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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 337, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flea bite is considered to be the main cause of allergic dermatitis in cats. There is a need for treatments able to control clinical signs of allergic dermatitis associated with flea bite in cats. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment clinical field study. All cats included in the study presented pruritus, skin lesions or other evidence compatible with flea infestation. Skin lesions were assessed (using SCORFAD) at days 0, 28, 56 and 84 whereas pruritus severity was assessed (using PVAS) at days 0, 15, 28, 56 and 84. On day 0, The fluralaner (280 mg/ml) product (Bravecto® spot-on for cats) was supplied in pipettes containing 0.4, 0.89 and 1.79 ml for cats of 1.2-2.8 kg, > 2.8-6.25 kg and > 6.25-12.5 kg body weight, respectively. The other animals living in the same household also received fluralaner. Based on cytological examination at day 0, oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for 21 days if indicated. For cats presenting intense pruritus and discomfort at day 0, oral prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg was prescribed for 3 days. RESULTS: During the study all cats, except for one (cat number 10), improved significantly. Post-treatment median SCORFAD scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment score on day 0 (P values < 0.002 for all three post treatment examination days) with a score reduction of 49% on day 28, 79% on day 56 and 87% on day 84. The PVAS score decreased significantly over the study period for all cats but one (cat number 10). Post-treatment median PVAS scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment PVAS score on day 0 (P value < 0.002 for all four post-treatment days) with a reduction of 46% on day 15, 67% on day 28, 82% on day 56 and 92% on day 84. No adverse reaction or other health issue was reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single topical treatment with fluralaner results in a significant reduction of flea bite allergic dermatitis clinical signs in cats over the subsequent 12 weeks without any additional environmental treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Ctenocephalides , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Masculino , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 760-763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483035

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Sifonápteros , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 259, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation of fluralaner plus moxidectin has been designed to provide long-term protection against fleas and ticks, prevent heartworm disease and treat gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this product against fleas collected from a household with repeated fipronil failures following owner-administered treatments. METHODS: Thirty cats were randomized to three equal groups: (A) untreated controls; (B) to receive a single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus) at 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively; and (C) three applications at one month intervals with a spot-on formulation of fipronil and (S)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus) at 0.5 ml manufacturer recommended dose. Flea challenges were completed on Days -6 (for randomization), -1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 77, 84 and 91. Flea counts were completed 48 hours after initial treatment and 48 hours following each subsequent challenge. RESULTS: Fleas were found on all control and all fipronil and (S)-methoprene treated cats at every assessment. From Day 2 to Day 93, all cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were flea-free, with one exception (Day 58; three fleas counted on one cat); control group flea counts ranged between 34-109, and fipronil and (S)-methoprene group counts ranged between 1-79. At each assessment after Day 0, compared to the control group, geometric mean flea counts were significantly lower in the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P ≤ 0.04) and in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group (P < 0.001), and mean flea counts in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were significantly lower than those of the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin, based on geometric means, was 100% at each assessment post-Day 0 except on Day 58 when efficacy was 99.7%. In the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group efficacy ranged between 30.6-65.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate complete efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin against a flea isolate that was not controlled by fipronil and (S)-methoprene. This study provides confirmation of the consistent, sustained efficacy of topically applied fluralaner in the treatment and control of flea infestations in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S52-S57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133494

RESUMO

In a controlled laboratory study, the efficacy against fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, of a single treatment of fluralaner topical solution (Bravecto® for Cats, Merck) was compared with that of three consecutive monthly topical treatments with selamectin and sarolaner (Revolution® Plus, Zoetis). Twenty-four domestic short hair cats were ranked based on host suitability flea counts to form groups of three and were randomly assigned within group to one of three treatments. The first group received a topical treatment with (a) placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 0, 30, and 60, (b) 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner on Days 0, 30, and 60, or (c) 40 mg/kg fluralaner on Day 0 and placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 30 and 60. Because doses were rounded off, the selamectin plus sarolaner-treated cats received effective dosages of 5.25-6.60 mg/kg selamectin and 0.88-1.10 mg/kg sarolaner, while the fluralaner-treated cats received dosages of 34.71-43.08 mg/kg fluralaner. All cats were infested with 100 (±5) fleas on Day -1 and at biweekly intervals after that, from Day 13 to Day 89. Flea comb counts were conducted 24 hours after treatment or after re-infestation. There were no adverse events related to treatment during the study. Except for a single cat from which 20 fleas were recovered on Day 90, all other placebo-treated cats had at least 48 fleas at each count, indicating adequacy of infestation of the controls. Based on geometric mean live flea counts, three consecutive monthly treatments with Revolution® Plus resulted in consistent and high efficacy of ≥98.6% compared with placebo throughout the study. A single treatment with Bravecto® for Cats provided consistent and high efficacy of ≥94.6% on all count days during a period of 12 weeks, the approved duration of efficacy for the product. Based on the efficacy results of the study, both products were equivalent in their ability to control fleas on cats. Use of Bravecto® for Cats every 12 weeks or the consecutive monthly use of Revolution® Plus is expected to provide extended high residual kill over the respective labeled durations of efficacy of the two products.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(4): 274-283, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668280

RESUMO

Sylvatic plague affects many species in North American prairie ecosystems. Deltamethrin is commonly used to manage fleas in potential outbreak areas. Understanding the role of small mammals and their ectoparasites in sylvatic plague maintenance is pertinent to understanding the ecology of plague and its persistence in nature. This study examined the effects of plague management using deltamethrin on communities of small mammals, their flea faunas, and Yersinia pestis prevalence. We trapped small mammals from 2014 to 2016 on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation (LOBR), South Dakota, and analyzed the effects of deltamethrin treatment on small mammal populations, flea loads, and Y. pestis prevalence. We collected higher flea loads from small mammals on sites not treated with deltamethrin (1.10 fleas per animal) than from deltamethrin-treated sites (1.03 fleas per animal). We observed significant negative trends in mean flea load per animal between pre- and post-treatment collections. We detected no significant effects of deltamethrin treatment on animal captures pre- and post-treatment, but observed significant differences in animal captures by experimental unit. We detected no serological evidence for the presence of Y. pestis antibodies in small mammals and 1.2% Y. pestis prevalence across all sampled fleas. Although there is little overlap in the species of fleas infesting small mammals and prairie dogs, the occurrence of flea spillover has been documented. In our study, treatment with deltamethrin reduced flea loads on small mammals by up to 49%. Our data suggest that although the efficacy of deltamethrin on the LOBR-a mixed-grass system-may not be as high as that found in a comparable study in a short-grass system, deltamethrin is still a useful tool in the management of plague.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Roedores/parasitologia , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Yersinia pestis
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(6): 400-406, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620249

RESUMO

Plague, a flea-borne disease, hampers efforts to restore populations of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), which occupy colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in North America. Plague is managed by infusing prairie dog burrows with DeltaDust® 0.05% deltamethrin, a pulicide that kills fleas. Experiments are needed to identify pulicides that can be used in rotation with DeltaDust for integrated plague management. In South Dakota, USA, we tested the efficacy of four pulicide dusts when applied at a rate of 8 g per burrow on colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus): Sevin® 5% carbaryl; Dusta-cide® 6% malathion; Alpine® 0.25% dinotefuran with 95% diatomaceous earth; and Tri-Die® 1% pyrethrum with 40% amorphous silica and 10% piperonyl butoxide. We also tested systemic 0.005% fipronil, which was distributed as ½ cup of laced grain per burrow. We sampled prairie dogs on 3294 occasions and detected 10,041 fleas. Sevin and Dusta-cide suppressed fleas but only for 1 month. Neither Alpine nor Tri-Die had any noticeable, consistent effect on fleas. Fipronil suppressed fleas by 97-100% for 3 months. The residual effect of fipronil persisted for ∼12 months. Efficacy of fipronil seems comparable with DeltaDust, which exhibited a residual effect for ∼10 months in prior studies. Continued research is needed to optimize fipronil treatments for plague management on prairie dog colonies.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Peste/prevenção & controle , Peste/transmissão , Peste/veterinária , South Dakota
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 28, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cats can be infested with several ectoparasite species, especially Ctenocephalides felis and Otodectes cynotis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single topical application of fluralaner against C. felis and O. cynotis natural infestation in stray (study 1) and owned (study 2) cats in central and southern Italy. RESULTS: The number of live fleas found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to more than 30 (arithmetic mean live flea count = 11.9 in study 1; 14.6 in study 2) while no live fleas were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. The number of live mites found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to 42 (arithmetic mean live mite count = 6.4 in study 1; 8.9 in study 2) while no live mites were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. CONCLUSIONS: Topical fluralaner completely eliminated fleas and ear mites from infested cats and was 100% effective against both parasites up to 84 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S3-S11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579753

RESUMO

Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6.0-12.0 mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0 mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin (Advantage® Multi for Cats, Bayer) was used as a positive control in both studies at the label dosage. In the flea study, treatments were administered on Days 0, 30, and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live flea counts on Days 30, 60, and 90 relative to the pre-treatment count. In the ear mite study, a single treatment was applied on Day 0 and efficacy was determined on Days 14 and 30 based on the presence or absence of ear mites. In both studies, patients were randomly allocated to treatments in the ratio of 2:1, selamectin plus sarolaner: imidacloprid plus moxidectin. In the two studies, 405 cats received treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; of these, 256 cats received three monthly treatments in the flea study. There were no serious adverse reactions to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; health issues noted were typical of the normal ailments or minor traumatic injuries expected in the general cat population and were similar in both treatment groups. Efficacy against fleas based on geometric (arithmetic) means was 97.2% (95.9%), 99.5% (99.4%), and 99.8% (99.8%) in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and was 79.7% (70.5%), 91.4% (77.3%), and 95.5% (87.4%) in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Flea counts for the selamectin plus sarolaner group were significantly lower than the counts for the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group at all time-points after treatment administration on Day 0 (P < 0.001). Treatment reduced the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (alopecia, dermatitis/pyodermatitis, erythema, pruritus, scaling, and papules) in affected cats by 86.7%-100% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and by 66.7%-100% in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group. In the ear mite study, a single application of selamectin plus sarolaner resulted in the clearance of mites from 87.5% of cats within 14 days and 94.4% of cats within 30 days of treatment. The respective percentages of mite-free cats in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group were 64.0% and 72.0%. There were significantly more cats with no mites noted in the selamectin plus sarolaner group than in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Day 14 and Day 30 (P ≤ 0.018). Selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) administered topically at monthly intervals for three months was well tolerated and highly effective for the treatment and prevention of natural infestations of fleas on cats presented as veterinary patients. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved in affected cats following treatment administration. A single topical treatment was also safe and highly effective for the treatment of ear mite infestations in naturally infested cats.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 598, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation containing fluralaner (280 mg/ml) plus moxidectin (14 mg/ml) (Bravecto® Plus) has been developed to provide broad spectrum parasite protection for cats. The effectiveness and safety of this product against ticks and fleas was assessed in a randomized, controlled, 12-week study in client-owned cats in Germany and Spain. METHODS: Eligible households containing at least one cat with at least two fleas and/or two ticks were allocated randomly in a 2:1 ratio to a single treatment with fluralaner plus moxidectin on Day 0, or three 4-weekly treatments with fipronil (Frontline®). Veterinary staff, masked to treatment, completed tick and flea counts on each cat at 14 ± 2 (2 weeks), 28 ± 2 (4 weeks), 56 ± 2 (8 weeks) and 84 ± 2 days (12 weeks) after the initial treatment. RESULTS: In total, 707 cats (257 with ticks) from 332 households (236 with fleas) were included. Ixodes ricinus (78%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex (18%) ticks were the most commonly identified. Tick and flea counts were lower in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group than in the fipronil group throughout the study and the efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin exceeded 97 and 98%, respectively. At 12 weeks, 94.1 and 93.3% of cats from the fluralaner plus moxidectin and 92.2 and 60.3% of cats from the fipronil group were free of ticks and fleas, respectively. Fluralaner plus moxidectin was non-inferior to fipronil (P < 0.0001) at all assessments and superior to fipronil at 2 and 8 weeks for the proportion of cats free of ticks (P < 0.0001). Fluralaner plus moxidectin was superior to fipronil for the proportion of both households and cats free of fleas (P < 0.0001). Both products were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: A single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin spot-on was well tolerated by cats and highly effective for 12 weeks against ticks and fleas. Fluralaner plus moxidectin was non-inferior to fipronil for the proportion of ectoparasite-free and consistently superior to fipronil in controlling fleas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Propriedade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Simples-Cego , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 581, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veterinary clinic transaction records from the USA were examined to determine dog owner purchase patterns for three prescription ectoparasiticides. In-clinic purchases of formulations of fluralaner (with 12-week duration per dose) were compared with dog owner purchases of afoxolaner and spinosad (both with 4 week duration per dose) in a population of 231,565 dogs over a 12 month period. Prior studies in human and animal medicine have suggested that patients more closely adhere to prescriber dosing recommendations when they receive a longer-duration medication. RESULTS: Veterinary clinic transaction records were examined for the period June 2014 through March 2017 using records from approximately 650 veterinary clinics. Ectoparasiticide purchase patterns were compared for two products (afoxalaner and spinosad) with monthly dosing and one product (fluralaner) with an extended (12 week) dosing interval. The average dog owner who obtained fluralaner purchased significantly more months of flea/tick protection (5.7 months) over the 12-month study period than the average dog owner that selected either afoxolaner (4.6 months) or spinosad (3.3 months). The proportion of dog owners who obtained only one dose of ectoparasiticide per 12-month period was 42% for fluralaner, 30% for afoxolaner and 37% for spinosad. The proportion of dog owners who obtained 2 doses or less per 12-month period was 67% for fluralaner, 52% for afoxoalaner and 67% for spinosad. Owners that obtained fluralaner were significantly more likely to obtain 7.0-12.0 months of flea and tick protection and significantly less likely to purchase 1.0-6.9 months compared with dog owners who purchased afoxolaner or spinosad. CONCLUSIONS: Dog owners who obtained a flea and tick medication with a longer duration of action acquired significantly more months of protection in a year than dog owners who obtained shorter duration (1 month) products. Dog owners were better able to adhere to veterinary recommendations on ectoparasites control with a longer-acting flea/tick medication.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Adesão à Medicação , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estados Unidos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 493, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heartworm medications and many oral or topical flea and tick products are provided as monthly doses while a newer oral flea/tick product, fluralaner (BRAVECTO® Chew), is re-dosed at a 12-week interval. This study focused on whether there was a difference in the number of heartworm medication doses that were purchased in the 12-months follow-up period for dogs that receive either fluralaner or other flea/tick medications that are dosed monthly. METHODS: Clinic transaction records of heartworm medication purchases for over 200,000 dogs were examined to compare the purchase of heartworm preventative protection by dog owners that also receive flea and tick medications of differing efficacy durations. RESULTS: Annual purchases of heartworm medication for dogs by owners that receive a flea and tick medication dosed at 12-week intervals was incrementally higher than the number of doses purchased for dogs receiving monthly flea and tick medications. The average number of monthly doses per year was slightly over 7 months for both categories of product. The distribution of purchases of monthly doses was also similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dog owners who purchase a longer-acting flea and tick medication purchase as much heartworm medication annually for their dogs as dog owners who purchase monthly flea and tick medication. On average, dog owners who gave their dog fluralaner obtained significantly more months of heartworm preventative protection compared with dog owners who gave their dog a monthly flea and tick medication, although the biological significance of this increase in doses is very small.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Cães , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Acta Vet Scand ; 60(1): 58, 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) are common on farmed mink in Denmark. When present, the fleas have a negative impact on the health of the farmed mink and are of nuisance for farm staff. Severe infestations of fleas cause anemia, poor growth and may result in death of mink kits. Changed behavior of the dams is also observed. Further it has been demonstrated that the fleas are vectors of Aleutian disease virus. Flea control is based on use of a few insecticides and resistance has been reported against permethrin. There is thus a need for new flea control products. In this blinded, randomized clinical trial according to GCP standard, phoxim spray and bendiocarb powder for flea control on mink farms were investigated. RESULTS: Both the phoxim spray solution and bendiocarb powder were found to be efficient for the control of C. sciurorum fleas on farmed mink. Phoxim treatments reduced the number of fleas by 98.4% and the bendiocarb treatments reduced the number of fleas by 99.0% in the mink nest boxes when compared to counts in controls. No clinical signs were observed post treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that phoxim sprayed on the animals and the use of bendiocarb powder in the nest box material were highly efficient for the control of the C. sciurorum fleas on farmed mink. Both products were safe to use at the recommended dose rate. Both compounds are recommended to be integrated in a new farm management plan suggested here.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Vison , Compostos Organotiofosforados/uso terapêutico , Fenilcarbamatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dinamarca , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 258: 99-107, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105986

RESUMO

Spinetoram is the newest member the spinosyn-class of natural products to be commercialized for flea control on cats in the United States under the tradename Cheristin® for cats. This report describes results from two laboratory studies and a multi-center clinical field trial designed to confirm the efficacy of a topical spot-on solution containing spinetoram (11.2% w/w, 130 mg/mL) against European strains of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. In the laboratory studies, cats were allocated to one of two treatment groups of eight animals each: negative control (mineral oil) or spinetoram, both applied as a topical spot-on at the base of the skull on Day 0. Cats were infested with ∼100 newly emerged, unfed adult fleas on Days -2 or -1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. To calculate efficacy, fleas were counted and removed 48 h after treatment, and 48 h after each subsequent infestation through week 5. Spinetoram treatments provided 100% efficacy through at least day 16 and ≥ 97% efficacy (arithmetic mean) for one month. For the field trial, 23 clinics from Northern and Southern Europe participated in the study that compared the effectiveness and safety of spinetoram and fipronil/(S)-methoprene treatments over a period of two months. There were 258 and 248 evaluable efficacy cases for month 1 and month 2, respectively, with 300 total evaluable cases for safety. Treatments were administered on Day 0 and again on Day 30 (±3 days). The effectiveness of treatments was calculated based on reduction in live flea counts on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 (±3 days) relative to flea counts obtained on Day 0. Efficacy (geometric mean percent flea reduction) on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 was 97.0%, 95.0%, 99.3% and 99.1% for spinetoram, respectively, and 86.1%, 80.9%, 92.4% and 92.3% for fipronil/(S)-methoprene, respectively. Spinetoram was deemed non-inferior at all intervals and superior to fipronil/(S)-methoprene at Days 30 and 60. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) were markedly improved following spinetoram treatment, as demonstrated through statistically significant reductions in severity of FAD scores for most of the clinical signs when compared to fipronil/(S)-methoprene treatment. There was a lower overall adverse event incidence rate for spinetoram (5.1%) versus fipronil/(S)-methoprene treatment (11.5%).


Assuntos
Administração Tópica , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Gatos , Dermatite/parasitologia , Cães , Composição de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/análise , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Metoprene/efeitos adversos , Metoprene/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 259: 74-79, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056988

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an insecticidal product in rabbits that combines the neonicotinoid dinotefuran with the pyrethroid permethrin plus the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen. Adult New Zealand rabbits (n = 12) were infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis (50 males and 50 females per rabbit) at days -7, -2, +5, +12 and +19. The control group (n = 6) received no treatment and the treated group (n = 6) received the commercial formulation, indicated for use in dogs, which was applied topically on day 0. The animals were mechanically evaluated with combs (comb test), to assess pulicidal efficacy, on days -5, +2, +7, +14 and +21. All flea removals and counts were performed by region, following the order: head, ears, neck, forelegs, dorsum, abdomen, hind limbs and tail, in order to determine the preferred sites of parasitism by the C. felis felis flea in rabbits. The distribution of fleas prevailed in the head region (about 62%), followed by the neck and back (14 and 11%, respectively). The insecticidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means, showing effectiveness of 100% on days +2 and +7 and 82.2% and 81.6%, on days +14 and +21, respectively. Thus the present study has shown the combination to be a viable option in the treatment and control of rabbits infested by C. felis felis.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Permetrina/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Guanidinas/administração & dosagem , Guanidinas/efeitos adversos , Cabeça/parasitologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Permetrina/efeitos adversos , Animais de Estimação , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Coelhos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 408, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is approved for dogs as a chewable tablet formulation. It has separately been developed for oral administration in cats (Credelio™ chewable tablets for cats) to meet the need for an easy to use, safe and rapidly effective parasiticide and as an alternative to topical products. This paper describes two pivotal laboratory studies assessing the efficacy and speed of kill of lotilaner in cats against Ctenocephalides felis fleas following a single oral administration, at the minimum recommended dose rate of 6 mg/kg. METHODS: Two GCP (Good Clinical Practice), blinded, randomized, negative-controlled, parallel-groups, laboratory studies were performed. In both studies, lotilaner was administered once, per os, at the minimum recommended dose of 6 mg/kg. Study 1 evaluated the efficacy of lotilaner tablets for cats against adult C. felis in experimentally infested cats, 24 h after treatment and after new weekly infestations, until day 35. Study 2 evaluated the speed of kill of lotilaner against C. felis, in cats, 8 and 12 h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly infestation, through day 35. In both studies, for each assessed time point, animals were randomized 1:1 to a lotilaner-treated or a contemporaneous negative control group of 8 cats each. RESULTS: In both studies, the infestation in the control groups was adequate at all assessment times. In Study 1, efficacy at 24 h was 100% at all time points. In Study 2, efficacy was ≥ 97.4% at the 8 h and ≥ 98.6% at the 12 h time point, through one month. Lotilaner was well tolerated, with no product-related adverse events reported. CONCLUSIONS: Lotilaner administered orally to cats at the minimum recommended dose rate of 6 mg/kg was effective as early as 8 hours post-administration and at 8 hours after subsequent weekly infestations of adult C. felis for at least one month. The product was well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas , Isoxazóis , Administração Oral , Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 410, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new isoxazoline developed as an oral ectoparasiticide for cats and dogs. Its safety, rapid killing onset of action and sustained speed of fleas and ticks kill for a minimum of one month after administration, were demonstrated in a number of laboratory studies in cats. This study was performed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of lotilaner flavored chewable tablets for cats (Credelio™, Elanco) in controlling fleas under field conditions in European countries. METHODS: Seventeen veterinary practices in France and Spain, located in high flea prevalence regions, participated in the study. Households with a maximum of three cats and two dogs were randomized 2:1 to a lotilaner (minimum dose rate 6 mg/kg) or a topical fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination (Frontline Combo® Spot-on Cats, Merial) group (administered according to label). In each household, efficacy against fleas and flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs were assessed in one primary cat (bearing a minimum of five fleas on Day 0) while safety was evaluated in all cats. There were 121 households included in the lotilaner and 61 in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene groups, respectively. Treatments were administered by the cats' owners on Day 0. Flea counts and FAD assessments were made on Days 0, 14, and 28. Efficacy calculations were based on geometric mean percent reductions of live flea counts versus baseline pre-treatment counts. RESULTS: Lotilaner efficacy was 97.2 and 98.1% on Days 14 and 28, respectively. Corresponding efficacy for fipronil/(S)-methoprene was 48.3 and 46.4%. Lotilaner was superior to fipronil/(S)-methoprene at all post-Day 0 assessments and over the whole study period (P < 0.0001). At every post-administration evaluation, at least 81% of lotilaner-treated cats were flea-free as opposed to 25% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. Lotilaner improved or eliminated clinical signs of FAD, including pruritus. Both products were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Under field conditions in Europe, lotilaner flavored chewable tablets for cats displayed an efficacy against fleas higher than 97%; clinical signs of FAD were improved or eliminated. Lotilaner tablets were safe and provided superior flea control to fipronil/(S)-methoprene.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Sifonápteros , Animais , Gatos , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/parasitologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metoprene/efeitos adversos , Metoprene/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 422, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An investigation was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate the efficacy of either topically applied fluralaner or topically applied selamectin to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus in naturally flea infested cats over a 12-week period. When dogs were present in the households, they were treated with either oral fluralaner (if household cats were treated with topical fluralaner) or oral sarolaner (if household cats were treated with topical selamectin). METHODS: Thirty-one cats in 20 homes were treated once with fluralaner topical solution on day 0 and 18 dogs in these homes were administered a single fluralaner chewable. Twenty-nine cats in 18 homes were treated once monthly with a selamectin topical solution for 3 treatments and 13 dogs in these same homes were treated once monthly for 3 treatments with a sarolaner chewable. Fleas on cats were counted by flea combing, fleas on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and fleas in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps. Blinded-assessments of feline dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly and pruritus severity was evaluated by pet owners. RESULTS: A single topical application of fluralaner reduced flea populations on cats by 96.6% within 7 days and by 100% at 12 weeks post-treatment. This efficacy was significantly greater than selamectin treatment where single topical application reduced flea populations on cats by 79.4% within 7 days of initial treatment and 3 consecutive monthly treatments reduced flea populations by 91.3% at the end of 12 weeks. At the end of the 12-week study, all fluralaner-treated cats were flea-free and this was significantly greater than the 38.5% of selamectin treated cats that were flea-free. At the end of the study, fleas were completely eradicated (from cats, dogs and homes) in 95.0% of fluralaner treatment group homes, significantly greater than the 31.3% of selamectin/sarolaner treatment group homes with complete flea eradication. Owner reported cat pruritus was reduced similarly in both treatment groups. Significant improvements in dermatologic lesion scores were achieved by day 30 in fluralaner treated cats and by day 60 in selamectin treated cats. CONCLUSIONS: An in-home investigation in subtropical Florida found that 1 application of topical fluralaner eliminated flea infestations on cats and in homes significantly more effectively than 3 consecutive monthly doses of selamectin.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 347-351, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286262

RESUMO

At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, US, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year). More research is necessary for a better understanding of the efficacy of insecticide dusts at lowering flea counts and protecting prairie dogs from plague.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Sciuridae , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 529, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco), a novel isoxazoline, is a systemic insecticide and acaricide that is rapidly absorbed following oral administration to dogs and has a half-life of 30 days. As part of a development program, studies were undertaken to investigate lotilaner's initial and sustained efficacy and speed of kill against fleas. METHODS: Four studies were conducted to evaluate the onset of lotilaner's speed of flea knockdown at the time of treatment, and to determine the sustained speed of flea kill (SOK) up to 35 days post-treatment. Each study assessed one or two specific time points (4, 6, 8 and 12 h) post-treatment and following weekly re-infestations. In each study, dogs were randomised to a lotilaner or an untreated group based on pre-administration flea counts, and before treatment were infested with adult Ctenocephalides felis. Dogs randomised to a lotilaner group received a single treatment on Day 0, at the minimum recommended dose rate of 20 mg/kg, 30 (± 5) minutes after being fed. Efficacy was calculated using geometric, and arithmetic mean flea counts in treated versus untreated groups. RESULTS: On Day 0, lotilaner efficacy was 89.9% at 4 h, 99.2% at 6 h, 99.9% at 8 h, and 100% at 12 h post-treatment. At each weekly assessment, lotilaner efficacy at 4 h remained at > 97%, at 8 h remained at > 99%, and at 12 h remained at 100% through Day 35. Across all studies, there were no treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Lotilaner's rapid flea knockdown immediately following treatment and sustained SOK through 35 days post-treatment offers a new solution for helping to eliminate the health risks that accompany flea infestations on dogs. The consistency of the rapid, sustained flea SOK demonstrated in these studies generates confidence that monthly use of lotilaner in dogs can be valuable in disrupting the flea life cycle in a contaminated environment, and that newly acquired fleas will die quickly, thereby reducing the discomfort of flea bites. The sustained lotilaner SOK also provides confidence that there will be no "end-of-dose" resurgence in flea burdens with the potential accompanying consequence of flares in flea-bite hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
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