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2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998700

RESUMO

Since the late 1990s, particularly since the global financial crisis, the core inflation of main developed economies' has been persistently below target. The factors hindering the achievement of inflation targets are nothing more than commodity price, oil supply, weakness of aggregate demand, and various other factors. In addition, technology and globalization have also played a significant role. This paper uses an extended hybrid New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) model to quantify the contribution of technology and globalization variables to inflation in the United States (U.S.). The analysis suggests that technology and globalization well explain the low inflation dynamics in the U.S., as the impact of globalization on domestic inflation has been weakening over the past 20 years or so, while the impact of technology on inflation has been increasing. At present, technology exerts a greater role than globalization on low-inflation in the U.S.. This raises a different perspective for understanding the phenomenon of low inflation in the U.S. and other regions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Inflação , Internacionalidade , Modelos Econômicos , Tecnologia/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897136

RESUMO

Price inflation has outbalanced the income of residents and buyers in major post-industrial city-regions, and real estate has become an important driver of these inequalities. In a context of a resilient inflation of home values during the last two decades in the greater Paris Region, it is critical to examine housing price dynamics to get a better understanding of socioeconomic segregation. This paper aims at presenting spatial analysis of the dynamics of segregation pertaining to inflation, analyzing price and sellers and buyers data. Using interpolation techniques and multivariate analysis, the paper presents a spatial analysis of property-level data from the Paris Chamber of Notaries (1996-2012) in a GIS (159,000 transactions in suburban areas, single family homes only). Multivariate analysis capture price change and local trajectories of occupational status, i.e. changes in balance between inward and outward flows of sellers and buyers. We adopt a method that fits the fragmented spatial patterns of suburbanization. To do so, we remove the spatial bias by means of a regular 1-km spatial grid, interpolating the variables within it, using a time-distance matrix. The main results are threefold. We document the spatial patterns of professionalization (a rise of executives, intermediate occupation and employees) to describe the main trends of inward mobility in property ownership in suburbs, offsetting the outward mobility of retired persons. Second, neighborhood trajectories are related the diverging patterns of appreciation, between local contexts of accumulation with a growth of residential prices, and suburbs with declining trends. The maturity of suburbanization yields a diversified structure of segregation between the social groups, that do not simply oppose executives vs. blue collar suburbs. A follow-up research agenda is finally outlined.


Assuntos
Habitação/economia , Cidades , Humanos , Inflação , População Urbana
5.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207598, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485329

RESUMO

This present research investigates the money demand function of Saudi Arabia using a long period 1968-2016. In addition, the asymmetrical effects of real exchange rate changes have also been explored in the estimated money demand function. Our empirical results suggest that income and inflation have positive and negative effects on money demand respectively. Further, a real appreciation of US dollar has a positive effect but a real depreciation has a negative effect on the money demand. Furthermore, income and price homogeneity hypotheses do not hold for the estimated elasticities. Moreover, the estimated model is found stable with the theoretically expected effects of money demand's determinants. Therefore, we are suggesting money supply as a monetary policy instrument to the economy of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflação/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública/economia , Algoritmos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Inflação/tendências , Modelos Econômicos , Arábia Saudita
7.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205415, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332467

RESUMO

Economic cycles may lead to changes in corporate bond credit ratings. This paper utilizes the Markov model to describe transition probability matrixes of economic states for the separation of economic cycles. We develop a new model, which we term the Markov rating shopping dual reputation model, incorporating two reputation effects. This model is well suited to analyze the conditions of the dual rating incentive regulation and the constraint regulation for preventing rating inflation in collusion among credit rating agencies. Then, we apply the Markov regime switching-vector auto-regression (MS-VAR) to estimate the transition probability matrixes of America, England, Japan and China. Based on the numerical analysis and the simulations, the results show that a dual rating regulation can prevent the collusion of inflated ratings, as well as increased rating fees with the separation of economic cycles; additionally, when separating the economic cycles, a constraint regulation is more effective at reducing the risk of rating inflation in collusion and regulatory cost.


Assuntos
Produto Interno Bruto/legislação & jurisprudência , Inflação/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos , China , Inglaterra , Humanos , Japão , Cadeias de Markov , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201798, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153258

RESUMO

The paper investigates and compares the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty under inflation targeting and, alternatively, a conventional fixed exchange rate system, for a group of emerging countries. To do so we estimate GARCH in mean models and we find that there is a bi-directional relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty under the two monetary regimes. It is also found that the fixed exchange rate regime has no impact on average inflation and inflation inertia, while inflation targeting has been successful at lowering both average inflation and inflation persistence.


Assuntos
Inflação , Modelos Econômicos , Incerteza , Brasil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Egito , Jordânia , Polônia , África do Sul
10.
J Pharm Pract ; 31(4): 374-381, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938566

RESUMO

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a generically available and rapid-acting intravenous (IV) vasodilator that has been used clinically for decades. Prior to 2013, the cost of SNP was relatively low, and SNP was an affordable option for the treatment of acute hypertension. However, from 2013 to 2017, average wholesale prices for SNP rose to as high as US$900 per vial, earning the drug its status as a "hyperinflation drug." Hyperinflation drugs pose a significant challenge for pharmacy departments. A multidisciplinary effort involving stakeholders from many backgrounds, including pharmacists, physicians, and nurses, is key to developing an effective cost containment strategy. A therapeutic interchange, wherein a drug with similar efficacy is substituted for another, is often an appropriate strategy to address rising drug costs. Fortunately, alternative drugs with a solid evidence base exist for the management of acute hypertension. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, clevidipine and nicardipine, are IV titratable antihypertensive agents with favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Various studies indicate that clevidipine and nicardipine are effective alternatives to SNP for indications including hypertensive crisis and postoperative hypertension. Some hospitals have reported significant cost savings without adverse outcomes by substituting clevidipine or nicardipine for SNP. This article is intended to serve as a review of the evidence for clevidipine and nicardipine as potential substitutes for SNP and to provide strategies to successfully implement this therapeutic interchange.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Inflação , Nitroprussiato/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/economia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Controle de Custos , Humanos , Nicardipino/economia , Nicardipino/uso terapêutico , Nitroprussiato/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/economia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
11.
J Pharm Pract ; 31(4): 399-402, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hyperinflation refers to the increasing cost of drugs which occurs due to continued drug shortages and rebranding. Hyperinflation has significant implications in increasing overall healthcare costs with reduced reimbursement, increased patient acuity, and an aging population, but published strategies to reduce costs and minimize waste are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the hyperinflation and cost mitigation strategies of three vasopressor medications, vasopressin, epinephrine, and ephedrine. CONCLUSION: The steep increase in medications is expected to continue, and mitigation strategies to reduce waste and select the most cost effective therapy to offset the price increase is crucial for healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Controle de Custos , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Inflação , Vasoconstritores/economia , Efedrina/economia , Epinefrina/economia , Humanos , Inflação/tendências , Vasopressinas/economia
12.
J Pharm Pract ; 31(4): 370-373, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905083

RESUMO

Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced competition, shortages in the manufacturing supply chain, very small markets, market consolidation, the Unapproved Drugs Initiative of 2006, and unanticipated manufacturing safety issues. In one survey, over 90% of hospital administrators reported that higher drug prices had a moderate or severe impact on their budgets. Whereas compounding pharmacies may present an effective solution to high drug prices, it is a potentially dangerous one, as the case of New England Compounding Center makes clear. The risks make a meticulous vetting process necessary.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Inflação/tendências , Controle de Custos , Humanos
16.
J Pharm Pract ; 31(4): 390-394, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665719

RESUMO

The hyperinflation of isoproterenol, a 75-year-old drug, in early 2015 was unbelievable. The attention of health-care professionals, health system administrators, legislators, and the general public was quickly focused on Valeant Pharmaceuticals, purchaser of several generics solely to raise their price. With isoproterenol easily launched toward the top of drug expenditures, pharmacists in many hospitals were forced to engage stakeholders in the investigation and implementation of alternatives, explore utilization and optimize inventory, reduce cost through sterile product preparation, where possible, restrict use to settings that were beneficial to their budget, and become legislative advocates. The alternatives drugs and strategies will be reviewed.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Inflação/tendências , Isoproterenol/economia , Controle de Custos , Humanos , Isoproterenol/uso terapêutico
17.
Enferm. glob ; 17(50): 515-528, abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173563

RESUMO

Objetivos: Cuantificar y caracterizar la producción científica enfermera sobre cuidados informales del período 2007-2016, observar la evolución de la temática durante estos años, adquirir una perspectiva actual sobre el estado de la cuestión y realizar propuestas sobre futuras líneas de investigación e intervención. Metodología: Revisión bibliográfica llevada a cabo mediante dos estrategias: una cuantitativa, y una segunda estrategia cualitativa. Resultados: El tipo de artículo más publicado es el estudio original cuantitativo, aunque se detecta un crecimiento de las publicaciones con enfoque cualitativo. Los temas más tratados son el perfil de la persona cuidadora, los impactos de la atención en su salud y en otros aspectos de su vida cotidiana, las propuestas de intervenciones profesionales para promover el cuidado personal y para evitar la sobrecarga de las personas cuidadoras y, por último, el uso de herramientas de evaluación para la planificación de la atención a las mismas. Conclusiones: Las publicaciones enfermeras identifican con acierto la centralidad del cuidado informal y el giro asistencial hacia el domicilio y la familia. No problematizan, sin embargo, el actual trasvase de responsabilidades hacia el cuidado desde las administraciones públicas hacia el ámbito familiar, ni analizan en profundidad las desigualdades socioeconómicas y de género reinantes en el actual escenario de cuidados. El abordaje a estos dos elementos puede contribuir a abrir nuevas líneas de investigación e intervención en el campo de la enfermería


Goals: To quantify and characterize the scientific production in nursing on informal care from 2007 to 2016, to observe the evolution of the theme during this period, to acquire a current perspective on the state of the arts, and to suggest future directions of both research and professional practice. Methods: Bibliographical review undertaken through two strategies: a quantitative strategy and a qualitative one. Results: The most frequent type of published article is quantitative although there is an increase of qualitative publications. Among the most frequent themes are: the study of the caregiver’s profile, as well as the impacts of care on their health and on their everyday life; practical professional recommendations to promote care and self-care and to prevent caregivers’ overload; and, finally, the use of assessment tools for planning attention of caregivers. Conclusions: While nursing publications rightly identify the centrality of the family and the household in the new care scenario, they do not problematize the current transfer of responsibility for care from public administrations toward the realm of the family. Neither do they problematize the social, economic, and gender inequalities that take place in the context of care. To approach these two themes can contribute to create new research and professional lines in nursing


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflação , Bibliometria , Educação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Científicas e Técnicas , Indicadores de Produção Científica
18.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487976

RESUMO

The development of healthcare expenditures and the impact of demographic change are the subject of a controversial debate. Yearly healthcare expenditures have more than doubled between 1992 and 2015 and are often justified by the aging demographic. The majority of expenses are paid by the statutory health insurance (SHI). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of the demographic change to increasing total per capita expenditures in the SHI as well as to analyze the development and the impact in individual areas of spending.We calculated average per capita expenditures from 2004 to 2015 based on data from the German Federal (Social) Insurance Office. Information on the age distribution in SHI was derived from official statistics of the Federal Ministry of Health. To determine the impact of demographic change on per capita expenditures, age distribution was standardized based on 2004 data. Additionally, the impact of inflation and other factors was determined.The results show an increase in per capita expenditures from €1722 in 2004 to €2656 in 2015 (+54.2%). Assuming a constant age distribution at the 2004 level, average per capita expenditures would have increased by 44.9%. The relative share of demographic change is only 17.3%; 32.2% could be explained by inflation and 50.5% are based on other factors. We observed large differences in the increase for the individual areas of spending, which can partly be explained by the impact of demographic change.This analysis illustrates that the demographic change is not the frequently claimed cost driver in healthcare. Other factors have a substantially greater impact on healthcare expenditures.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Inflação/tendências , Seguro Saúde , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Alemanha , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Previdência Social
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