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2.
Int J Health Geogr ; 18(1): 9, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne disease is the result of spillover of pathogens into the human population. Traditionally, literature has focused on characterization of tick-borne disease pathogens and ticks in their sylvatic cycles. A limited amount of research has focused on human-tick exposure in this system, especially in the Northeastern United States. Human-tick interactions are crucial to consider when assessing the risk of tick-borne disease since a tick bite is required for spillover to occur. METHODS: Citizen scientists collected ticks from the Northeastern US through a free nationwide program. Submitted ticks were identified to species, stage, and sex. Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and hard-tick relapsing fever Borrelia. Seasonality of exposure and the citizen science activity during tick exposure was recorded by the citizen scientist. A negative binomial model was fit to predict county level CDC Lyme disease cases in 2016 using citizen science Ixodes scapularis submissions, state, and county population as predictor variables. RESULTS: A total of 3740 submissions, comprising 4261 ticks, were submitted from the Northeastern US and were reported to be parasitizing humans. Of the three species submitted, blacklegged ticks were the most prevalent followed by American dog ticks and lone star ticks. Submissions peaked in May with the majority of exposure occurring during every-day activities. The most common pathogen in blacklegged ticks was B. burgdorferi s.l. followed by hard-tick relapsing fever Borrelia. Negative binomial model performance was best in New England states followed by Middle Atlantic states. CONCLUSIONS: Citizen science provides a low-cost and effective methodology for describing the seasonality and characteristics of human-tick exposure. In the Northeastern US, everyday activities were identified as a major mechanism for tick exposure, supporting the role of peri-domestic exposure in tick-borne disease. Citizen science provides a method for broad pathogen and tick surveillance, which is highly related to human disease, allowing for inferences to be made about the epidemiology of tick-borne disease.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , New England/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Picadas de Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(1): 177-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810663

RESUMO

The study aimed to identify species of ticks present in the environment and among captive animals, in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were isolated from captive animals by manual examination and free-living ticks in the environment were captured using the flannel drag technique. A total of 91 ticks were obtained (51 adults, 25 nymphs and 15 larvae). The specimens were identified morphologically as Amblyomma sp., Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sculptum , and were distributed among five species of native mammals and an exotic bird. This study also reports the first case of infestation of the Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) by A. sculptum.


Assuntos
Dromaiidae/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Dromaiidae/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 388, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ehrlichia ruminantium infection (heartwater) is a major constraint that impacts negatively on the cattle industry development in sub-Saharan Africa and so far, little is known of the presence of heartwater in cattle in Cameroon. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of E. ruminantium infection in cattle in Cameroon and to determine the predictors of infection. RESULTS: A species-specific semi-nested pCS20 polymerase chain reaction was used to screen the buffy coats from 182 cattle (comprising 82 cattle that received intensive tick control regimen and 100 cattle on strategic tick control) from two study sites in Cameroon for E. ruminantium DNA in a cross-sectional study. E. ruminantium infection was confirmed in 12 (6.6%) of the 182 cattle comprising 11 that received intensive tick control and one on strategic tick control. Of the 12 cattle detected, 11 were apparently healthy and one was clinically diagnosed of heartwater. All DNA sequences of pCS20 amplicons were identical to each other (a representative sequence deposited in GenBank under accession number JQ039939). These findings which have veterinary and epidemiological significance, suggest the need for further investigation to determine the extent and role of heartwater in cattle in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Ehrlichia ruminantium/isolamento & purificação , Hidropericárdio/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hidropericárdio/epidemiologia , Hidropericárdio/microbiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
5.
Cutis ; 101(4): 266;268;305, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763485

RESUMO

The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent zoonosis transmitted by Ixodes ticks, other less common diseases may be encountered, including human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and tick paralysis. In part 2 of this review, disease presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these less commonly encountered tick-borne diseases are discussed.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/terapia , Animais
6.
Acta Med Port ; 31(2): 126-128, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596772

RESUMO

Tick infestation is rarely seen in ophthalmological practice. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with edema and erythema of her right upper eyelid. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a tick firmly attached to the eyelid margin. The tick was successfully removed using fine tweezers, and within a few days, the patient had fully recovered without sequelae. Ticks are a threat to public health as they are known vectors of numerous infectious agents responsible for serious pathologies such as Lyme disease. Ticks may also induce cutaneous local reactions, and more rarely, tick paralysis. Since morbidity increases substantially with the duration of the infestation, the tick should be completely removed as soon as possible, and patients should be aware about possible signs of tick related diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Palpebrais/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato , Idoso , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(403)2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814545

RESUMO

Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N-acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. Development of classification models with the 261-MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to inform patient management by objectively distinguishing early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms.


Assuntos
Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/metabolismo , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exantema/sangue , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/classificação , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infestações por Carrapato/sangue , Infestações por Carrapato/classificação
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 72(4): 429-437, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840367

RESUMO

Due to the recorded spreading of ticks in past years, a higher incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can be expected in the future in endemic areas, but can also pose an emerging public health concern in areas where they have not yet been recognized. Assessment of the exposure of vulnerable hosts to ticks would be a very helpful tool for TBD epidemiological studies, as well as for their proper managing. To confirm previous tick bites, the method of choice is detection of antibodies in host serum as markers developed against injected tick saliva proteins during feeding. We recently showed that the recombinant form of Ixodes ricinus AV422 saliva protein (rIrAV422) can serve for detection of markers in experimentally infested rats. Here we examine whether it can be used in the same manner in naturally exposed hosts. We chose hunting dogs as good sentinel animals. The study group consisted of 15 dogs that varied in breed, age, sex, previous tick infestation history and repellent treatment. Western blot analysis with rIrAV422 as an antigen confirmed the presence of tick bite markers in all analysed dogs. For some of the dogs, their previous tick infestation history was unclear, which emphasizes the usefulness of rIrAV422 for revealing it. Since hunting dogs are naturally infested with different ticks, the potential of rIrAV422 in assessment of general exposure to ticks is highlighted. Use of rIrAV422 can also be helpful in veterinary practice and research as a tool for validation of the efficiency of tick repellent products.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ixodes/fisiologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Picadas de Carrapatos/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Sérvia , Picadas de Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Picadas de Carrapatos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(26): e7394, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658173

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tick infestation of the external auditory canal (EAC) constitutes <1% of all patients presenting with ear complaints. Consequently, parameters for the diagnosis and management of ticks in the EAC have not been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report 2 cases of EAC infestation by Amblyomma testudinarium in 2 female patients, aged 12- and 72 years old. DIAGNOSES INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: In both patients, otoscopic examination revealed engorged ticks attached to the ear canal. The 12-year-old girl had a narrow EAC, necessitating slight dislodging of the tick to determine if its mouth parts were embedded in the EAC skin. The tick's mouth parts were confirmed to be free, enabling complete removal of the tick. The 72-year-old woman had a wide EAC, enabling tick removal using Hartman's forceps because the tick's mouth parts were confirmed to be free of the skin. Prophylactic tetracycline (200 mg/day) was administered to each patient for 7 days; neither showed any signs of fever or rash. LESSONS: This report describes 2 patients with A testudinarium infestation of the EAC, and proposes a simple, noninvasive protocol for determining if the tick is anchored to the ear canal.


Assuntos
Meato Acústico Externo/parasitologia , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Otoscopia , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 235: 106-112, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215860

RESUMO

This paper presents a study on the use of low resolution infrared images to detect ticks in cattle. Emphasis is given to the main factors that influence the quality of the captured images, as well as to the actions that can increase the amount of information conveyed by these images. In addition, a new automatic method for analyzing the images and counting the ticks is introduced. The proposed algorithm relies only on color transformations and simple mathematical morphology operations, thus being easy to implement and computationally light. Tests were carried out using a large database containing images of the neck and hind end of the animals. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is very effective in detecting ticks visible in the images, even if the contrast with the background is not high. On the other hand, due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, the thermographic images used in this study did not always succeed in creating enough contrast between ticks and cattle's hair coat. Although these problems can be mitigated by following some directives, currently only rough estimates for tick counts can be achieved using infrared images with low spatial resolution.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Termografia/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Termografia/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(6): 1297-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27145963

RESUMO

The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi.


Assuntos
Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Tanzânia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074329

RESUMO

We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient inPorto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Couro Cabeludo/parasitologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
13.
Duodecim ; 132(21): 1952-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190046

RESUMO

Relapsing fewer is an infection to be considered in the differential diagnosis of an immigrant´s febrile illness. It is a severe, tick-borne or body louse-borne infection caused by the relapsing fever associated borrelia species. The body louse-borne infection is in particular encountered in the Horn of Africa region due to poor hygiene, and has during the past year been described in several European countries as imported by refugees coming from this region. Doctors should thus bear relapsing fever in mind as a differential diagnosis in a febrile refugee having recently arrived in Finland.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Refugiados , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Viagem
14.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 32(3): e55-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25025390

RESUMO

Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Pálpebras/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Palpebrais/parasitologia , Pálpebras/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
15.
Can Vet J ; 56(5): 486-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969582

RESUMO

Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Ixodes/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Ninfa/classificação , Vigilância da População , Saskatchewan/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 6(2): 152-4, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25435012

RESUMO

An Oregon resident returned from a photography trip to Ethiopia with a male Hyalomma truncatum tick attached to the skin on his lower back. The tick was identified morphologically and deposited in the U.S. National Tick Collection housed at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia. The public health importance of Hyalomma species of ticks and diagnostic dilemmas with identifying exotic ticks imported into the U.S. are discussed.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Animais , Etiópia , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Viagem , Estados Unidos
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 52(6): 685-90, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25548423

RESUMO

A perianal tick and the surrounding skin were surgically excised from a 73-year-old man residing in a southwestern costal area of the Korean Peninsula. Microscopically a deep penetrating lesion was formed beneath the attachment site. Dense and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrations occurred in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues around the feeding lesion. Amorphous eosinophilic cement was abundant in the center of the lesion. The tick had Y-shaped anal groove, long mouthparts, ornate scutum, comma-shaped spiracular plate, distinct eyes, and fastoons. It was morphologically identified as a fully engorged female Amblyomma testudinarium. This is the third human case of Amblyomma tick infection in Korea.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Canal Anal/patologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picadas de Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Picadas de Carrapatos/patologia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/patologia , Idoso , Canal Anal/parasitologia , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Animais , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Microscopia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/cirurgia , Infestações por Carrapato/cirurgia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 5(6): 693-700, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25113983

RESUMO

The three most common Ixodes spp. ticks found on songbirds in Western Europe are Ixodes frontalis, I. arboricola and I. ricinus. As the latter species is a generalist, it shares several avian hosts with the two strictly ornithophilic species. Infestations of the three species can overlap in time and space, implying that tick-borne pathogens maintained by the ornithophilic ticks and their hosts could be bridged by I. ricinus to non-avian hosts. Whereas the endophilic Ixodes arboricola only occurs in cavities, I. frontalis has been collected frequently by flagging methods from understory vegetation, which is also the habitat of the field-dwelling I. ricinus. As the latter two species have rather similar morphological characteristics, they can easily be confused with each other. In this study, we present scanning electron photomicrographs of all developmental stages of I. arboricola and I. frontalis, and provide a differential diagnosis key to distinguish the ornithophilic ticks from I. ricinus. In addition, we interpreted their phylogenetic associations based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA with other Ixodes spp. ticks (I. lividus, I. turdus, I. brunneus, I. vespertilionis, I. trianguliceps, I. hexagonus, I. scapularis).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ixodes/classificação , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ixodes/genética , Ixodes/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
20.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 56(4): 297-300, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076429

RESUMO

In this study, we detected Leishmania spp. infection in R. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with L. (L.) infantum. We examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. The infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Quick Test-DPP (Dual Path Platform), as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. Ten negative dogs were included as controls. The ticks that infested these dogs were collected in pools of 10 adult females per animal. The PCR was performed with specific primers for Leishmania spp., which amplified a 720-bp fragment. Of the 35 analyzed samples, a product was observed in eight samples (8/35; 22.9%). We conclude that the presence of parasite DNA suggests that ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the city of Teresina, Piauí.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
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