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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e015620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909832

RESUMO

Rickettsia felis is an obligate intracellular bacterium capable of infecting ticks, fleas, lice, and other arthropods. This bacterium is classified as a member of the Transitional Group (TRG) Rickettsia. It is known the evidence of R. felis mutualistic and obligatory relationship with some eukaryote organisms. However, there aren't scientific accounts of R. felis and moths of the order Lepidoptera association. The current work reports the first identification of the bacteria R. felis in Phereoeca sp. For that, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using gltA, ompA, and ompB genes was used. The nucleotide sequences showed 100% of identity with other Rickettsia felis sequences. The genus-level identification of the moth larvae was performed by morphological taxonomic keys and PCR analysis of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. The nucleotide sequenced showed 94.94% similarity with the species Phereoeca praecox. However, with the low number of sequences deposited in the databases, the species was classified as Phereoeca sp. The results suggest that R. felis may develop in an organism without blood-feeding behavior (Lepidoptera), as it has been demonstrated for booklice (Psocoptera). Further investigation is necessary in order to confirm pathogenic or mutualistic association with moths.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infestações por Pulgas , Lepidópteros , Rickettsia felis , Rickettsia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Rickettsia felis/genética
2.
Parasite ; 28: 21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812453

RESUMO

Esafoxolaner, a purified enantiomer of afoxolaner with insecticidal and acaricidal properties, is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel in NexGard® Combo, a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. The efficacy of this novel formulation against adult and immature stages of Ctenocephalides felis fleas was tested in four experimental studies. Two studies were designed to test adulticide efficacy, one to test inhibition of immature stages, and one to test both adulticide efficacy and inhibition of immature stages. In each study, cats were randomly allocated to a placebo control group or to a novel formulation group treated once at the minimum recommended dose. Cats were experimentally infested weekly for one to two months with unfed C. felis originating from North America or Europe. For adulticide efficacy evaluations, live fleas were counted 24 h after treatment and after subsequent weekly infestations. For immature stages, flea eggs were collected and counted weekly for evaluation of egg production inhibition and incubated for larval hatching evaluation. In the three studies testing adult fleas, curative efficacies, 24 h after treatment, were 92.1%, 98.3% and 99.7%; preventive weekly efficacies, 24 h after weekly infestations, remained higher than 95.5% for at least one month. In the two studies testing immature stages, egg production and larval hatching was significantly reduced for at least one month. These studies provide robust evidence of efficacy of the novel formulation against experimental adult flea infestations and for the prevention of environmental contamination by immature flea stages, for at least one month.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão , Infestações por Pulgas , Inseticidas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , América do Norte , Praziquantel
3.
Parasite ; 28: 22, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812454

RESUMO

Esafoxolaner is a purified afoxolaner enantiomer with insecticidal and acaricidal properties. It is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicidal and cestodicidal compounds, in a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. This novel formulation was tested in four field studies, in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia. In all studies, naturally flea-infested domestic cats were treated with the novel formulation at the label dose and conditions of use. The main objective, identical in the four studies, was to assess efficacy on fleas, based on comparison of mean number of fleas found on infested cats before and one month after treatment. Tolerance to the product was also evaluated in the four studies. Otherwise, the studies had some differences in their design and secondary objectives, for example testing for a reduction in flea infestation-related cutaneous signs, testing of one treatment or of three monthly treatments, and use of a positive control group. In the four studies, a total of 307 cats were treated with the novel formulation. The reduction of fleas one month after treatment was 97.7%, 98.8%, 100% and 99.7% in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia, respectively. There were no significant health abnormalities attributed to treatment in any of the studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas , Inseticidas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Austrália , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Europa (Continente) , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Japão , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 181, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625587

RESUMO

Goats are critical in mixed smallholder agricultural systems in lower and middle-income countries, while fleas are important human and animal health concerns around the world. Convenience sampling was used to describe and consider risk factors for flea infestations of peri-urban goats, with the aim of informing the iterative development of animal husbandry and management based control strategies. Seven hundred and ninety-two goats were examined in 228 households across 10 peri-urban communities surrounding Blantyre in southern Malawi. The prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis fleas was 18.3, 37.1 and 100% at the levels of individual goats, households and communities, respectively, highlighting a neglected human and animal health concern. Constant introduction of new livestock coupled to a lack of biosecurity within communities, the ubiquitous presence of dog and cat hosts for C. felis, the frequency and thoroughness of cleaning overnight goat accommodation, and goat age less than 12 months old were identified as risk factors for flea infestation. This focal cross-sectional study highlights the significance of fleas in peri-urban communities and uncovers trends and commonalities that are needed to inform sustainable disease management. The majority of the peri-urban goat keepers were female, had resided in the same community throughout their whole life and had primary level education. Advice on the planned management of fleas in livestock needs to be tailored towards this demographic group. This approach affords an opportunity to promote public health measures to address household flea infestations and zoonotic disease spread.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão , Infestações por Pulgas , Doenças das Cabras , Parasitos , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Malaui , Fatores de Risco
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1203-1207, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590346

RESUMO

A new ctenophthalmid flea species, Ctenophthalmus (Ctenophthalmus) yesarii n. sp., is described and illustrated. This new species belonging to the fransmiti group is most closely related to Ctenophthalmus (Ctenophthalmus) fransmiti Suciu. Specimens of Ct. yesarii n. sp. were collected from the eastern broad-toothed field mouse, Apodemus mystacinus (Danford & Alston), in Balikesir (Edremit district) province of Turkey. The number of Ctenophthalmus taxa known from Turkey now tallies 41 taxa (27 species and 14 subspecies).


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Murinae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Masculino , Sifonápteros/anatomia & histologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2067-2073, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468188

RESUMO

Fleas are ectoparasites of mammals and birds. In livestock such as sheep and goat, flea bites cause many clinical signs. Several types of insecticides including pyrethroids are used to struggle against fleas. The widespread use of these insecticides causes an increase in the number of resistant individuals in flea populations. T929V and L1014F mutations corresponding to pyrethroid resistance have been found in the para gene of cat fleas. We aimed to investigate T929V and L1014F mutations in flea samples (n:162) collected from goats in seven different farms where cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, had been used intensively. To achieve this aim, collected flea samples were morphologically identified under a stereo microscope and DNA isolation was conducted by HotSHOT method. Later, a bi-PASA targeting the para gene was applied to identify both mutations in corresponding samples. According to the results obtained, all fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. Frequencies of T929V and L1014F mutations in fleas were 92.6% (150/162) and 95.7% (155/162), respectively. In conclusion, the frequency of mutations related to pyrethroid resistance was very high in the fleas collected from all the farms and it was thought that the high frequency of these mutations can be attributed to intensive use of pyrethroids.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Genes de Insetos/genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Piretrinas , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Cabras , Inseticidas , Mutação
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 57, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five studies were conducted to evaluate a novel oral combination tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio™), for efficacy against induced flea infestations, speed of kill and effects on flea reproduction on dogs. METHODS: Based on pre-treatment flea counts, dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single, oral dose of either placebo or Simparica Trio™ at the minimum label dose of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) on Day 0. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas (C. felis or C. canis) prior to treatment and weekly for 5 weeks post-treatment. In Studies 1, 2 and 3, the number of viable fleas were comb-counted at 24 h after treatment and after each weekly infestation; Study 2 also included groups treated with tablets containing sarolaner-alone (1.2 mg/kg), moxidectin-alone (24 µg/kg) or pyrantel-alone (5 mg/kg). In Study 4, flea counts were conducted at 3, 4, 8 and 12 h after treatment and subsequent weekly infestations to establish speed of kill. In Study 5 (flea reproduction), dogs were housed in an enclosure designed to facilitate collection of flea eggs. RESULTS: Efficacy of Simparica Trio™ against C. felis was ≥ 99.7% and against C. canis was 100% at 24 h after treatment and after subsequent infestations for at least 35 days. Treatment with sarolaner-alone had similar efficacy to Simparica Trio™, while moxidectin-alone and pyrantel-alone were no different from placebo at most time points. In Study 4, significant flea killing started at 4 h after treatment; by 8 h after treatment, all treated dogs were free of fleas. Following weekly re-infestation, the combination product reduced fleas by ≥ 97.8% within 12 h for 28 days. Simparica Trio™ reduced flea egg-laying by 100% for 35 days. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred in any study. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Simparica Trio™ at the recommended minimum dose provided highly efficacious and rapid treatment within 4 h of existing flea infestations and persistent control of fleas on dogs for 5 weeks. The efficacy against fleas resulted in 100% prevention of flea reproduction for over a month following a single oral dose.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Ctenocephalides/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 98, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One randomized, controlled clinical field study was conducted in 18 general veterinary practices throughout the USA to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel oral chewable combination tablet, Simparica Trio™, containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel for the treatment and prevention of fleas on dogs. METHODS: Client-owned dogs, from households of three or fewer dogs were eligible for enrollment. Four hundred and twenty-two dogs from 251 households were enrolled. Households were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with either Simparica Trio™ at the minimum label dose of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or afoxolaner (NexGard®, Boehringer-Ingelheim) at the label dose. One dog per household was selected as the primary dog for efficacy evaluations. Treatments were dispensed and dogs were dosed in their home environment on Day 0 and on approximately Day 30. Flea counts and examination for clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) were performed at the initial visit the day before or on Day 0 prior to treatment and on Days 30 and 60. Additionally, all dogs were examined for general health at each visit and blood and urine were collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 60. RESULTS: Simparica Trio™ reduced geometric mean live flea counts by 99.0% by Day 30 and by 99.7% by Day 60. As a result of the rapid reduction in flea infestations, clinical signs associated with FAD substantially improved following treatment. Simparica Trio™ was well-tolerated and a diverse range of concomitant medications were administered to dogs during the course of the study. Simparica Trio™ chewable tablets were well-accepted by dogs, with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.9%) voluntarily consumed by free choice without, or when offered in food. CONCLUSIONS: Simparica Trio™ administered orally once monthly for two consecutive treatments was safe and effective against natural flea infestations and substantially improved clinical signs associated with FAD in client-owned dogs in a field study conducted in the USA.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/veterinária , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Carga Parasitária , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 72, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel chewable oral tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio™) has recently been developed to provide persistent protection against flea and tick infections for a month, treatment of hookworm and roundworm infections and prevention of heartworm and lungworm disease in dogs. Two field studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Simparica Trio™ against natural flea and tick infestations on dogs in Europe. METHODS: Dogs with natural flea or tick infestations were allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either Simparica Trio™ tablets (flea study: n = 297; tick study: n = 189) to provide 1.2-2.4 mg/kg sarolaner, 24-48 µg/kg moxidectin and 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or with NexGard® Spectra (afoxolaner + milbemycin oxime) according to the label instructions (flea study: n = 164; tick study: n = 91). Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction in live parasite counts compared to the respective pre-treatment counts on Days 14 and 30 in the flea study and on Days 7, 14, 21 and 30 in the tick study. To count the fleas, the dog's entire coat was systematically combed using an extra fine-tooth flea comb until all fleas were removed. For the tick counts, the dog's entire coat was searched manually. Resolution of the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was assessed in flea allergic dogs in the flea study. Palatability was assessed in both studies. RESULTS: Simparica Trio™ was well tolerated in both studies. Efficacy against fleas was ≥ 97.9% in the Simparica Trio™ group and ≥ 96.1% in the NexGard® Spectra group. Efficacy against ticks was ≥ 94.8% in the Simparica Trio™ group and ≥ 94.4% in the NexGard® Spectra group. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment with Simparica Trio™. Simparica Trio™ tablets were voluntarily and fully consumed on ≥ 78% of the 485 occasions they were offered. CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of Simparica Trio™ was safe and highly efficacious against naturally occurring flea and tick infestations for 1 month on dogs. Clinical signs of FAD improved following treatment. Simparica Trio™ was voluntarily and readily consumed by most dogs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/veterinária , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114287

RESUMO

A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of the biological plant-based food supplement Bioticks® (extracts of thyme, rosemary, melissa, fenugreek, absinthe and lemongrass) as a flea-control product. Twelve dogs were used as placebo controls (group A). Ten dogs under similar housing conditions received the same food daily but supplemented with Bioticks® (group B). Flea counts were performed on D0 and 14, then 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months after the beginning of the study. No flea treatment was given or environmental modifications made during the 6 months prior to beginning and throughout the duration of the study. Efficacy was calculated according to Abbott's formula. No adverse event was recorded. At inclusion, dogs in groups A and B hosted a mean ± standard deviation of 7.9 ± 3.3 and 9.5 ± 3.6 fleas, respectively. The mean flea population in group A steadily increased until 4 months after D0 (21.5 ± 4.9 fleas/dog). Meanwhile, the mean flea population in group B dogs remained stable for the first month but then steadily decreased to reach an average of 3.1 ± 1.7 fleas/dog at D0+5 months. The percentage efficacy in the treated group as compared to the non-treated group was 33%, 51%, 71%, 80% and 82% at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively. Bioticks® was shown to be safe and effectively limited the flea population in dogs with a moderate flea infestation in conditions that were highly favourable to flea development. This is the first study to evaluate a plant-based product as an oral supplement for flea control.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 279: 109039, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044501

RESUMO

Ctenocephalides felis infestations outbreak is documented as a welfare and production limiting disease in neonatal calves in eastern New South Wales, Australia. Due to the calves' discomfort, the first objective was to relieve the calves from the large burden of fleas. The affected neonatal 0-4 week old calves showed dull and quiet demeanour, with the geometric mean of body condition score (BCS) 2.67 (2-4) and geometric mean burden 41.51 (15-75) of fleas collected over 3 min. Deltamethrin pour-on (Arrest Easy-Dose, Virbac Animal Health, Australia) registered for treatment of lice and flies on cattle in Australia was evaluated for control effect of the cat flea (C. felis) on cattle. The fleas were identified morphologically as being C. felis which was confirmed by sequencing cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox1). We report successful improvement of welfare and reduction of flea counts post application of pour-on deltamethrin on the property. In the absence of registered flea product for cattle in Australia, deltamethrin pour-on product is a suitable option, because of its registration for control of lice and flies on cattle.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ctenocephalides/fisiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , New South Wales
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(3): 329-338, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927646

RESUMO

Ticks and fleas are essential vectors of pathogens that affect humans and animals, and among their hosts, synanthropic animals such as the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, play a role in public health due to their ability to move between urban centers and forested areas in Brazil. This study aimed to assess the ectoparasite fauna of D. aurita, as well as the presence of pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks and fleas. Opossums (n = 58) captured in Tomahawk livetraps were examined for ectoparasites, and their blood sampled for further analysis. Additionally, spleen samples were collected in individuals found dead. Samples were PCR screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasmataceae, and Babesia spp. Two tick species were morphologically identified as Ixodes loricatus 24/58 (41.4%) and Amblyomma sculptum 1/58 (1.7%). For fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was detected in 60.3% (35/58) of the animals, and Xenopsylla cheopis in 5.2% (3/58). PCR analysis detected Anaplasmataceae DNA in 34% (16/47) of pooled samples of C. felis, and in 66.7% (2/3) pooled samples of X. cheopis. Sequence analysis revealed Wolbachia pipientis symbiont in all positive samples. Tick, blood and spleen samples were all negative for the microorganisms assessed. These findings suggest that these arthropods circulate among wildlife and urban environments, which may implicate in their participation in the cycle of zoonotic pathogens among opossums, humans and companion animals.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 25, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A blinded, randomized, negative controlled laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lotilaner (CredelioTM, Elanco) when administered orally to dogs, against experimentally induced adult flea infestations and flea egg production. METHODS: Twenty dogs were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Ten dogs were treated with lotilaner (at the lower half of the recommended dose range of 20-43 mg/kg) on Day 0. Ten dogs treated with placebo tablets served as the control group. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. felis fleas on days -1, 6, 13, 20 and 29. At 24 h post-treatment or post-infestation, each dog was combed for the removal and counting of adult live fleas. Flea eggs were also collected and counted from the pan under each dog cage. RESULTS: Dogs in the lotilaner treated group received a mean dose of 22.6 mg/kg (range 20.2-25.9 mg/kg) and no adverse events were observed in any dog in this study. At each evaluation time point, the lotilaner group provided 100% efficacy against adult live flea counts as compared to the placebo control group. Egg production from lotilaner treated dogs was reduced by 98.5% (geometric mean; 97.4% arithmetic mean) 24 h post-treatment (and 48 h post-flea infestation). No eggs (100% efficacy) were available for collection following infestations on Day 6 onwards from the lotilaner treated dogs. At each evaluation time point, adult live flea counts from the lotilaner treated dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than from the placebo control group. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs treated with a single dose of lotilaner (mean dose 22.6 mg/kg), 100% of adult fleas were killed within 24 h post-treatment or post-subsequent infestations as compared to the placebo control group, thereby demonstrating that lotilaner kills fleas before they can lay eggs thus preventing subsequent flea infestations for 30 days after treatment. There were no reported adverse events in any dogs, demonstrating that lotilaner tablets were well tolerated at the dose rates assessed in this study.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Masculino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 68: 101391, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760364

RESUMO

This is the first study to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in different internal organs of red squirrels and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. A total of 39 roadkill red squirrels were collected. Squirrels were infested with Ixodes ricinus ticks (191) and Ceratophyllus sciurorum fleas (36). The presence of Bartonella spp. was screened using 16 S-23 S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region and bacteria were detected in 38.5 % (15/39) samples of squirrels, 1.0 % (2/191) samples of ticks and 55.5 % (20/36) samples of fleas. The infection rate of different internal organs of squirrels varied from 11.1%-47.4%. The 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS region sequences showed that Bartonella washoensis were detected in squirrels and their ectoparasites. The results from this study support the hypothesis that S. vulgaris and their fleas, C.sciurorum, serve as a major reservoir and a vector, respectively, of zoonotic B. washoensis in Lithuania.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ixodes/microbiologia , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Lituânia , Masculino
17.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 88-91, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553043

RESUMO

A new flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) species belonging to the Palaeopsylla minor-group, Palaeopsylla (Palaeopsylla) beaucournui n. sp. is described and illustrated. Specimens (14 males and seven females) of this new species were collected from Talpa levantis Thomas (Mammalia: Talpidae) in the deciduous mixed forest in Bursa province of Marmara Region, Turkey.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Toupeiras , Sifonápteros/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Masculino , Sifonápteros/anatomia & histologia , Turquia
18.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 318-323, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595296

RESUMO

Fleas are ectoparasites of various animals, including Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Primates: Hominidae). Among the species relevant to the human health field, either due to their dermatopathological potential or because of their role as vectors of microorganisms responsible for infectious diseases, such as plague or murine typhus, are the human flea, oriental rat flea, closely related cat and dog fleas, and chigoe flea. However, other species can accidentally infest humans. We have herein reported two unusual cases of humans infested and bitten by Archaeopsylla erinacei, the hedgehog flea. This species has been identified using stereomicroscopy, on the base of key characteristics. Furthermore, a brief literature review has revealed that hedgehog fleas could carry human-infectious agents, such as Rickettsia felis Bouyer et al. 2001 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) or Bartonella henselae Regnery et al.1992 (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae). Using molecular biology, we thus tested nine A. erinacei specimens taken from these patients, for several bacteria species commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods, implicated in human pathology. However, all our samples were proven negative. The role of A. erinacei in human epidemiology has never been evaluated to date. This report sought to remind us that these fleas can be accidental parasites in humans. In addition, recent findings pertaining to bacteria of medical interest that are present in these insects should be brought to the fore, given that the question of their role as vectors in human infections remains unanswered and deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Sifonápteros/classificação
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058003

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma dose única de afoxolaner oral no controle de pulgas em gatos. Foram utilizados 14 gatos. Os animais foram identificados, alojados individualmente, infestados artificialmente com C. felis felis e tratados (ou não) com afoxolaner. Foram divididos em um grupo de tratamento e um grupo controle (n = 7/ grupo), com base na contagem de pulgas, horas após a infestação aplicada no dia (alocação de um por um após o período por contagem). No início do protocolo experimental (dia 0), o grupo tratado recebeu afoxolaner em dose inicial de 2,5 mg / kg e os animais do grupo controle receberam um placebo. Todos os animais foram infestados com 100 pulgas C. felis felis dois dias antes do dia 0, assim como nos dias 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54 e 63, sendo avaliadas as cargas parasitárias às 48 h após cada infestação. A eficácia do afoxolaner foi de 100% no dia 2 e permaneceu acima de 98% até o dia 42, diminuindo para 95,3% no dia 63. Os resultados confirmam que uma dose única de afoxolaner oral foi eficaz no controle de C. felis felis em gatos, e não houve eventos adversos observados.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gatos , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Resultado do Tratamento , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Parasitária , Sifonápteros
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 337, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flea bite is considered to be the main cause of allergic dermatitis in cats. There is a need for treatments able to control clinical signs of allergic dermatitis associated with flea bite in cats. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment clinical field study. All cats included in the study presented pruritus, skin lesions or other evidence compatible with flea infestation. Skin lesions were assessed (using SCORFAD) at days 0, 28, 56 and 84 whereas pruritus severity was assessed (using PVAS) at days 0, 15, 28, 56 and 84. On day 0, The fluralaner (280 mg/ml) product (Bravecto® spot-on for cats) was supplied in pipettes containing 0.4, 0.89 and 1.79 ml for cats of 1.2-2.8 kg, > 2.8-6.25 kg and > 6.25-12.5 kg body weight, respectively. The other animals living in the same household also received fluralaner. Based on cytological examination at day 0, oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for 21 days if indicated. For cats presenting intense pruritus and discomfort at day 0, oral prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg was prescribed for 3 days. RESULTS: During the study all cats, except for one (cat number 10), improved significantly. Post-treatment median SCORFAD scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment score on day 0 (P values < 0.002 for all three post treatment examination days) with a score reduction of 49% on day 28, 79% on day 56 and 87% on day 84. The PVAS score decreased significantly over the study period for all cats but one (cat number 10). Post-treatment median PVAS scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment PVAS score on day 0 (P value < 0.002 for all four post-treatment days) with a reduction of 46% on day 15, 67% on day 28, 82% on day 56 and 92% on day 84. No adverse reaction or other health issue was reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single topical treatment with fluralaner results in a significant reduction of flea bite allergic dermatitis clinical signs in cats over the subsequent 12 weeks without any additional environmental treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Ctenocephalides , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Masculino , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
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