Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 136
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1926-1931, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643153

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most frequent notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Switzerland. The infection is most frequently observed in 15 to 24 year-old-women and in 25 to 34 year-old-men. 50-75 % of the Chlamydia trachomatis carriage are asymptomatic, making the infection difficult to diagnose and increasing the untreated specimen, leading to complications like infertility, ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite having a sexual prevention at school, the youths seem to have a lack of knowledge about CT, her transmission and her complications. We performed a survey, which showed that 60.5 % of the participants ignored that this bacteria is mostly asymptomatic. We also found that 11 % of the participants believed that there is no possible relapse of the infection. The prevention must be strengthened, mostly because there is no program in Switzerland, letting every physician to his own beliefs. The medical consultation is an ideal opportunity for this prevention and the youths shared their wish to discuss more about it with health professionals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Metas , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Masculino , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/epidemiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Microb Pathog ; 134: 103602, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226289

RESUMO

Little attention has been paid to the influence of asymptomatic colonizers of genital tract on female infertility. Albeit, a variety of uropathogens have been known to negatively alter sperm parameters in vitro, but their impact on female fertility outcome under in vivo conditions is not clearly established. Therefore, the present study was intended to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sperm parameters and to identify its role in female infertility. The strain of P. aeruginosa was found to reduce sperm motility, viability and sperm Mg++ATPase activity. It could also lead to premature acrosomal loss and induce morphological defect in spermatozoa. For fertility studies, female mice administered intravaginally with 104, 106, 108 cfu of P. aeruginosa for 10 consecutive days, were allowed to mate with proven breeder male on day 12. The results showed that group of mice receiving P. aeruginosa were rendered infertile whereas group receiving PBS showed abdominal distension, string of pearls and finally delivered pups at the end of gestation period. Further, no other clinical manifestation could be observed apparently, histologically or immunologically. Thus, it can be concluded that infertility in mice might be attributed to asymptomatic colonization of genital tract with sperm immobilizing P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/etiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vagina/microbiologia , Acrossomo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , ATPase de Ca(2+) e Mg(2+)/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Reprodução , Aglutinação Espermática , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/citologia , Vagina/patologia
4.
Clin Lab ; 64(9): 1385-1393, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is increasingly associated with extra-digestive diseases. Infertility is a common condition, with an incidence of 10 to 15% of couples. Studies examining the association of H. pylori infection and infertility have reported conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and infertility. METHODS: Studies of H. pylori infection and infertility were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. We performed a meta-analysis of all case-control studies. RESULTS: Seven studies that analyzed the relationship between H. pylori infection and infertility, with a combined study population of 1,902 patients, were included in the meta-analysis (n = 626 for patients; n = 1,276 for controls). In the infertility group, 344 (54.9%) patients were H. pylori-positive, and 495 (38.8%) were H. pylori-positive in the control group. Our result suggested that H. pylori infection was associated significantly with infertility (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.197 - 2.160; I2 = 36.5%, Z = 3.15, p = 0.002). Begg's and Egger's funnel plot showed no publication bias (p = 0.807). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis identified a possible association between H. pylori infection and infertility.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 80(5): e13037, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133062

RESUMO

The female reproductive tract has an active microbiome, and it is suggested that these microbes could influence the outcome of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This systematic review aimed to assess the vaginal/uterine microbiome, specifically with regard to improving the outcome of ART. English peer-reviewed journals were searched for studies investigating the vaginal/uterine micriobiome and female reproductive tract, using PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-six studies were included, 19 studying the vaginal and seven investigating the uterine microbiome. Studies using culture-based technologies found an abnormal vaginal microbiome AVM was not associated with ART outcome. However, studies using sequence-based technologies found an abnormal vaginal microbiome had a negative effect on ART. An abnormal uterine microbiome impacted ART outcome in all of the studies which used culture-based methods and the most extensive of the two studies using metagenomic sequencing. This review has revealed a lack of translational data relating an abnormal vaginal/uterine microbiome to ART outcomes, with inconsistencies between the results of the different studies. Therefore the nature of the relationship between the vaginal/uterine microbiome and fertility remains unknown. As we better characterize this relationship using modern metagenomic techniques, the potential to manipulate the female reproductive tract microbiome to improve ART could be a reality.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Endométrio/microbiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Metagenômica , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
6.
Hum Reprod Update ; 24(4): 393-415, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity. However, little awareness has been raised regarding the importance of uterine microbiota for endometrial physiology in reproductive health; manifested in fertility and placentation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Commensal colonization of the uterus has been widely discussed in the literature. The objective of this review is to outline the possible importance of this uterine colonization for a healthy, fertile uterus. We present the available evidence regarding uterine microbiota, focusing on recent findings based on 16S rRNA, and depict the possible importance of uterine colonization for a receptive endometrium. We highlight a possible role of uterine microbiota for host immunity and tissue adaptation, as well as conferring protection against pathogens. Based on knowledge of the interaction of the mucosal immune cells of the gut with the local microbiome, we want to investigate the potential implications of commensal colonization for uterine health. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in English indexed from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2018 for '16S rRNA', 'uterus' and related search terms to assess available evidence on uterine microbiome analysis. A manual search of the references within the resulting articles was performed. To investigate possible functional contributions of uterine microbiota to health, studies on microbiota of other body sites were additionally assessed. OUTCOMES: Challenging the view of a sterile uterus is in its infancy and, to date, no conclusions on a 'core uterine microbiome' can be drawn. Nevertheless, evidence for certain microbiota and/or associated compounds in the uterus accumulates. The presence of microbiota or their constituent molecules, such as polysaccharide A of the Bacteroides fragilis capsule, go together with healthy physiological function. Lessons learned from the gut microbiome suggest that the microbiota of the uterus may potentially modulate immune cell subsets needed for implantation and have implications for tissue morphology. Microbiota can also be crucial in protection against uterine infections by defending their niche and competing with pathogens. Our review highlights the need for well-designed studies on a 'baseline' microbial state of the uterus representing the optimal starting point for implantation and subsequent placenta formation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The complex interplay of processes and cells involved in healthy pregnancy is still poorly understood. The correct receptive endometrial state, including the local immune environment, is crucial not only for fertility but also placenta formation since initiation of placentation highly depends on interaction with immune cells. Implantation failure, recurrent pregnancy loss, and other pathologies of endometrium and placenta, such as pre-eclampsia, represent an increasing societal burden. More robust studies are needed to investigate uterine colonization. Based on current data, future research needs to include the uterine microbiome as a relevant factor in order to understand the players needed for healthy pregnancy.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Útero/microbiologia , Endométrio/microbiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infertilidade/patologia , Gravidez , Doenças Uterinas/imunologia , Doenças Uterinas/microbiologia , Doenças Uterinas/patologia
7.
Vet Pathol ; 55(4): 539-542, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566608

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the cause of Q fever in many animal species and humans. Several studies have reported the association between C. burnetii and abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth, and weak offspring. However, no solid evidence indicates that C. burnetii causes endometritis, subfertility, and retained fetal membranes. For this study, histopathological and PCR evaluation were performed on 40 uterine biopsies from dairy cattle with poor fertility. Uterine swabs were concurrently tested with microbiology assays. The endometrial biopsies of 30 cows did not have any significant lesions, and no pathogens were identified by aerobic bacterial culture and PCR. Ten cows were PCR-positive for C. burnetii and negative for other pathogens by aerobic bacterial culture and PCR. These 10 cases revealed a mild to severe chronic endometritis admixed with perivascular and periglandular fibrosis. Immunohistochemical evaluation of C. burnetii PCR-positive biopsies identified, for the first time, the presence of intralesional and intracytoplasmic C. burnetii in macrophages in the endometrium of cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Endometrite/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Endometrite/complicações , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/patologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infertilidade/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/microbiologia , Febre Q/patologia
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(4): 593-599, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420716

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common reportable infection in the United States and can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Methods: We created life tables to estimate the "lifetime" risk of chlamydia diagnosis among women aged 15-34 years in King County, Washington, between 1992 and 2014. We estimated the lifetime risk of chlamydia-associated PID and TFI incorporating published estimates of the risk of sequelae. Results: There were 51464 first chlamydia diagnoses in 1992-2014. For women born between 1980 and 1984, the lifetime risk of chlamydia diagnosis was 19.8% overall and 14.0% for non-Hispanic white, 64.9% for non-Hispanic black, and 32.6% for Hispanic women. The cumulative risk of chlamydia by age 24 increased overall from 13.9% to 17.3% among women born between 1975 and 1994 but declined among non-Hispanic black women, among whom risk by age 24 declined from 57.3% among women born between 1980 and 1984 to 38.6% among women born between 1990 and 1994. The lifetime risk of chlamydia-associated PID among women born between 1980 and 1984 ranged from 0.33% to 1.14%. Among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women, the lifetime risk of chlamydia-associated TFI was 0.04%, 0.20%, and 0.10%, respectively. Conclusions: Over 60% of non-Hispanic black women had at least 1 chlamydia diagnosis by age 34 in the birth cohorts most affected, a risk almost 5 times that in non-Hispanic whites. An estimated 1 in 500 non-Hispanic black women develops chlamydia-associated TFI. More effective control measures are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/etnologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Infertilidade/etnologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/etnologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Infect Immun ; 86(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038126

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 105C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice (P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) (P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 104 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 105 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-DR4/imunologia , Infertilidade/imunologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Camundongos Transgênicos/imunologia , Administração Intranasal/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos/microbiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia
10.
J Microbiol Methods ; 144: 168-172, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174353

RESUMO

Urogenital bacterial infections have been described in literature as a potential cause of infertility. For the consequences that a failure in diagnosis could have on the evolution of male urogenital infectious disease, an accurate microbiological procedure to investigate the bacterial species composition of seminal fluid plays a crucial role to better understand the eventual correlation with infertility. In order to improve the quality of semen culture investigations, we have developed a new enrichment diagnostic platform. Semen samples of 540 infertile men were simultaneously analyzed using the standard microbiological semen culture method and an alternative new experimental technique (Brain Heart Infusion broth, BHI, enrichment). Our results established the possibility to apply BHI enrichment to detect bacteria from semen samples with higher sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) than the standard technique.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura/normas , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Sêmen/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Urina
11.
J Theor Biol ; 440: 1-11, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248525

RESUMO

To suppress wild population of Aedes mosquitoes, the primary transmission vector of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika, an innovative strategy is to release male mosquitoes carrying the bacterium Wolbachia into natural areas to drive female sterility by cytoplasmic incompatibility. We develop a model of delay differential equations, incorporating the strong density restriction in the larval stage, to assess the delicate impact of life table parameters on suppression efficiency. Through mathematical analysis, we find the sufficient and necessary condition for global stability of the complete suppression state. This condition, combined with the experimental data for Aedes albopictus population in Guangzhou, helps us predict a large range of releasing intensities for suppression success. In particular, we find that if the number of released infected males is no less than four times the number of mosquitoes in wild areas, then the mosquito density in the peak season can be reduced by 95%. We introduce an index to quantify the dependence of suppression efficiency on parameters. The invariance of some quantitative properties of the index values under various perturbations of the same parameter justifies the applicability of this index, and the robustness of our modeling approach. The index yields a ranking of the sensitivity of all parameters, among which the adult mortality has the highest sensitivity and is considerably more sensitive than the natural larvae mortality.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Aedes/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores
12.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 24(10)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835360

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is humans. Although presenting as asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. C. trachomatis has evolved successful mechanisms to avoid destruction by autophagy and the host immune system and persist within host epithelial cells. The intracellular form of this organism, the reticulate body, can enter into a persistent nonreplicative but viable state under unfavorable conditions. The infectious form of the organism, the elementary body, is again generated when the immune attack subsides. In its persistent form, C. trachomatis ceases to produce its major structural and membrane components, but synthesis of its 60-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60) is greatly upregulated and released from the cell. The immune response to hsp60, perhaps exacerbated by repeated cycles of productive infection and persistence, may promote damage to fallopian tube epithelial cells, scar formation, and tubal occlusion. The chlamydial and human hsp60 proteins are very similar, and hsp60 is one of the first proteins produced by newly formed embryos. Thus, the development of immunity to epitopes in the chlamydial hsp60 that are also present in the corresponding human hsp60 may increase susceptibility to pregnancy failure in infected women. Delineation of host factors that increase the likelihood that C. trachomatis will avoid immune destruction and survive within host epithelial cells and utilization of this knowledge to design individualized preventative and treatment protocols are needed to more effectively combat infections by this persistent pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Infecções Assintomáticas , Chaperonina 60/biossíntese , Chaperonina 60/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/terapia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Gravidez Ectópica/microbiologia
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 182, 2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative culture is the most common method to determine the fungal burden and sterility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among persons with cryptococcal meningitis. A major drawback of cultures is a long turnaround-time. Recent evidence demonstrates that live and dead Cryptococcus yeasts can be distinguished using trypan blue staining. We hypothesized that trypan blue staining combined with haemocytometer counting may provide a rapid estimation of quantitative culture count and detection of CSF sterility. To test this, we evaluated 194 CSF specimens from 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis in Kampala, Uganda. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed by CSF cryptococcal antigen (CRAG). We stained CSF with trypan blue and quantified yeasts using a haemocytometer. We compared the haemocytometer readings versus quantitative Cryptococcus CSF cultures. RESULTS: Haemocytometer counting with trypan blue staining had a sensitivity of 98% (64/65), while CSF cultures had a sensitivity of 95% (62/65) with reference to CSF CRAG for diagnostic CSF specimens. For samples that were positive in both tests, the haemocytometer had higher readings compared to culture. For diagnostic specimens, the median of log10 transformed counts were 5.59 (n = 64, IQR = 5.09 to 6.05) for haemocytometer and 4.98 (n = 62, IQR = 3.75 to 5.79) for culture; while the overall median counts were 5.35 (n = 189, IQR = 4.78-5.84) for haemocytometer and 3.99 (n = 151, IQR = 2.59-5.14) for cultures. The percentage agreement with culture sterility was 2.4% (1/42). Counts among non-sterile follow-up specimens had a median of 5.38 (n = 86, IQR = 4.74 to 6.03) for haemocytometer and 2.89 (n = 89, IQR = 2.11 to 4.38) for culture. At diagnosis, CSF quantitative cultures correlated with haemocytometer counts (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.001). At 7-14 days, quantitative cultures did not correlate with haemocytometer counts (R2 = 0.43, P = 0.4). CONCLUSION: Despite a positive correlation, the haemocytometer counts with trypan blue staining did not predict the outcome of quantitative cultures in patients receiving antifungal therapy.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infertilidade/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Azul Tripano/química , Adulto , Cryptococcus/patogenicidade , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/microbiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda
14.
Andrologia ; 49(9)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032361

RESUMO

The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a population of infertile couples from Iran and how this relates to tubal factor infertility, pregnancy rate and outcome of pregnancy. Blood, semen and first-void urine samples were obtained from 250 infertile couples and 250 fertile women as a control. Infertile couples were followed up after 24 months to determine diagnosis, referral for assisted conception, any pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Data were analysed with regard to the results of (i) serological analysis for specific antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum; (ii) the presence of C. trachomatis and M. genitaliumDNA in first-void urine; and (iii) in a semen sample of the male partner. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in our study population was comparable to other studies using similar methods and test specimens. No evidence of M. genitalium infection was found. Detection of C. trachomatis in one partner rarely correlated with infection in the other. The risk of tubal factor infertility and the probability of pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were unrelated to the results of serological tests for C. trachomatis antibodies or the presence of C. trachomatisDNA in first-void urine of both partners and in a semen sample provided by the male.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 44(1): 35-41, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideal management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) may require risk markers for pathology or vaccine development. Previously, we identified common genetic variants associated with chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and reduced fecundity. As this explains only a proportion of the long-term morbidity risk, we used whole-exome sequencing to identify biological pathways that may be associated with STI-related infertility. METHODS: We obtained stored DNA from 43 non-Hispanic black women with PID from the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health Study. Infertility was assessed at a mean of 84 months. Principal component analysis revealed no population stratification. Potential covariates did not significantly differ between groups. Sequencing kernel association test was used to examine associations between aggregates of variants on a single gene and infertility. The results from the sequencing kernel association test were used to choose "focus genes" (P < 0.01; n = 150) for subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify "gene sets" that are enriched in biologically relevant pathways. RESULTS: Pathway analysis revealed that focus genes were enriched in canonical pathways including, IL-1 signaling, P2Y purinergic receptor signaling, and bone morphogenic protein signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Focus genes were enriched in pathways that impact innate and adaptive immunity, protein kinase A activity, cellular growth, and DNA repair. These may alter host resistance or immunopathology after infection. Targeted sequencing of biological pathways identified in this study may provide insight into STI-related infertility.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/genética , Infertilidade/genética , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/análise , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Interleucina-1/análise , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/complicações , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y/análise
16.
New Microbiol ; 39(3): 206-209, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704144

RESUMO

Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple. The percentage of individuals affected by a urogenital bacterial infection was between 14 and 20%. More significantly, most of the species isolated both in men and women have been described in the literature as potential causes of infertility.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Fertil Steril ; 104(6): 1364-71, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597628

RESUMO

The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália/microbiologia , Infertilidade/terapia , Microbiota , Reprodução , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Genitália/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ribotipagem , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Fertil Steril ; 104(6): 1344-50, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26602982

RESUMO

The process of reproduction inherently poses unique microbial challenges because it requires the transfer of gametes from one individual to the other, meanwhile preserving the integrity of the gametes and individuals from harmful microbes during the process. Advances in molecular biology techniques have expanded our understanding of the natural organisms living on and in our bodies, including those inhabiting the reproductive tract. Over the past two decades accumulating evidence has shown that the human microbiome is tightly related to health and disease states involving the different body systems, including the reproductive system. Here we introduce the science involved in the study of the human microbiome. We examine common methods currently used to characterize the human microbiome as an inseparable part of the reproductive system. Finally, we consider a few limitations, clinical implications, and the critical need for additional research in the field of human fertility.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genitália/microbiologia , Microbiota , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reprodução , Ribotipagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Computacional , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose , Feminino , Genitália/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Masculino
19.
Fertil Steril ; 104(6): 1341-3, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515381

RESUMO

The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália/microbiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Microbiota , Reprodução , Biofilmes , Disbiose , Feminino , Fertilidade , Genitália/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
20.
Neuroendocrinology ; 102(3): 216-25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26043876

RESUMO

Fertility rates have been declining worldwide, with a growing number of young women suffering from infertility. Infectious and inflammatory diseases are important causes of infertility, and recent evidence points to the critical role of the early-life microbial environment in developmental programming of adult reproductive fitness. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that acute exposure to an immunological challenge early in life has a profound and prolonged impact on male and female reproductive development. This review presents evidence that perinatal exposure to immunological challenge by a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, acts at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in long-lasting changes in reproductive function, suggesting that disposition to infertility may begin early in life.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/imunologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/microbiologia , Infertilidade/etiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/imunologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/microbiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA