8.0 months (95% CI 6.1-10), without significant differences among the subgroups: AZA 8.8 months vs DEC 6.3 months (p = 0.291). HMA treatment yielded an overall response rate (ORR) of 40% (AZA 37% vs DEC 47%, p = 0.237). A stable disease (SD) after 4 HMA cycles was not associated with a worse survival outcome compared with an early optimal response. Factors independently associated with a better OS were transfusion independence during treatment (p = 0.049), achievement of an optimal response to treatment (p < 0.001), and a baseline hemoglobin level ≥ 9.25 (p = 0.018). A bone marrow (BM) blast count ≥ 30% (p < 0.001) and a therapy-related AML (p = 0.008) remain poor survival predictors. Of the available biologic features, an adverse risk category according to the ELN classification was significantly associated with a shorter survival over the intermediate risk category (p = 0.034). Disease progression remains the primary cause of death. Infectious complications were more severe (p = 0.036) and occurred earlier (p = 0.006) in the DEC group compared with that of the AZA group. In conclusion, clinical prognostic factors associated to response and survival have been identified without significant associations concerning overall outcomes between the two HMAs.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Causas de Morte , Contagem de Células , DNA de Neoplasias/química , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(16): 684-691, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers with associated infection and osteomyelitis often lead to partial or complete limb loss. Determination of the appropriate level for amputation based on the patient's baseline physical function, extent of infection, vascular patency, and comorbidities can be challenging. Although Chopart amputation preserves greater limb length than more proximal alternatives such as Syme or below-the-knee amputations (BKA), challenges with wound healing and prosthesis fitting have been reported. We aimed to investigate the functional and clinical outcomes of Chopart amputation combined with tendon transfers. METHODS: We identified patients who underwent Chopart amputations for diabetic foot infections by an academic orthopaedic group between August 2013 and September 2018. Subjects completed three Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) instruments. Incidence of postoperative complications and change in patient-reported outcomes before and after surgery were recorded. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with an average age of 60.8 (range, 44 to 79) years were identified. The mean follow-up was 22.8 months (range, 6.7 to 51.0). Seventeen of the 18 total patients developed postoperative wound complications. These lead to revision amputations in 10 Chopart amputees, consisting of two Syme and eight BKAs. Half of the Chopart patients never received a prosthesis because of delayed wound healing and revision amputation. PROMIS physical function (PF) (31.1 pre-op and 28.6 post-op), pain interference (63.1 pre-op and 59.4 post-op), and depression (53.0 pre-op and 54.8 post-op) did not show significant change (P-values = 0.38, 0.29, 0.72, respectively). Pre- and post-op the PROMIS physical function scores were well below the US average. DISCUSSION: In our patient cohort, 94% of patients developed postoperative wound complication. Only 44% of patients ever successfully ambulated with a prosthesis after Chopart amputation, and the others (56%) required revision amputations such as a BKA. Even after wound healing, Chopart amputees may struggle with obtaining a prosthesis suitable for ambulation. Surgeons should exercise judicious patient selection before performing Chopart amputation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV, Case Series.


Assuntos
Amputação/métodos , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Pé Diabético/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/etiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ajuste de Prótese , Transferência Tendinosa , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719089

RESUMO

Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) involves medically unnecessary cutting of parts or all of the external female genitalia. It is outlawed in the United States and much of the world but is still known to occur in more than 30 countries. FGM/C most often is performed on children, from infancy to adolescence, and has significant morbidity and mortality. In 2018, an estimated 200 million girls and women alive at that time had undergone FGM/C worldwide. Some estimate that more than 500 000 girls and women in the United States have had or are at risk for having FGM/C. However, pediatric prevalence of FGM/C is only estimated given that most pediatric cases remain undiagnosed both in countries of origin and in the Western world, including in the United States. It is a cultural practice not directly tied to any specific religion, ethnicity, or race and has occurred in the United States. Although it is mostly a pediatric practice, currently there is no standard FGM/C teaching required for health care providers who care for children, including pediatricians, family physicians, child abuse pediatricians, pediatric urologists, and pediatric urogynecologists. This clinical report is the first comprehensive summary of FGM/C in children and includes education regarding a standard-of-care approach for examination of external female genitalia at all health supervision examinations, diagnosis, complications, management, treatment, culturally sensitive discussion and counseling approaches, and legal and ethical considerations.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Cicatriz/etiologia , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Feminina/classificação , Circuncisão Feminina/legislação & jurisprudência , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Confidencialidade , Documentação , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Notificação de Abuso , Anamnese , Saúde Mental , Dor/etiologia , Pediatras , Exame Físico , Prevalência , Refugiados/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexualidade
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