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1.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(3): 329-338, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927646

RESUMO

Ticks and fleas are essential vectors of pathogens that affect humans and animals, and among their hosts, synanthropic animals such as the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, play a role in public health due to their ability to move between urban centers and forested areas in Brazil. This study aimed to assess the ectoparasite fauna of D. aurita, as well as the presence of pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks and fleas. Opossums (n = 58) captured in Tomahawk livetraps were examined for ectoparasites, and their blood sampled for further analysis. Additionally, spleen samples were collected in individuals found dead. Samples were PCR screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasmataceae, and Babesia spp. Two tick species were morphologically identified as Ixodes loricatus 24/58 (41.4%) and Amblyomma sculptum 1/58 (1.7%). For fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was detected in 60.3% (35/58) of the animals, and Xenopsylla cheopis in 5.2% (3/58). PCR analysis detected Anaplasmataceae DNA in 34% (16/47) of pooled samples of C. felis, and in 66.7% (2/3) pooled samples of X. cheopis. Sequence analysis revealed Wolbachia pipientis symbiont in all positive samples. Tick, blood and spleen samples were all negative for the microorganisms assessed. These findings suggest that these arthropods circulate among wildlife and urban environments, which may implicate in their participation in the cycle of zoonotic pathogens among opossums, humans and companion animals.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 337, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flea bite is considered to be the main cause of allergic dermatitis in cats. There is a need for treatments able to control clinical signs of allergic dermatitis associated with flea bite in cats. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment clinical field study. All cats included in the study presented pruritus, skin lesions or other evidence compatible with flea infestation. Skin lesions were assessed (using SCORFAD) at days 0, 28, 56 and 84 whereas pruritus severity was assessed (using PVAS) at days 0, 15, 28, 56 and 84. On day 0, The fluralaner (280 mg/ml) product (Bravecto® spot-on for cats) was supplied in pipettes containing 0.4, 0.89 and 1.79 ml for cats of 1.2-2.8 kg, > 2.8-6.25 kg and > 6.25-12.5 kg body weight, respectively. The other animals living in the same household also received fluralaner. Based on cytological examination at day 0, oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for 21 days if indicated. For cats presenting intense pruritus and discomfort at day 0, oral prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg was prescribed for 3 days. RESULTS: During the study all cats, except for one (cat number 10), improved significantly. Post-treatment median SCORFAD scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment score on day 0 (P values < 0.002 for all three post treatment examination days) with a score reduction of 49% on day 28, 79% on day 56 and 87% on day 84. The PVAS score decreased significantly over the study period for all cats but one (cat number 10). Post-treatment median PVAS scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment PVAS score on day 0 (P value < 0.002 for all four post-treatment days) with a reduction of 46% on day 15, 67% on day 28, 82% on day 56 and 92% on day 84. No adverse reaction or other health issue was reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single topical treatment with fluralaner results in a significant reduction of flea bite allergic dermatitis clinical signs in cats over the subsequent 12 weeks without any additional environmental treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Ctenocephalides , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Masculino , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 760-763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483035

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Sifonápteros , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2107-2120, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187223

RESUMO

We studied the effects of variation in environmental, host-associated and spatial factors on variation in compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional facets of beta-diversity in fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small mammals and asked whether (a) the importance of these factors as drivers of beta-diversity differs among its multiple facets and (b) the effects of variation in environment, hosts and space on beta-diversity variation differ between the two ectoparasite taxa. To understand the relative effects of each group of predictors, we used a distance-based redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The greatest portions of variation in the compositional beta-diversity of fleas were equally explained by host-associated and spatial predictors, whereas variation in host species composition contributed the most to variation in the compositional beta-diversity of mites. Variation in the phylogenetic (i.e. based on phylogenetic tree) beta-diversity of fleas was mainly due to variation in the phylogenetic composition of host communities, while the taxonomic (i.e. based on Linnean taxonomy) beta-diversity of mites was influenced by environmental variation. Unique contributions of spatial and environmental variation explained most of the variation in functional beta-diversity and its species replacement (= turnover) component (i.e. beta-diversity explained by replacement of species alone) in fleas and mites, respectively. Variation in the richness difference component (i.e. beta-diversity explained by species loss/gain alone) of functional beta-diversity was mainly affected by either variation in the functional composition of host assemblages (fleas) or its joint action with environmental variables (mites). We conclude that the pattern of the relative effects of environmental, host-associated and spatial factors on beta-diversity is context-dependent and may differ among different facets of beta-diversity, among different beta-diversity components and also among taxa dependent on biological affinities.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/classificação , Artrópodes/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/genética , Sifonápteros/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Mamíferos , Ácaros/classificação , Filogenia , Sifonápteros/classificação
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007003, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067231

RESUMO

The present study investigated the presence of endo- and ecto-parasites, and vector-borne pathogens, in dogs from four islands of Greece. A total of 200 (123 owned and 77 sheltered) dogs were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Of the examined dogs, 130 (65%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or vector-borne pathogens. The most common zoonotic intestinal helminths recorded were Ancylostomatidae (12.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.5%). Ninety-three dogs (46.5%) seroreacted to Rickettsia conorii. Twenty-two (11%) of them were also PCR positive and 7 (3.5%) showed corpuscles suggestive of Rickettsia spp. on the blood smears. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were seropositive for Ehrlichia canis, three of them being also PCR positive. Dogs positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Anaplasma platys (1%), Dirofilaria immitis (0.5%) and Babesia canis (0.5%) were also found. Fleas and ticks were recorded in 53 (26.5%) and 50 (25%) dogs, respectively, and all specimens were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Binary multiple univariate Generalized Linear Models were used to investigate factors and clinical signs related to the recorded positivity, while the association of specific signs with the pathogens was evaluated using tests of independence. Knowledge of occurrence and impact of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dog populations is crucial to prevent the infection in animals and people, and to control the risk of spreading of these pathogens in endemic and non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/classificação , Sifonápteros/genética , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 259, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation of fluralaner plus moxidectin has been designed to provide long-term protection against fleas and ticks, prevent heartworm disease and treat gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this product against fleas collected from a household with repeated fipronil failures following owner-administered treatments. METHODS: Thirty cats were randomized to three equal groups: (A) untreated controls; (B) to receive a single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus) at 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively; and (C) three applications at one month intervals with a spot-on formulation of fipronil and (S)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus) at 0.5 ml manufacturer recommended dose. Flea challenges were completed on Days -6 (for randomization), -1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 77, 84 and 91. Flea counts were completed 48 hours after initial treatment and 48 hours following each subsequent challenge. RESULTS: Fleas were found on all control and all fipronil and (S)-methoprene treated cats at every assessment. From Day 2 to Day 93, all cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were flea-free, with one exception (Day 58; three fleas counted on one cat); control group flea counts ranged between 34-109, and fipronil and (S)-methoprene group counts ranged between 1-79. At each assessment after Day 0, compared to the control group, geometric mean flea counts were significantly lower in the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P ≤ 0.04) and in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group (P < 0.001), and mean flea counts in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were significantly lower than those of the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin, based on geometric means, was 100% at each assessment post-Day 0 except on Day 58 when efficacy was 99.7%. In the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group efficacy ranged between 30.6-65.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate complete efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin against a flea isolate that was not controlled by fipronil and (S)-methoprene. This study provides confirmation of the consistent, sustained efficacy of topically applied fluralaner in the treatment and control of flea infestations in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S52-S57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133494

RESUMO

In a controlled laboratory study, the efficacy against fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, of a single treatment of fluralaner topical solution (Bravecto® for Cats, Merck) was compared with that of three consecutive monthly topical treatments with selamectin and sarolaner (Revolution® Plus, Zoetis). Twenty-four domestic short hair cats were ranked based on host suitability flea counts to form groups of three and were randomly assigned within group to one of three treatments. The first group received a topical treatment with (a) placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 0, 30, and 60, (b) 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner on Days 0, 30, and 60, or (c) 40 mg/kg fluralaner on Day 0 and placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 30 and 60. Because doses were rounded off, the selamectin plus sarolaner-treated cats received effective dosages of 5.25-6.60 mg/kg selamectin and 0.88-1.10 mg/kg sarolaner, while the fluralaner-treated cats received dosages of 34.71-43.08 mg/kg fluralaner. All cats were infested with 100 (±5) fleas on Day -1 and at biweekly intervals after that, from Day 13 to Day 89. Flea comb counts were conducted 24 hours after treatment or after re-infestation. There were no adverse events related to treatment during the study. Except for a single cat from which 20 fleas were recovered on Day 90, all other placebo-treated cats had at least 48 fleas at each count, indicating adequacy of infestation of the controls. Based on geometric mean live flea counts, three consecutive monthly treatments with Revolution® Plus resulted in consistent and high efficacy of ≥98.6% compared with placebo throughout the study. A single treatment with Bravecto® for Cats provided consistent and high efficacy of ≥94.6% on all count days during a period of 12 weeks, the approved duration of efficacy for the product. Based on the efficacy results of the study, both products were equivalent in their ability to control fleas on cats. Use of Bravecto® for Cats every 12 weeks or the consecutive monthly use of Revolution® Plus is expected to provide extended high residual kill over the respective labeled durations of efficacy of the two products.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100263, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929940

RESUMO

A total of 200 dogs and 137 cats were examined for the presence of fleas, ticks and lice in Bishoftu, central Oromia, Ethiopia from September 2009 through April 2010. At least one ectoparasite species was found on 97% (194/200) of the dogs and 90.5% (124/137) of the cats. On dogs, fleas (Ctenocephalides felis (95%), Pulex irritans (20.5%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (9%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (0.5%)), ticks (Haemaphysalis leachi (17.5%), Amblyomma variegatum (8.5%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (8%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus (5.5%) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (2.5%)) and lice (Heterodoxus spiniger (5%), Linognathus setosus (1.5%) and Trichodectes canis (0.5%)) were identified. On cats, fleas (C. felis (61.7%), E. gallinacea (24.1%), P. irritans (1.5%) and X. cheopis (0.7%)) and ticks (Ha. leachi (10.9%), Am. variegatum (1.5%) and Rh. sanguineus (0.7%)) were identified. C. felis was identified as the predominant ectoparasite on both dogs and cats. The overall frequency and count of ectoparasites was higher on dogs than on cats. Significantly higher overall frequency of fleas on young versus adult cats (p = .01) was recorded. However, ticks were significantly higher on adult cats than on young cats (p = .01). In conclusion, this study demonstrated great species diversity and high frequency of ectoparasites on dogs and cats in the study area. Further studies are required to investigate the role of these ectoparasites in transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Ixodidae , Masculino , Rhipicephalus , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(5): 321-336, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858050

RESUMO

The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common parasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. Due to the morphological ambiguity of C. felis and a lack of - particularly largescale - phylogenetic data, we do not know whether global C. felis populations are morphologically and genetically conserved, or whether human-mediated migration of domestic cats and dogs has resulted in homogenous global populations. To determine the ancestral origin of the species and to understand the level of global pervasion of the cat flea and related taxa, our study aimed to document the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Ctenocephalides fleas found on cats and dogs worldwide. We investigated the potential drivers behind the establishment of regional cat flea populations using a global collection of fleas from cats and dogs across six continents. We morphologically and molecularly evaluated six out of the 14 known taxa comprising genus Ctenocephalides, including the four original C. felis subspecies (Ctenocephalides felis felis, Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, Ctenocephalides felis orientis and Ctenocephalides felis damarensis), the cosmopolitan species Ctenocephalides canis and the African species Ctenocephalides connatus. We confirm the ubiquity of the cat flea, representing 85% of all fleas collected (4357/5123). Using a multigene approach combining two mitochondrial (cox1 and cox2) and two nuclear (Histone H3 and EF-1α) gene markers, as well as a cox1 survey of 516 fleas across 56 countries, we demonstrate out-of-Africa origins for the genus Ctenocephalides and high levels of genetic diversity within C. felis. We define four bioclimatically limited C. felis clusters (Temperate, Tropical I, Tropical II and African) using maximum entropy modelling. This study defines the global distribution, African origin and phylogenetic relationships of global Ctenocephalides fleas, whilst resolving the taxonomy of the C. felis subspecies and related taxa. We show that humans have inadvertently precipitated the expansion of C. felis throughout the world, promoting diverse population structure and bioclimatic plasticity. By demonstrating the link between the global cat flea communities and their affinity for specific bioclimatic niches, we reveal the drivers behind the establishment and success of the cat flea as a global parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , África , Animais , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/genética , Ctenocephalides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cães , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
11.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(4): 541-545, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861575

RESUMO

Bartonella are facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, transmitted mainly by hematophagous arthropods, and the rodents act as a natural reservoir. Different species of Bartonella associated with rodents have been implicated as causing human disease. Studies from Argentina are scarce and no Bartonella from fleas have been reported previously. The present study investigated the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas associated with sigmodontine rodents in four localities of the Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. In total, 51 fleas (four species) were analysed of which 41.2% were found to be positive for the gltA gene fragment via a nested polymerase chain reaction. All positive fleas were of the species Neotyphloceras crackensis from three different localities. Eight of the 21 amplified samples were sequenced, and the presence of three different genotypes was detected with an identity of 95.5-98.8% amongst themselves. Bartonella genotypes from American rodents and rodent fleas were recovered in a monophyletic group. Similarly, most of the Peruvian and all Argentinean variants constitute a natural group sister of the American remainder. The importance of the Bartonella spp. with respect to public health is unknown, although future studies could provide evidence of the possible involvement of N. crackensis in the Bartonella transmission cycles.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Sigmodontinae , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia
12.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(4): 536-540, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848844

RESUMO

Fleas are insects with a worldwide distribution that have been implicated in the transmission of several pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and Bartonella spp. (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) in fleas from free-ranging crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) (Carnivora: Canidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Fleas were collected manually from animals and used for the molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. Twenty-nine C. thous were sampled in six municipalities. Four foxes were parasitized by 10 fleas, all of which were identified as Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1935) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). DNA from Rickettsia felis Bouyer et al., 2001 and Rickettsia asembonensis Maina et al., 2016 were found in three and eight fleas, respectively. In four fleas, DNA of Bartonella sp. was identified. Phylogenetic analysis grouped Bartonella sp. together with other genotypes previously reported in C. felis worldwide. The scenario described in the present study highlights a Neotropical canid parasitized by the invasive cosmopolitan cat flea, which in turn, is carrying potentially invasive vector-borne microorganisms. These findings suggest that C. felis is adapted to wild hosts in wilderness areas in southern Brazil, hypothetically exposing the Neotropical fauna to unknown ecological and health disturbances.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Ctenocephalides/fisiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Raposas , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Prevalência
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 137, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioclimatic variables play an integral part in the life-cycle of Ctenocephalides felis, the most common flea found on companion animals. It is essential that we understand the effects of climate on C. felis distribution as fleas are a major veterinary and public health concern. This study investigated the current distribution of C. felis in Australia and future projections based on climate modelling. RESULTS: Typing of C. felis was undertaken using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region and current distribution of haplotypes was mapped by Maximum Entropy (Maxent) niche modelling. All C. felis haplotypes have been predicted to persist in environments along the eastern and southern coastlines of Australia and distinct ecological niches were observed for two C. felis haplogroups. Clade 'Cairns' haplogroup thrives under the northern coastal tropical conditions whilst Clade 'Sydney' haplogroup persists in temperate climates along the eastern and southern coasts. The model was then used to predict areas that are projected to have suitable climatic conditions for these haplogroups in 2050 and 2070 under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate change scenarios. Under all IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) climate change scenarios, the geographical range of all haplotypes was reduced by 5.59-42.21% in 2050 and 27.08-58.82% by 2070. The ranges of all clades were predicted to shift south along the eastern coastline. CONCLUSIONS: As future temperatures exceed critical threshold temperatures for C. felis development in the northern tropical areas, Clade 'Cairns' haplogroup is predicted to shift south along the coastline and possibly outcompete the temperate haplogroup in these areas. If C. felis haplogroups possess distinct climatic niches it suggests a potential for these to be biologically distinct and have differing developmental rates and vector capabilities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ctenocephalides/classificação , Ctenocephalides/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Insetos Vetores , Modelos Teóricos , Rickettsia felis , Temperatura
14.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(3): 188-e59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different sets of criteria are available in veterinary dermatology for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD); there are limited data to assess their reliability. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the discriminative and predictive ability of four sets in diagnosing cAD in a population of dogs with different skin diseases. ANIMALS: Two hundred and fifty dogs examined in the dermatology unit of a veterinary teaching hospital. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dogs were diagnosed with cAD, flea infestation (FI), flea bite hypersensitivity (FBH), sarcoptic mange (SM) and other skin diseases (OD). FI, FBH and SM were pooled in one group of dermatoses mimicking cAD (MD). All nonatopic dogs were grouped as a "global population" (GP). Four criteria sets were applied to all dogs. For each set of criteria, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), likelihood ratios (LR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated. RESULTS: When applied to the GP, sensitivities ranged from 54 to 83%, specificities from 68 to 75% and PPVs from 35 to 43%. NPVs ranged from 87 to 94%. LRs and DORs were poor. When applied to MD, sensitivities remained unchanged, specificities and PPV were mildly higher, whereas NPVs were mildly lower and LRs and DORs were comparable. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study showed that each set of criteria had a low diagnostic reliability when used alone. The use of more discriminant criteria integrated into a thorough clinical approach excluding MDs should be considered.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Masculino , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 71, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleas (Siphonaptera) are the most clinically important ectoparasites of dogs and cats worldwide. Rising levels of pet ownership, climate change and globalisation are increasing the importance of a detailed understanding of the endemicity and prevalence of flea-borne pathogens. This requires continued surveillance to detect change. This study reports a large-scale survey of pathogens in fleas collected from client-owned cats and dogs in the UK. METHODS: Recruited veterinary practices were asked to follow a standardised flea inspection protocol on a randomised selection of cats and dogs brought into the practice in April and June 2018. A total of 326 practices participated and 812 cats and 662 dogs were examined. Fleas were collected, identified to species and pooled flea samples from each host were analysed for the presence of pathogens using PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 28.1% of cats and 14.4% of dogs were flea infested. More than 90% of the fleas on both cats and dogs were cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Fleas of the same species from each infested host were pooled. DNA was amplified from 470 of the pooled flea samples using conventional PCR, 66 of which (14% ± 95% CI 3.14%) were positive for at least one pathogen. Fifty-three (11.3% ± 95% CI 2.85%) of the pooled flea DNA samples were positive for Bartonella spp., 35 were from cats and 4 from dogs, the remainder had no host record. Seventeen of the Bartonella spp. samples were found to be Bartonella henselae, 27 were Bartonella clarridgeiae (of two different strains), 4 samples were Bartonella alsatica and one was Bartonella grahamii; 4 samples could not be identified. Fourteen (3% ± 95% CI 1.53%) of the flea DNA samples were found to be positive for Dipylidium caninum, 10 of the D. caninum-infected samples were collected from cats and one from a dog, the other 3 positive flea samples had no host species record. Only 3 flea samples were positive for Mycoplasma haemofelis or Mycoplasma haemocanis; 2 were collected from cats and one had no host species record. Three fleas were positive for both D. caninum and Bartonella spp. One flea was positive for both Bartonella spp. and M. haemofelis or M. haemocanis. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for ongoing flea control, particularly given the relatively high prevalence of Bartonella spp., which is of concern for both animal welfare and human health. The study demonstrates the ongoing need to educate pet owners about the effects of both flea infestation and also the pathogen risks these fleas present.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in privately owned cats, was assessed in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: In March-May 2015 [Day 0 (D0)], 204 privately-owned cats from the Aeolian Islands (Sicily) were collared (G1, n = 104) or left as controls (G2, n = 100). The bacteraemia of Bartonella spp. was assessed at enrolment (D0) and study closure (D360) by PCR and DNA sequencing both prior to and after an enrichment step, using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM). RESULTS: A total of 152 cats completed the study with 3 in G1 and 10 in G2 being positive for Bartonella spp. Bartonella henselae genotype I ZF1 (1.35%) and genotype II Fizz/Cal-1 (6.76%) as well as B. clarridgeiae (5.41%) were detected in cats of G2. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the only species detected in G1. Based on the yearly crude incidence of Bartonella spp. infection (i.e. 3.85% in G1 and 13.51% in G2; P = 0.03) the Seresto® collar achieved a preventative efficacy of 71.54%. The incidence of Bartonella spp. infection was more frequent in flea-infested cats (6/33, 18.18%) than in uninfested ones (7/112, 5.88%) (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Cats living in the Aeolian Islands are exposed to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. The Seresto® collar provided significant risk reduction against Bartonella spp. infection in outdoor cats under field conditions. Such a preventative tool could be a key contribution for decreasing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in cats and thus ultimately to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sicília/epidemiologia
17.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(4): 274-283, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668280

RESUMO

Sylvatic plague affects many species in North American prairie ecosystems. Deltamethrin is commonly used to manage fleas in potential outbreak areas. Understanding the role of small mammals and their ectoparasites in sylvatic plague maintenance is pertinent to understanding the ecology of plague and its persistence in nature. This study examined the effects of plague management using deltamethrin on communities of small mammals, their flea faunas, and Yersinia pestis prevalence. We trapped small mammals from 2014 to 2016 on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation (LOBR), South Dakota, and analyzed the effects of deltamethrin treatment on small mammal populations, flea loads, and Y. pestis prevalence. We collected higher flea loads from small mammals on sites not treated with deltamethrin (1.10 fleas per animal) than from deltamethrin-treated sites (1.03 fleas per animal). We observed significant negative trends in mean flea load per animal between pre- and post-treatment collections. We detected no significant effects of deltamethrin treatment on animal captures pre- and post-treatment, but observed significant differences in animal captures by experimental unit. We detected no serological evidence for the presence of Y. pestis antibodies in small mammals and 1.2% Y. pestis prevalence across all sampled fleas. Although there is little overlap in the species of fleas infesting small mammals and prairie dogs, the occurrence of flea spillover has been documented. In our study, treatment with deltamethrin reduced flea loads on small mammals by up to 49%. Our data suggest that although the efficacy of deltamethrin on the LOBR-a mixed-grass system-may not be as high as that found in a comparable study in a short-grass system, deltamethrin is still a useful tool in the management of plague.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Roedores/parasitologia , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Yersinia pestis
18.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(6): 400-406, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620249

RESUMO

Plague, a flea-borne disease, hampers efforts to restore populations of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), which occupy colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in North America. Plague is managed by infusing prairie dog burrows with DeltaDust® 0.05% deltamethrin, a pulicide that kills fleas. Experiments are needed to identify pulicides that can be used in rotation with DeltaDust for integrated plague management. In South Dakota, USA, we tested the efficacy of four pulicide dusts when applied at a rate of 8 g per burrow on colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus): Sevin® 5% carbaryl; Dusta-cide® 6% malathion; Alpine® 0.25% dinotefuran with 95% diatomaceous earth; and Tri-Die® 1% pyrethrum with 40% amorphous silica and 10% piperonyl butoxide. We also tested systemic 0.005% fipronil, which was distributed as ½ cup of laced grain per burrow. We sampled prairie dogs on 3294 occasions and detected 10,041 fleas. Sevin and Dusta-cide suppressed fleas but only for 1 month. Neither Alpine nor Tri-Die had any noticeable, consistent effect on fleas. Fipronil suppressed fleas by 97-100% for 3 months. The residual effect of fipronil persisted for ∼12 months. Efficacy of fipronil seems comparable with DeltaDust, which exhibited a residual effect for ∼10 months in prior studies. Continued research is needed to optimize fipronil treatments for plague management on prairie dog colonies.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Peste/prevenção & controle , Peste/transmissão , Peste/veterinária , South Dakota
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 28, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cats can be infested with several ectoparasite species, especially Ctenocephalides felis and Otodectes cynotis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single topical application of fluralaner against C. felis and O. cynotis natural infestation in stray (study 1) and owned (study 2) cats in central and southern Italy. RESULTS: The number of live fleas found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to more than 30 (arithmetic mean live flea count = 11.9 in study 1; 14.6 in study 2) while no live fleas were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. The number of live mites found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to 42 (arithmetic mean live mite count = 6.4 in study 1; 8.9 in study 2) while no live mites were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. CONCLUSIONS: Topical fluralaner completely eliminated fleas and ear mites from infested cats and was 100% effective against both parasites up to 84 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(2): 185-194, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516832

RESUMO

Flea identification is a significant issue because some species are considered as important vectors of several human pathogens that have emerged or re-emerged recently, such as Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) and Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been evaluated in recent years for the identification of multicellular organisms, including arthropods. A preliminary study corroborated the usefulness of this technique for the rapid identification of fleas, creating a preliminary database containing the spectra of five species of flea. However, longterm flea preservation in ethanol did not appear to be an adequate method of storage in the context of specimen identification by MALDI-TOF MS profiling. The goal of the present work was to assess the performance of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of seven flea species [Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), Archaeopsylla erinacei (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), Leptopsylla taschenbergi (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), Stenoponia tripectinata (Siphonaptera: Stenoponiidae) and Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae)] collected in the field and stored in ethanol for different periods of time. The results confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for the identification of wild fleas stored in ethanol. Furthermore, this technique was able to discriminate not only different flea genera, but also the two congeneric species C. felis and C. canis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/classificação , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Sifonápteros/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Argélia , Animais , Cães , Etanol , Infestações por Pulgas/classificação , Espanha , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
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