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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007604, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386661

RESUMO

Bubonic is the most prevalent plague form in Madagascar. Indoor ground application of insecticide dust is the conventional method used to control potentially infected rodent fleas that transmit the plague bacterium from rodents to humans. The use of bait stations is an alternative approach for vector control during plague epidemics, as well as a preventive control method during non-epidemic seasons. Bait stations have many advantages, principally by reducing the amount of insecticide used, lowering the cost of the treatment and minimizing insecticide exposure in the environment. A previous study reported promising results on controlling simultaneously the reservoir and vectors, when slow-acting rodenticide was incorporated in bait stations called "Boîtes de Kartman". However, little evidence of an effective control of the fleas prior to the elimination of rodents was found. In this study, we evaluated bait stations containing insecticide powder and non-toxic attractive rodent bait for their potential to control rat fleas. Its efficacy was compared to the standard method. The impact of both methods on indoor and outdoor rodent fleas, as well as the human household flea Pulex irritans were analyzed at different time points after treatments. Bait stations did not cause any significant immediate or delayed reduction of rat fleas and increasing the number of operational bait stations per household did not significantly improve their efficacy. Insecticide ground dusting appeared to be the most efficient method to control indoor rat fleas. Both methods appeared to have little impact on the density of outdoor rat fleas and human fleas. These results demonstrate limited effectiveness for bait stations and encourage the maintenance of insecticide dusting as a first-line control strategy in case of epidemic emergence of plague, when immediate effect on rodent fleas is needed. Recommendations are given to improve the efficacy of the bait station method.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Peste/prevenção & controle , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Madagáscar , Peste/transmissão , Ratos , Roedores , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 259, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation of fluralaner plus moxidectin has been designed to provide long-term protection against fleas and ticks, prevent heartworm disease and treat gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this product against fleas collected from a household with repeated fipronil failures following owner-administered treatments. METHODS: Thirty cats were randomized to three equal groups: (A) untreated controls; (B) to receive a single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus) at 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively; and (C) three applications at one month intervals with a spot-on formulation of fipronil and (S)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus) at 0.5 ml manufacturer recommended dose. Flea challenges were completed on Days -6 (for randomization), -1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 77, 84 and 91. Flea counts were completed 48 hours after initial treatment and 48 hours following each subsequent challenge. RESULTS: Fleas were found on all control and all fipronil and (S)-methoprene treated cats at every assessment. From Day 2 to Day 93, all cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were flea-free, with one exception (Day 58; three fleas counted on one cat); control group flea counts ranged between 34-109, and fipronil and (S)-methoprene group counts ranged between 1-79. At each assessment after Day 0, compared to the control group, geometric mean flea counts were significantly lower in the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P ≤ 0.04) and in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group (P < 0.001), and mean flea counts in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were significantly lower than those of the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin, based on geometric means, was 100% at each assessment post-Day 0 except on Day 58 when efficacy was 99.7%. In the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group efficacy ranged between 30.6-65.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate complete efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin against a flea isolate that was not controlled by fipronil and (S)-methoprene. This study provides confirmation of the consistent, sustained efficacy of topically applied fluralaner in the treatment and control of flea infestations in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in privately owned cats, was assessed in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: In March-May 2015 [Day 0 (D0)], 204 privately-owned cats from the Aeolian Islands (Sicily) were collared (G1, n = 104) or left as controls (G2, n = 100). The bacteraemia of Bartonella spp. was assessed at enrolment (D0) and study closure (D360) by PCR and DNA sequencing both prior to and after an enrichment step, using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM). RESULTS: A total of 152 cats completed the study with 3 in G1 and 10 in G2 being positive for Bartonella spp. Bartonella henselae genotype I ZF1 (1.35%) and genotype II Fizz/Cal-1 (6.76%) as well as B. clarridgeiae (5.41%) were detected in cats of G2. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the only species detected in G1. Based on the yearly crude incidence of Bartonella spp. infection (i.e. 3.85% in G1 and 13.51% in G2; P = 0.03) the Seresto® collar achieved a preventative efficacy of 71.54%. The incidence of Bartonella spp. infection was more frequent in flea-infested cats (6/33, 18.18%) than in uninfested ones (7/112, 5.88%) (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Cats living in the Aeolian Islands are exposed to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. The Seresto® collar provided significant risk reduction against Bartonella spp. infection in outdoor cats under field conditions. Such a preventative tool could be a key contribution for decreasing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in cats and thus ultimately to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sicília/epidemiologia
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S3-S11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579753

RESUMO

Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6.0-12.0 mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0 mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin (Advantage® Multi for Cats, Bayer) was used as a positive control in both studies at the label dosage. In the flea study, treatments were administered on Days 0, 30, and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live flea counts on Days 30, 60, and 90 relative to the pre-treatment count. In the ear mite study, a single treatment was applied on Day 0 and efficacy was determined on Days 14 and 30 based on the presence or absence of ear mites. In both studies, patients were randomly allocated to treatments in the ratio of 2:1, selamectin plus sarolaner: imidacloprid plus moxidectin. In the two studies, 405 cats received treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; of these, 256 cats received three monthly treatments in the flea study. There were no serious adverse reactions to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; health issues noted were typical of the normal ailments or minor traumatic injuries expected in the general cat population and were similar in both treatment groups. Efficacy against fleas based on geometric (arithmetic) means was 97.2% (95.9%), 99.5% (99.4%), and 99.8% (99.8%) in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and was 79.7% (70.5%), 91.4% (77.3%), and 95.5% (87.4%) in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Flea counts for the selamectin plus sarolaner group were significantly lower than the counts for the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group at all time-points after treatment administration on Day 0 (P < 0.001). Treatment reduced the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (alopecia, dermatitis/pyodermatitis, erythema, pruritus, scaling, and papules) in affected cats by 86.7%-100% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and by 66.7%-100% in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group. In the ear mite study, a single application of selamectin plus sarolaner resulted in the clearance of mites from 87.5% of cats within 14 days and 94.4% of cats within 30 days of treatment. The respective percentages of mite-free cats in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group were 64.0% and 72.0%. There were significantly more cats with no mites noted in the selamectin plus sarolaner group than in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Day 14 and Day 30 (P ≤ 0.018). Selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) administered topically at monthly intervals for three months was well tolerated and highly effective for the treatment and prevention of natural infestations of fleas on cats presented as veterinary patients. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved in affected cats following treatment administration. A single topical treatment was also safe and highly effective for the treatment of ear mite infestations in naturally infested cats.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 458, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doses of flea and tick medication acquired by dog owners over a 12 month period were determined from veterinary hospital transaction records in Spain. The number of months of flea and tick protection potentially obtained by dog owners prescribed fluralaner, a flea and tick medication with a 12 week re-dosing interval, was compared with months of flea and tick protection obtained by dog owners prescribed monthly oral or spot-on products. Prior studies in human and veterinary medicine have suggested that longer-acting medications benefit patients by providing improved adherence to provider recommendations. RESULTS: Dog owners took home, on average, significantly more months of protection when they obtained the 12 week duration product fluralaner (4.3 months) than they did when they obtained other flea and tick products providing 1 month of protection [3.24 months (oral), 2.9 months (spot-on)]. Many dog owners (46-64%) obtained only one dose of flea and tick product each year, regardless of the duration of protection offered by the product. Significantly more dog owners obtained 7-12 months of protection when they were prescribed fluralaner (15.7%) by their veterinarians compared with dog owners prescribed monthly flea and tick products [6.8% (oral), 8.3% (spot-on)]. CONCLUSION: Veterinary prescription of fluralaner delivers more months of potential flea and tick protection as shown by dog owner acquisition of flea and tick medication. The use of a longer-acting medication requires the administration of fewer doses and may translate into better adherence to veterinary ectoparasite control recommendations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Cães , Esquema de Medicação , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Propriedade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
7.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1013-1026, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149970

RESUMO

In the broadest definition, a pesticide (from fly swatters to chemicals) is a substance used to eliminate a pest. Newer insecticides are much safer to the environment, humans, and nontarget species. These insecticides are able to target physiologic differences between insects and mammals, resulting in greater mammalian safety. This article briefly reviews toxicity information of both older insecticides such as organophosphates, carbamates, permethrins, and pyrethroids, as well as some newer insecticides.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Antídotos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Envenenamento/terapia , Envenenamento/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 385, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluralaner (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) is a novel isoxazoline that provides up to 12 weeks flea and tick control when administered orally to dogs. Two assessor-blinded studies, one in dogs, the other in cats evaluated the sustained efficacy of a topical fluralaner formulation against fleas in a simulated home environment (SHE). METHODS: Animals were ranked and blocked into groups of two using flea counts completed 24 hours following Ctenocephalides felis infestations placed on dogs on Day -64, and on cats on Day -36. Within blocks animals were randomized to a treatment group, 10 animals per group, one group to receive fluralaner spot-on (minimum dose rate for dogs, 25 mg/kg; for cats, 40 mg/kg), the other to be a sham-treated control. Animals were then placed into their SHE, one animal per pen or cage and then infested with 100 C. felis at weekly intervals. Dogs were infested from Day -56 through -21 and cats on Days -28 and -21. Fleas were counted and removed from each dog and cat on Day -1. Study animals were then held in clean pens/cages until treatment on Day 0. One day later, after treatment, all animals were returned to their home environment (SHE). Additional 50-flea challenges were placed on each animal on Days 22, 50 and 78. Fleas were counted and replaced on all animals on Day 1 and weekly thereafter for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Arithmetic mean counts in control-group animals exceeded 10 fleas at all post-treatment assessments except on Days 1, 7 and 14. All control-group animals remained infested at each assessment from Day or 28 through Day 84, thereby validating the challenge methodology. Fluralaner efficacy was 100% on all occasions except for 2 fleas found on 1 dog on Day 1, and 3 fleas on 1 dog on Day 14. One flea was recovered from 1 fluralaner treated cat on Day 1. There were no treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: A single application of a topical formulation of fluralaner is well tolerated and highly effective in the prevention of flea infestations of dogs and cats throughout the 12 weeks following treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(7): e0006630, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044788

RESUMO

Plague (Yersinia pestis) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania major) are two rodent-associated diseases which are vectored by fleas and phlebotomine sand flies, respectively. In Central Asia, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) serves as the primary reservoir for both diseases in most natural foci. The systemic insecticide fipronil has been previously shown to be highly effective in controlling fleas and sand flies. However, the impact of a fipronil-based rodent bait, on flea and sand fly abundance, has never been reported in Central Asia. A field trial was conducted in southeastern Kazakhstan to evaluate the efficacy of a 0.005% fipronil bait, applied to gerbil burrows for oral uptake, in reducing Xenopsylla spp. flea and Phlebotomus spp. sand fly abundance. All active gerbil burrows within the treated area were presented with ~120 g of 0.005% fipronil grain bait twice during late spring/early summer (June 16, June 21). In total, 120 occupied and 14 visited gerbil colonies were surveyed and treated, and the resulting application rate was minimal (~0.006 mg fipronil/m2). The bait resulted in 100% reduction in Xenopsylla spp. flea abundance at 80-days post-treatment. Gravid sand flies were reduced ~72% and 100% during treatment and at week-3 post-treatment, respectively. However, noticeable sand fly reduction did not occur after week-3 and results suggest environmental factors also influenced abundance significantly. In conclusion, fipronil bait, applied in southeastern Kazakhstan, has the potential to reduce or potentially eliminate Xenopsylla spp. fleas if applied at least every 80-days, but may need to be applied at higher frequency to significantly reduce the oviposition rate of Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Fipronil-based bait may provide a means of controlling blood-feeding vectors, subsequently reducing disease risk, in Central Asia and other affected regions globally.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Gerbillinae/fisiologia , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 408, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is approved for dogs as a chewable tablet formulation. It has separately been developed for oral administration in cats (Credelio™ chewable tablets for cats) to meet the need for an easy to use, safe and rapidly effective parasiticide and as an alternative to topical products. This paper describes two pivotal laboratory studies assessing the efficacy and speed of kill of lotilaner in cats against Ctenocephalides felis fleas following a single oral administration, at the minimum recommended dose rate of 6 mg/kg. METHODS: Two GCP (Good Clinical Practice), blinded, randomized, negative-controlled, parallel-groups, laboratory studies were performed. In both studies, lotilaner was administered once, per os, at the minimum recommended dose of 6 mg/kg. Study 1 evaluated the efficacy of lotilaner tablets for cats against adult C. felis in experimentally infested cats, 24 h after treatment and after new weekly infestations, until day 35. Study 2 evaluated the speed of kill of lotilaner against C. felis, in cats, 8 and 12 h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly infestation, through day 35. In both studies, for each assessed time point, animals were randomized 1:1 to a lotilaner-treated or a contemporaneous negative control group of 8 cats each. RESULTS: In both studies, the infestation in the control groups was adequate at all assessment times. In Study 1, efficacy at 24 h was 100% at all time points. In Study 2, efficacy was ≥ 97.4% at the 8 h and ≥ 98.6% at the 12 h time point, through one month. Lotilaner was well tolerated, with no product-related adverse events reported. CONCLUSIONS: Lotilaner administered orally to cats at the minimum recommended dose rate of 6 mg/kg was effective as early as 8 hours post-administration and at 8 hours after subsequent weekly infestations of adult C. felis for at least one month. The product was well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas , Isoxazóis , Administração Oral , Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Med Entomol ; 55(5): 1254-1263, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878139

RESUMO

A survey conducted from 2002 to 2012 of 759 customers from 84 veterinary practices allows us to examine the habits of dog and cat owners regarding the use of insecticides for flea control. The results indicate that the percentage of animals treated during the 12 mo prior to the survey was not very high (71% in dogs and 50% in cats), considering that 100% of animals included in the study were flea-infested. Statistical analysis shows that animals older than 4 mo are treated more frequently and that dogs are more likely to be treated than cats. Among cats, those living in houses with gardens or farms are treated at a higher rate than those that live in houses without gardens or in flats. The main variable associated with the degree of satisfaction and product loyalty is the active ingredient, and the choice of a commercial product is generally associated with high-efficacy products. The mode of application of a flea treatment does not seem to have a strong influence on pet owner satisfaction or loyalty. Likewise, we do not find a clear correlation between owners' satisfaction and loyalty, so pet owners may find the results of the selected product more or less satisfactory for reasons other than simple effectiveness. Finally, because of the complexity of the life cycle of these ectoparasites, the importance of the advice of a veterinarian when planning flea control is emphasized.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Controle de Insetos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 43, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of the domestic cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) and disease risks associated with them, flea control is difficult and requires the development of new control interventions such as vaccines. In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach was designed to achieve a rational selection of cat flea candidate protective antigens. METHODS: Based on transcriptomics and proteomics data from unfed adult fleas it was possible to select more specific candidate protective antigens based on highly represented and functionally relevant proteins present in the predicted exoproteome. The protective capacity of the recombinant antigens was evaluated for the control of C. felis infestations in vaccinated cats. RESULTS: Vaccination with recombinant antigens induced an antibody response in immunized cats. Furthermore, a correlation was obtained between the effect of vaccination (antibody levels) and vaccine efficacy on flea phenotype (egg hatchability). The results suggested that the main effect of vaccination with these antigens was on reducing cat flea egg hatchability and fertility, with an overall vaccine efficacy of 32-46%. Although vaccination with these antigens did not have an effect on flea infestations, vaccines affecting reproductive capacity could reduce cat flea populations, particularly under conditions of direct insect transmission between cats. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the development of vaccines with protective antigens affecting flea reproduction and development after feeding on immunized animals for the control of cat flea infestations.


Assuntos
Antígenos/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Ctenocephalides/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos/análise , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/química , Ctenocephalides/genética , Ctenocephalides/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Proteoma/análise , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 347-351, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286262

RESUMO

At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, US, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year). More research is necessary for a better understanding of the efficacy of insecticide dusts at lowering flea counts and protecting prairie dogs from plague.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Sciuridae , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 248: 80-83, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173546

RESUMO

Cats that have outdoor access are highly exposed to ticks, fleas, mites and flying insects, though the risk to become infested by arthropods is less perceived in cats than in dogs. This has resulted in fewer treatment and prevention options being available for cats than for dogs. A collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health) is available for cats and licensed with claims against ticks and fleas for 7-8 months. Following the assessment of the efficacy of the collar against Leishmania infantum infection in privately owned cats living in the Aeolian archipelago, herein we report the efficacy of the collar in the treatment and prevention of tick and flea infestations in the same population of cats over a period of one year of observation. At the inclusion day (Study Day 0, SD 0), cats were visited and examined for ectoparasites (i.e., flea combing and tick thumb counts) and allocated to group 1 (G1; n=104; cats treated with Seresto® collar) or group 2 (G2; n=100; untreated controls) and further checked at SDs 210, 270 and 360 (study closure). At SD 0, G1 and G2 had a comparable percentage of cats infested by fleas (45.2% and 49.0%; χ2=0.164; P=0.6859) and ticks (6.7% and 14.0%; χ2=2.946; P=0.0861). The number of cats infested by fleas was reduced in G1, being 8.3%, 0% and 3.8% on SDs 210, 270 and 360, respectively, resulting in efficacies against fleas of 79.4%, 100% and 93.6% on SDs 210, 270 and 360. None of the cats in G1 was found infested by ticks after the application of the collar, whereas in G2 ticks were observed on 15.7%, 4.8%, 17.5% of the cats at the different follow up visits, leading to an overall efficacy against ticks of 100%. A total of 375 ectoparasites were collected from cats, being 249 fleas (six Ctenocephalides canis, 240 Ctenocephalides felis and three Nosopsyllus fasciatus) and 126 ticks (87 Ixodes ventalloi and 39 Rhipicephalus pusillus). Field data gathered herein confirm a high efficacy of the collar in the prevention of tick and flea infestations on cats. This is of great importance both for the primary role of fleas and ticks as blood feeding parasites and, more importantly, because of their role as vectors of pathogens causing diseases of veterinary and medical importance.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Ilhas , Itália , Ixodidae , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Piretrinas , Sifonápteros , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/instrumentação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
16.
Cutis ; 100(1): 40;49, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873107

RESUMO

The sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) earns its name by embedding its head in the host's skin. It has been found in many species of birds and mammals, including humans. The sticktight flea is found worldwide in the tropics, subtropics, and temperate zones, and it is the only representative of this genus found in the United States. Bites from fleas cause irritation and itching for hosts including humans, typically resulting in clusters of firm, pruritic, erythematous papules. Treatment can be tricky, as the fleas can be difficult to remove, and any flea-infested environments should be properly treated to prevent further bites.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , Infestações por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Sifonápteros , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/parasitologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(6): 603-607, jun. 2017. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895466

RESUMO

The study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of a fipronil/(S)-methoprene formulation against fleas on naturally infested cats. The study involved a population of 89 cats distributed among 24 veterinary practices in 9 regions of Spain. The product was applied according to label instructions on days 0, 30 and 60. Animals underwent parasitological and clinical assessments on day 0 and thereafter in monthly intervals (every 30 days) until day 90. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant species (98.9% of all fleas collected), and flea abundance on Day 0 was associated with the hair type, the location of the household, and the time elapsed from the last anti-flea treatment. Fipronil/(S)-methoprene demonstrated high efficacy and induced the reduction of clinical signs related to the presence of fleas. Clinical signs and flea abundance decreased significantly throughout time (P=0.001) with an efficacy rate of 72.6% at Day 30, 88.4% at Day 60 and 93.9% at Day 90. A high level of flea control and a remission of the clinical signs related to presence of fleas were observed on cats following 3 monthly applications a fipronil/(S)-methoprene formulation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Metoprene/uso terapêutico , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle
18.
J Vector Ecol ; 42(1): 171-177, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504448

RESUMO

Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1st post-, and 2nd post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Peste , Doenças dos Roedores , Yersinia pestis
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 212, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28454576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of fleas parasitize dogs living with sheep in Greece. The primary aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of a permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix®) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep and the secondary aim was to examine the efficacy of this intervention on flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with these dogs. METHODS: Thirty dogs living with sheep and infested by at least 10 fleas and all 80 sheep living on the same premises were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A dogs were treated three times, every 4 weeks, with a spot-on containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil, group A sheep were treated, on the same days, with a pour-on containing 1% deltamethrin, whereas group B dogs were sham-treated and group B sheep were placebo-treated. Flea counting was performed at the beginning of the trial (day 0) and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days and the first five fleas from each animal were used for species identification. At the same time points, flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were assessed. RESULTS: The percentage of dogs with zero flea counts was significantly higher in group A than in group B on days 14, 28, 56 and 84 and flea counts were significantly lower in group A dogs than in group B dogs at the same time points. The percent efficacy of the permethrin-fipronil combination was higher than 78% (arithmetic means) or than 96% (geometric means) throughout the study. No adverse reactions were recorded. Between the two flea species found on dogs, Ctenocephalides canis was predominant over C. felis. Flea-infected sheep were not found at the beginning or during the study and no significant changes in flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were witnessed throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: A spot-on solution containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil is safe and effective for the treatment and prevention of C. canis and C. felis infestations in dogs living with sheep.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/patologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Grécia , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Carga Parasitária , Permetrina/efeitos adversos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Zoonoses/transmissão
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 37, 2017 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleas are a common ectoparasite of domestic cats and there is a need for novel treatments that improve feline flea control. METHODS: This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive-controlled study evaluated the flea control in cats provided by a single owner-applied treatment with a fluralaner topical formulation compared with a positive control. Households with up to five healthy cats, all at least 12 weeks of age and weighing at least 1.2 kg (2.6 lb), were randomized in an approximate 3:1 ratio of fluralaner to positive control. All cats in households randomized to the positive control group were dispensed three treatments, at 4-week intervals, of a commercial formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene. All cats in households randomized to the fluralaner group were dispensed an initial treatment at enrollment and a second treatment at week 12 for an additional 3-week observation of treatment safety. One primary cat with at least five live fleas at enrollment was randomly selected within each household. Flea counts were performed on all primary cats at 4-week intervals through week 12. Efficacy measurement was based on reduction in flea counts from baseline. Treatment was considered effective at weeks 4, 8 and 12 if mean live flea count reductions were 90% or greater and statistically significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from counts at enrollment. RESULTS: In 18 investigational veterinary clinics across 11 USA states, 116 households (224 cats) were randomized to receive topical fluralaner and 45 households (87 cats) were randomized to the fipronil-methoprene combination. Fluralaner was demonstrated to be effective at 4 weeks (99.1% flea count reduction), 8 weeks (99.5%), and 12 weeks (99.0%), and all reductions were significantly different from the enrollment count (all P < 0.0001). The fipronil-methoprene combination was < 90% effective at each post-treatment assessment, with peak efficacy of 75.4% at 12 weeks (all P < 0.0001). No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Owner-applied fluralaner topical treatment was safe in cats and was highly effective in killing fleas over the subsequent 12 weeks.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Carga Parasitária , Método Simples-Cego , Soluções/administração & dosagem , Soluções/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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