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1.
Cutis ; 101(4): 266;268;305, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763485

RESUMO

The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent zoonosis transmitted by Ixodes ticks, other less common diseases may be encountered, including human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and tick paralysis. In part 2 of this review, disease presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these less commonly encountered tick-borne diseases are discussed.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/terapia , Animais
2.
Cutis ; 101(3): 187-190, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718024

RESUMO

The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. This 3-part review highlights the biology of the Ixodes tick and manifestations of related diseases. Part 1 addresses the Ixodes tick biology and life cycle; local reactions; and Lyme disease, the most prevalent of associated diseases. Part 2 will address human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and tick paralysis. Part 3 will address coinfection with multiple pathogens as well as methods of tick-bite prevention and tick removal.


Assuntos
Babesiose/fisiopatologia , Ixodes/fisiologia , Doença de Lyme/fisiopatologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/fisiopatologia , Infestações por Carrapato/fisiopatologia , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/terapia , Humanos , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodes/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Doença de Lyme/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/terapia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Parasitárias/terapia , Picadas de Carrapatos/fisiopatologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/terapia , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
3.
Acta Med Port ; 31(2): 126-128, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596772

RESUMO

Tick infestation is rarely seen in ophthalmological practice. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with edema and erythema of her right upper eyelid. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a tick firmly attached to the eyelid margin. The tick was successfully removed using fine tweezers, and within a few days, the patient had fully recovered without sequelae. Ticks are a threat to public health as they are known vectors of numerous infectious agents responsible for serious pathologies such as Lyme disease. Ticks may also induce cutaneous local reactions, and more rarely, tick paralysis. Since morbidity increases substantially with the duration of the infestation, the tick should be completely removed as soon as possible, and patients should be aware about possible signs of tick related diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Palpebrais/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato , Idoso , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 13(1): 303, 2017 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has high prevalences of udder health problems including clinical and subclinical mastitis across production systems in different livestock species. Previous studies on udder health problems have largely focused on identification of mastitis causing microbial pathogens and associated risk factors. However, relatively little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of livestock keepers regarding udder health problems. An understanding of the beliefs on the other hand would facilitate effective communication between livestock keepers and animal health professionals. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the knowledge and belief surrounding the causes, clinical signs and treatments for udder health problems in (agro-) pastoral communities in southern Ethiopia using qualitative investigation. RESULTS: The result showed that udder health problem, locally known as 'dhukkuba muchaa', which translates to 'disease of teats', was classified into three main types: (1) tick infestation (dirandisa), (2) swelling of udder often with pus discharge (nyaqarsa) and (3) acute mastitis caused by evil eye (buda) with 'bloody milk'. Tick infestation was perceived to directly cause mechanical damage to udder tissue or to resulting in swelling leading to nyaqarsa. Our analysis also revealed the strong misperception that acute and severe swelling of udder was caused by evil eye. According to the pastoralists, cows with large udders in the late pregnancy are prone to evil eye infliction upon giving birth. The pastoralists often treat udder health problems by combining both modern and traditional methods. Removal of ticks by hand and acarcide application were the preferred methods for limiting tick infestation while swelling and evil eye cases were treated with antibiotics (e.g. oxytetracycline). The study also revealed that specific herbs, only known by the herbalists, were used for traditional treatment of udder health. Although this information could not be divulged at the time, it should form the subject of further investigation. Traditional treatment for evil eye was often administered through nostrils, raising questions about its effectiveness. CONCLUSION: The narration given by the pastoralists in associating tick infestation with udder health problems was compatible with existing scientific evidences. In this respect, such local knowledge can be better utilized for the educational messages targeting control and management of tick infestation in livestock. However, the misperception of causes for acute udder swelling as evil eye can be problematic as far as the application of appropriate treatment and management of the problem is concerned. The misperception can significantly impact the welfare of animals and highlights the need for capacity building of the pastoralists on the causes and treatment of udder health problems.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado , Mastite/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/parasitologia , Mastite/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(26): e7394, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658173

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tick infestation of the external auditory canal (EAC) constitutes <1% of all patients presenting with ear complaints. Consequently, parameters for the diagnosis and management of ticks in the EAC have not been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report 2 cases of EAC infestation by Amblyomma testudinarium in 2 female patients, aged 12- and 72 years old. DIAGNOSES INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: In both patients, otoscopic examination revealed engorged ticks attached to the ear canal. The 12-year-old girl had a narrow EAC, necessitating slight dislodging of the tick to determine if its mouth parts were embedded in the EAC skin. The tick's mouth parts were confirmed to be free, enabling complete removal of the tick. The 72-year-old woman had a wide EAC, enabling tick removal using Hartman's forceps because the tick's mouth parts were confirmed to be free of the skin. Prophylactic tetracycline (200 mg/day) was administered to each patient for 7 days; neither showed any signs of fever or rash. LESSONS: This report describes 2 patients with A testudinarium infestation of the EAC, and proposes a simple, noninvasive protocol for determining if the tick is anchored to the ear canal.


Assuntos
Meato Acústico Externo/parasitologia , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Otoscopia , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
7.
J Evid Based Med ; 10(3): 177-188, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464468

RESUMO

AIM: Providing evidence-based first aid training to lay people is a cost-effective intervention. This systematic review aimed to collect the best available evidence on effective methods to remove a tick, performed by lay people. METHODS: A systematic search was performed searching the Cochrane Library (via Wiley), MEDLINE (via the PubMed interface), and Embase (via the Embase.com interface) to identify studies with evidence on tick removal strategies. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers and data extraction was achieved in a tabular format. GRADE was used to determine the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Out of 2046 articles, six experimental animal studies were included. These studies compared different chemical treatments (gasoline, petroleum jelly, clear fingernail polish, or methylated spirit) or mechanical techniques (forceps or commercial devices) for tick removal. The available studies were all of very low quality and suggest that there is limited evidence in favor of pulling with commercial devices and in favor of pulling with forceps compared to rotation with forceps to remove ticks. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in favor of pulling with commercial tick removal devices or pulling with forceps. The evidence of the included studies is of very low quality and results of these studies are imprecise due to limited sample size, large variability of results, and/or lack of data. Since large high-quality studies are lacking, more rigorous studies are warranted to enable strong evidence-based recommendations.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Carrapatos , Animais , Gatos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cães , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Cobaias , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Masculino , Ovinos , Suínos
8.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 52(2): 166-70, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119550

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS & OBJECTIVES: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a highly fatal and contagious tick-borne viral disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) should know how and with which symptoms can CCHF patients attend to hospitals, and be aware of nosocomial transmission capability. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of HCWs working in Giresun province regarding CCHF. METHODS: This research was carried out during an educational programme arranged for healthcare personnel working in district state hospitals in June 2012. In total, 428 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire including personal demographic characteristics, general knowledge of CCHF disease, knowledge of nosocomial transmission and infection control during hospitalization. RESULTS: Almost all participants (95.3%) knew that the workers in livestock and agriculture were at risk. About 93.5% of participants knew that tick bite is the cause of CCHF transmission. In contrast to this high ratio, only 73 and 77% workers knew that CCHF can be transmitted by direct contact with animal's or patient's blood and body fluids, but after imparting relevant information in the form of one hour lecture given by a doctor expertised in infectious diseases, 92% gave correct answers. Nearly, all healthcare workers were aware that ticks should be removed by using fine-tipped tweezers without crushing (90.7%). Doctors were the most and the laboratory personnel the least well-informed groups. The knowledge degree significantly increased from 67.48 ± 13.89 to 80.92 ± 10.80 points after providing the CCHF related information (p<0.05). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: It was observed that the healthcare personnel working in district state hospitals of the province were moderately aware of CCHF disease. There is possibility of achieving improvement in their knowledge by educating them regarding CCHF and such educational programmes should be conducted from time-to-time.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Fatores de Risco , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 207(3-4): 302-8, 2015 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25577676

RESUMO

The efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control ticks has been shown in several in vitro experiments. However, few studies have been undertaken in field conditions in order to demonstrate the applicability of its use as a biological control of ticks and its combination with chemical acaricides. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of M. anisopliae to control an acaricide-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus microplus under laboratory and field conditions. First, the compatibility of M. anisopliae strain (TIS-BR03) with commercial acaricides and its potential to control the cattle tick were evaluated in vitro. In general, acaricide treatments had mild effects on fungus viability. In the field experiment, the median of treatment efficacy with acaricide only, M. anisopliae only and combination of M. anisopliae with acaricide were 71.1%, 56.3% and 97.9%, respectively. There is no statistical difference between groups treated with M. anisopliae and acaricide alone. Thus, in this work we have demonstrated the applicability of M. anisopliae use associated or not with chemical acaricides on field conditions in order to control an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick R. microplus.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Clorpirifos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 29(3): 264-269, 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-997809

RESUMO

Las garrapatas son parásitos hematófagos que afectan la piel de muchos animales vertebrados, transmitiéndose al ser humano por contacto directo con animales infestados. La infestación por garrapata se manifiesta como una mácula, pápula o placa eritematosa y pruriginosa, que aparece 1 a 3 días después de la exposición con el parásito. Además, puede estar asociada con infección local secundaria en el sitio de la mordedura, granuloma a cuerpo extraño, parálisis ascendente e incluso anafilaxia. Estos parásitos también pueden transmitir agentes patógenos capaces de producir enfermedades en el ser humano como bacterias, virus y protozoos. La garrapata debe ser extirpada, teniendo especial precaución de no comprimir demasiado el cuerpo del parásito durante el procedimiento. Reportamos el caso de un hombre de 63 años que presentó una placa eritematosa y pruriginosa en la espalda, cuya imagen dermatoscópica reveló la presencia de una garrapata.


Ticks are blood-sucking, opportunistic parasites that can attach to the skin of a variety of vertebrate hosts. Humans become infested by coming into close contact with infested animals. Tick infestation may present as erythematous pruritic macule, papule, or finely elevated plaque within 1­3 days following tick exposure. Also tick bites may be associated with local, secondary infection at the bite site, foreign body granuloma, ascending paralysis, and even anaphylaxis. In addition, these parasites may transmit a number of different pathogens that cause human diseases including bacteria, viruses, and protozoan. Ticks may be removed, although the body of the tick should not be squeezed during the removal process. We report a 63-year old man who presented with an itchy erythematous plaque on the back, which, upon closer inspection, revealed a partially embedded tick.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Infestações por Carrapato/classificação
11.
Parasitol Res ; 111(4): 1505-11, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22733005

RESUMO

The fast and safe removal of ticks is of medical and veterinary importance since many tick-borne pathogens require time to be transmitted. In the past, many tools and applications were used to remove ticks from the skin of humans and pets. Choking the ticks by blocking their respiratory system with chemicals cannot be recommended due to the low respiratory rate of ticks. Mechanical devices to remove ticks are usually recommended; however, they vary with regard to their mechanism of seizing and holding the tick and in the way of extraction (pulling or twisting). In this study, five commercial tick removal devices with different mechanisms were tested on pets according to their practicability, injury of the mouthparts, and the idiosoma of female Ixodes ricinus ticks. Therefore, 22 veterinarians and four pet owners removed 596 ticks from various animals by using the different devices and filled in a questionnaire for each case. The tick species and instars were determined, and for the female I. ricinus ticks (n = 527) the condition of the mouthparts as well as the idiosoma was evaluated. Twisting of the female I. ricinus ticks reduced the force required for extraction, the adverse reaction of the animal and the time needed for removal. The device with a "V"-shaped slot which allows a grabbing of the mouthparts delivered the best results according to the condition of the mouthparts and the intactness of the female I. ricinus tick's body. Therefore, grabbing the mouthparts and twisting can be recommended for removal of I. ricinus females from pets.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões , Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
12.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 182(1-2): 45-53, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22206819

RESUMO

Classical serine proteases use the conserved Ser/His/Asp catalytic triad to hydrolyze substrates. Here, we show that longistatin, a salivary gland protein with two EF-hand domains from the vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, does not have the conserved catalytic triad, but still functions as a serine protease. Longistatin was synthesized in and secreted from the salivary glands of ticks, and is injected into host tissues during the acquisition of blood-meals. Longistatin hydrolyzed fibrinogen, an essential plasma protein in the coagulation cascade, and activated plasminogen, into its active form plasmin, a serine protease that dissolves fibrin clots. Longistatin efficiently hydrolyzed several serine protease-specific substrates showing its specificity to the amide bond of Arg. Longistatin did not hydrolyze synthetic substrates specific for other groups of proteases. The enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures and pHs, with the optimum at 37°C and pH 7. Its activity was efficiently inhibited by various serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, antipain, and leupeptin with the estimated IC(50) of 278.57 µM, 0.35 µM, 41.56 µM and 198.86 µM, respectively. In addition, longistatin was also potently inhibited by Zinc (Zn(2+)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 275 µM, and the inhibitory effect of Zn(2+) was revived by ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA). Immunization studies revealed that longistatin sharply induced high levels of protective IgG antibodies against ticks. Immunization with longistatin reduced repletion of ticks by about 54%, post engorgement body weight by >11% and molting of nymphs by approximately 34%; thus, the vaccination trial was approximately 73% effective against tick infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that longistatin is a new potent atypical serine protease, and may be an interesting candidate for the development of anti-tick vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/imunologia , Ixodidae/enzimologia , Ixodidae/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antipaína/farmacologia , Aprotinina/farmacologia , Arginina/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ixodidae/patogenicidade , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ativadores de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/enzimologia , Glândulas Salivares/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina Proteases/imunologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Compostos de Tosil/farmacologia , Vacinação , Zinco/farmacologia
15.
Turk J Pediatr ; 51(2): 172-3, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19480331

RESUMO

A three-year-old girl presented with a small brown lesion on the right upper eyelid margin. Close examination revealed an insect body attached to the eyelid margin. Microscopic examination of the specimen identified the species of the organism as Ixodes ricinus. The tick was completely removed with blunt forceps. She was treated with lid toilet, irrigation, and application of topical 0.3% ciprofloxacin four times daily to the affected eye. The lesion healed without scarring after one week. No systemic symptoms were observed. Mechanical removal with blunt forceps may be a quick, easy, safe and effective treatment for ticks located on the eyelids.


Assuntos
Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/parasitologia , Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Doenças Palpebrais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Bases para Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia
16.
Georgian Med News ; (170): 43-5, 2009 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19556638

RESUMO

Demodecosis is wide spread chronic skin disorder caused by the mite - Demodex folliculorum. It frequently involves the mid facial region: nasolabial folder, the nose, the chin and eyes. The treatment depends on the severity of the inflammatory skin disorder and includes complex of oral and topical drug treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of criotherapy in complex treatment of demodecosis. We have observed 38 patients of both sexes aged 19-54. The patients were divided into two groups - "A" and "B". Patients with erythematosquamose form of the disease were treated with Trichopol peros and oral antibiotics in case of inflammatory lesions. For topical treatment in group "A" Rosamet cream was used. In group "B" Rosamet cream and criotherapy were used. The results of our study have demonstrated effectiveness of criotherapy in combination with Rosamet cream. A significantly faster decrease of inflammatory lesions and reduce the erythema was observed in group "B". Therefore the usage of criotherapy with Rosamet cream is recommended to get quick therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Eritema/parasitologia , Eritema/terapia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carrapatos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cutis ; 82(1): 38-46, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18712023

RESUMO

Tick-borne disease in the United States continues to be a threat as people interact with their natural surroundings. We present a case of an 8-year-old boy with a larval tick infestation. Ticks within the United States can carry Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, tick-borne relapsing fever, and tick paralysis. These preventable diseases are treatable when accurately recognized and diagnosed; however, if left untreated, they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. This article highlights the knowledge necessary to recognize, treat, and prevent tickborne disease.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/terapia
19.
Parassitologia ; 50(3-4): 291-304, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20055238

RESUMO

During the late nineteenth century, settler farmers in southern Africa identified heartwater as a damaging disease of small stock and cattle. They advanced various explanations of the disease, including the theory that it was caused by the bite of ticks. Around 1900, the American entomologist C.P. Lousbury demonstrated that heartwater was transmitted by the bont tick. He also worked out the life cycle and life habits of the tick. Subsequently, farmers developed methods of controlling ticks by dipping animals in solutions of arsenic. By 1910, the practice of dipping cattle had become very widespread over much of southern Africa. The expansion of the practice was greatly stimulated by the coming of the deadly tick-borne disease, East Coast fever. At this time, veterinary scientists attempted to develop a vaccine against heartwater, but with little success. Little further progress was made until the 1920s, when the American scientist E.V. Cowdry identified a causal agent, Rickettsia ruminantium, while on a research secondment to South Africa. By the 1940s, South African veterinary scientists had devised methods of immunising stock against heartwater, but there remained considerable technical difficulties and their use remained limited. Dipping in arsenic solutions to attack the tick on the animal thus remained the most important means of controlling disease in the first half of the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Ehrlichia ruminantium/isolamento & purificação , Hidropericárdio/história , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Hidropericárdio/prevenção & controle , Hidropericárdio/transmissão , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Cooperação Internacional , África do Sul , Infestações por Carrapato/terapia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
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