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2.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 197(3): 278-293, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768789

RESUMO

Neuroimmunology as a separate discipline has its roots in the fields of neurology, neuroscience and immunology. Early studies of the brain by Golgi and Cajal, the detailed clinical and neuropathology studies of Charcot and Thompson's seminal paper on graft acceptance in the central nervous system, kindled a now rapidly expanding research area, with the aim of understanding pathological mechanisms of inflammatory components of neurological disorders. While neuroimmunologists originally focused on classical neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and infections, there is strong evidence to suggest that the immune response contributes to genetic white matter disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral nervous system and neuro-oncological conditions, as well as ageing. Technological advances have greatly aided our knowledge of how the immune system influences the nervous system during development and ageing, and how such responses contribute to disease as well as regeneration and repair. Here, we highlight historical aspects and milestones in the field of neuroimmunology and discuss the paradigm shifts that have helped provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. We propose future perspectives including molecular biological studies and experimental models that may have the potential to push many areas of neuroimmunology. Such an understanding of neuroimmunology will open up new avenues for therapeutic approaches to manipulate neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia , Neurologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/história , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurologia/história , Neurologia/tendências
4.
J Hist Neurosci ; 27(2): 165-185, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236568

RESUMO

This study examines case reports of brain diseases attributed to inflammation in Richard Bright's Reports of Medical Cases, Volume II. The rationale for the belief that these cases were due to inflammation is discussed in light of theories of inflammation that were current in Bright's time. The consequences of these theories for the therapy of brain diseases are evaluated. The value of Bright's reports lies in the accuracy of the descriptions of a number of brain diseases, featuring descriptions of symptoms or conditions that were novel or not well known in the early nineteenth century. They provided a conception of diseases that constituted "typical condition of many patients," rather than "disorderly condition of a particular patient." Many cases are illustrated by remarkable images of pathological specimens.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/história , Inflamação/história , Sistema Nervoso , Neurologia/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Gene ; 576(1 Pt 1): 14-21, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410416

RESUMO

There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/história , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/história , Janus Quinases/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/história , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/imunologia
9.
Orv Hetil ; 156(35): 1436-40, 2015 Aug 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299836

RESUMO

Hans Selye made a great impact on the Hungarian medical, scientific and public life. His first Hungarian publication about the alarm-reaction appeared 1938 in the Orvosi Hetilap. His Hungarian relationship was quite extensive after the war as he published, gave lectures, and accepted Hungarian students for specialized training in his Canadian institute saw. The rich documents in archives about Selye are currently being processed and those will surely shed light on Selye's life in further details.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Síndrome de Adaptação Geral/história , Inflamação/história , Personalidade , Relatório de Pesquisa/história , Estresse Psicológico/história , Canadá , Caráter , Congressos como Assunto/história , Criatividade , Endocrinologia/história , Bolsas de Estudo/história , Gastroenterologia/história , Síndrome de Adaptação Geral/fisiopatologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inteligência , Liderança , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Viagem
10.
Orvostort Kozl ; 61(1-4): 137-52, 2015.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26875294

RESUMO

Use of matierials of animal or human origin in dentistry (and generally in medicine) these days is regarded as an unusal way of intervention. However in earlier times, different tissues, parts, products and organs of animals were frequently used in healing. Some of these methods were rooted in magical thinking. As analogical treatments--based on similarity or analogy--e.g. powder of horn or teeth of pike was used for the treatment of decayed teeth and different worms, maggots, veenies were applied against "toothworm". By difficult eruption of primary teeth bone marrow or brain mixed with cockridge-blood and goatmilk was a widely used medicine. Butter and honey were able to help the growing of teeth, as well. Parts of frog (fe: flippers) were also components of curing materials. Egg as the symbol of life was often an ingredient of medicaments. For the treatment of inflamed gum different animal materials were used, like chin and teeth of wolf, pike, crayfish, milk, honey, human saliva etc. Animal or human stools, mucks (containing enzymes) did one's bit in healing of oral and dental illnesses and were applied as fomentation or swathing. Placing a leech on the inflamed face was a common procedure in the past even as the use of earwax in lipnook. In our days tissues, parts or products of animals (or human beings) usually never allowed to get into contact with the body of patients. It's a much safer routine, at the same time however a precious traditional knowledge vanishes forever.


Assuntos
Bandagens/história , Materiais Biocompatíveis/história , Inflamação/história , Magia , Medicina Tradicional/história , Doenças da Boca/história , Doenças Dentárias/história , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Ovos/história , Face , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Mel/história , Cornos , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Sanguessugas , Magia/história , Magia/psicologia , Leite/história , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Saliva , Dente , Doenças Dentárias/terapia
11.
Dermatology ; 229(1): 1-46, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25228295

RESUMO

From the first reliable descriptions of acne in the early 19th century, dermatologists recognized it as a disease of the pilosebaceous follicle. Until the middle of the 20th century, they hypothesized that seborrhoea, follicular keratosis and microorganisms could be individually responsible for the acne lesions. Inflammation was only regarded as the final and inescapable step of the acne process. Although the importance of these factors has been reevaluated, recent works still regarded them as mandatory. In the 1970s, the onset of isotretinoin dramatically improved acne management. It also provided great opportunities for a better understanding of the pathogenic factors of acne. This study analyzes their genesis and development from the seminal contributions until recent advances.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/história , Dermatite Seborreica/história , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/história , Inflamação/história , Propionibacterium acnes , Sebo , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/história , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Acne Vulgar/etiologia , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Seborreica/complicações , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Dieta/história , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hormônios/história , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Isotretinoína/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/complicações , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico
12.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 14(1): 51-9, 2014 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336099

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that the molecular mechanisms of cell death have regulatory roles in inflammation and that the molecular changes that are associated with different forms of cell death affect the course of inflammation in different ways. In this Timeline article, we discuss how our understanding of the mechanisms and functional roles of tissue injury and cell death in inflammation has evolved on the basis of almost two centuries of study. We describe how such ideas have led to our current models of cell death and inflammation, and we highlight the remaining gaps in our knowledge of the subject.


Assuntos
Inflamação/história , Animais , Morte Celular/imunologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(6): 791-795, June 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-680797

RESUMO

Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot) lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use environmental enrichment techniques to reduce pododermatitis in a group of captive penguins. Five captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) that were showing bumblefoot lesions were followed during this project. To monitor the lesions, all animals were physically restraint 3 times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Environmental enrichment was introduced daily in the water with the goal of enhancing their time in the water for one extra hour daily. The results demonstrate that in a twelve weeks period, four animals showed significant reduction of the lesions in both feet and in two animals the lesions were completely healed. With these results we can conclude that aquatic environmental enrichment allowed this group of penguins to spend more time in the water, favoring the reduction of the bumblefoot lesions.


Os pinguins cativos estão predispostos a pododermatite (bumblefoot) devido ao sedentarismo, mudanças dos padrões normais de atividade, tempo prolongado de permanência em pisos duros e abrasivos, diminuição da natação e tempo na água. O enriquecimento ambiental permite a utilização de técnicas imaginativas e engenhosas que visam manter os animais cativos ocupados e com uma maior diversidade de oportunidades comportamentais, sempre respeitando as necessidades etológicas da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental para reduzir as lesões de pododermatite em um grupo de pingüins. Cinco indivíduos da espécie Pinguim-de-Magalhães (Spheniscus magellanicus) foram monitorados durante este projeto. Todos os animais foram contidos fisicamente 3 vezes por semana para a realização do acompanhamento do tamanho das lesões, durante 12 semanas. Enriquecimento ambiental foi introduzido diariamente na água, objetivando aumentar em uma hora o tempo em que os animais passavam na água. Os resultados mostraram que, ao longo das 12 semanas, 4 animais apresentaram redução significativa das lesões em ambas as patas, sendo que em dois animais as lesões desapareceram. Com isto, podemos concluir que o enriquecimento ambiental aquático para este grupo de pingüins permitiu um maior tempo de permanência dos animais na água favorecendo a redução das lesões de bumblefoot.


Assuntos
Animais , Desempenho Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Ambiental/métodos , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/veterinária , Spheniscidae/anormalidades , Spheniscidae/lesões
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1285: 133-47, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23692568

RESUMO

The Center for Human Immunology, Autoimmunity, and Inflammation (CHI) is an exciting initiative of the NIH intramural program begun in 2009. It is uniquely trans-NIH in support (multiple institutes) and leadership (senior scientists from several institutes who donate their time). Its goal is an in-depth assessment of the human immune system using high-throughput multiplex technologies for examination of immune cells and their products, the genome, gene expression, and epigenetic modulation obtained from individuals both before and after interventions, adding information from in-depth clinical phenotyping, and then applying advanced biostatistical and computer modeling methods for mining these diverse data. The aim is to develop a comprehensive picture of the human "immunome" in health and disease, elucidate common pathogenic pathways in various diseases, identify and validate biomarkers that predict disease progression and responses to new interventions, and identify potential targets for new therapeutic modalities. Challenges, opportunities, and progress are detailed.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Alergia e Imunologia/história , Doenças Autoimunes/história , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/patologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/história , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/história , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/história
16.
Curr Diab Rep ; 13(3): 435-44, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23494755

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly common worldwide. Related complications account for increased morbidity and mortality, and enormous healthcare spending. Knowledge of the pathophysiological derangements involved in the occurrence of diabetes and related complications is critical for successful prevention and control solutions. Epidemiologic studies have established an association between inflammatory biomarkers and the occurrence of T2DM and complications. Adipose tissue appears to be a major site of production of those inflammatory biomarkers, as a result of the cross-talk between adipose cells, macrophages, and other immune cells that infiltrate the expanding adipose tissue. The triggering mechanisms of the inflammation in T2DM are still ill-understood. Inflammatory response likely contributes to T2DM occurrence by causing insulin resistance, and is in turn intensified in the presence of hyperglycemia to promote long-term complications of diabetes. Targeting inflammatory pathways could possibly be a component of the strategies to prevent and control diabetes and related complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos
17.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 11(2): 123-32, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23506491

RESUMO

Sepsis is among the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is increasing. Defined as the host response to infection, sepsis is a clinical syndrome considered to be the expression of a dysregulated immune reaction induced by danger signals that may lead to organ failure and death. Remarkable progresses have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of host defenses in recent years. The host defense response is initiated by innate immune sensors of danger signals designated under the collective name of pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the family of microbial sensors include the complement system, the Toll-like receptors, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domainlike receptors, the RIG-I-like helicases and the C-type lectin receptors. Ligand-activated pattern-recognition receptors kick off a cascade of intracellular events resulting in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and release of effector molecules playing a fundamental role in the initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Fine tuning of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions is critical for keeping the innate immune response in check. Overwhelming or dysregulated responses induced by infectious stimuli may have dramatic consequences for the host as shown by the profound derangements observed in sepsis. Unfortunately, translational research approaches aimed at the development of therapies targeting newly identified innate immune pathways have not held their promises. Indeed, all recent clinical investigations of adjunctive anti-sepsis treatments had little, if any, impact on morbidity and all-cause mortality of sepsis. Dissecting the mechanisms underlying the transition from infection to sepsis is essential for solving the sepsis enigma. Important components of the puzzle have already been identified, but the hunt must go on in the laboratory and at the bedside.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/história , Imunidade Inata , Micoses/história , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/história , Animais , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/história , Inflamação/microbiologia , Micoses/imunologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Sepse/história , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia
18.
Inflamm Res ; 62(5): 441-50, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23397101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historical overview of development investigations on inflammation in Russia up to date is presented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of modern Russian language literature (1950-2010) on history of medicine and researchers' activity on inflammation, as well as Russian language content of internet on this theme, was made. Many names of Russian researchers are still little known to the English-speaking Western readers. RESULTS: Starting in the eighteenth century, the mystery of the inner workings of the inflammation process attracted the interest of physicians and biologists of the Russian Empire. Accumulated knowledge focused mainly on the etiological factors of inflammation. In the nineteenth century, scientific schools emerged for studying inflammation and established close contacts with leading scientists in other countries. At this time, Ilya Mechnikov formulated his famous biological theory of inflammation, according to which inflammation is a protective adaptation response to an injury. He also developed his teaching on phagocytosis and was awarded the Nobel Prize. In the twentieth century, Russian scientists participated in the discovery of viruses and new bacterial pathogens, and in the investigation of the mechanics of the genesis and development of inflammatory processes. CONCLUSION: Today interest in studies of inflammation in Russia is on the increase; scientists united by the Russian Inflammation Society continue their quest to investigate inflammatory mediators, and study molecular and cellular mechanisms and approaches in the treatment of complications associated with inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/história , Pesquisa/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Federação Russa
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