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1.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 285-295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679314

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an autoregulated immune and inflammation-based skin disease affecting approximately 3-4% of the worldwide population. Pinitol, conservatively used in ayurvedic medicine, has been shown to disclose an antiinflammatory effect, hold back the T-helper cells, and postpone cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we aimed to reveal the effect of D-pinitol on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway genes. In the current study, we found that D-pinitol ameliorated the skin abrasion and abridged epithelial thickness, inflammation numbers, and collagen-occupied regions in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice. The same results (epithelial thickness, inflammation numbers, and collagen-occupied regions) we achieved in dorsal skin regions. In addition, D-pinitol modified the lipid profile and antioxidant enzyme levels, which means that the IMQ-induced group showed elevated malondialdehyde when compared to D-pinitol. Downregulated expression of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the IMQ-induced group was incomparable with D-pinitol, control, and standard group. Additionally, inflammatory and NF-kB pathway gene levels in the psoriatic mouse skin, which includes tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-17A, IL-23,TRAF3, NIK, IKKα, and RelB, were dramatically increased or decreased by treatment with D-pinitol. Histological and morphometric studies disclose the efficiency of D-pinitol. Finally, we found that D-pinitol reserved the TRAF3, NIK, IKKα, and RelB in the psoriatic skin, signifying that it restrains the commencement of NF-κB signaling pathways. The present results suggest that D-pinitol could prove to have tremendous preventive potential against the treatment and prevention of inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Imiquimode/imunologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inositol/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia
2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 120(5): 48-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621566

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common age-related chronic and disabling joint disease. Long considered to be a "wear and tear" disease, OA is now seen as a low-grade inflammation disease that affects all tissues of the joint, involving cartilage degradation, bone remodelling, osteophytes, and synovitis. The process, called inflammaging, is characterised by the association of low-grade inflammation, profound changes in intra-cellular mechanisms, and the decreased efficiency of the immune system with ageing. The activation of innate immunity plays a critical role in the development and progression of OA. Innate immunity, including inflammasome activation, is triggered by small endogenous molecules called alarmins or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These molecules are released in the extracellular media after cell stress or damage, bind to pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, leading to joint inflammation. Moreover, such sterile inflammation triggers cell senescence, characterised by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Understanding the substantial age-related changes of joint tissues that influence the pathogenesis of OA is critical to improving the quality of life of elderly people in the context of increased life expectancy. This review will focus on age-related sterile inflammation in OA and highlight the various innovative and promising therapies targeting the mechanisms of aging.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 860-870, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661484

RESUMO

It is time to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the first successful attempt to develop and use a specific high-titer antitoxic serum for treating diphtheria, a deadly infectious disease. This was followed by major advances in passive immunotherapy 75 years ago (production of pooled human IgG for subcutaneous injection) and 50 years ago (widespread technology for producing immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration). More than 200 tons of pooled human IgG are produced per year worldwide. The preparation is used primarily for IgG substitution in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, as well as for an immunomodulating treatment of a growing number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. These preparations contain the pooled IgG antibody repertoire of a large population of healthy plasma donors. This repertoire includes antibodies that neutralize pathogens and their factors of virulence, anti-idiotypic antibodies, and antibodies to other foreign and own proteins, as well as to carbohydrate antigens. Naturally polyspecific antibodies that are present in all healthy individuals play an important role as a first-line defense against bacteria and viruses. After exposure to protein-modifying agents, some IgG molecules can acquire the ability to bind novel structurally unrelated antigens. This phenomenon is referred to as induced polyspecificity. The list of these protein-modifying molecules was shown to include low-pH buffers, free heme, pro-oxidative ferrous ions, reactive oxygen species, etc. Such modified antibody preparations may have a therapeutic potential, since their administration to animals with experimental sepsis or aseptic systemic response syndromes significantly improved survival rates, while the same dose of the native preparation had no effect. We also hypothesize that the aggressive protein-modifying molecules released in sites of inflammation and tissue damage could also modify the antigen-binding behavior of surface immunoglobulin B cell receptors and the structurally related T cell receptors. This "specificity editing" of both types of receptors may play a major role in the body's defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Animais , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/história , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/história , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/imunologia
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 454-459, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets have the ability to influence the immune system and the inflammatory process and may be strongly involved in the whole pathogenic process of chronic inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. They may play a significant role even before the clinical onset of the disease, contributing to the loss of tolerance of the immune system and the induction of autoimmunity. Subsequently, they can interact with the most important cellular players involved in autoimmunity and inflammation, namely innate immunity cells and T cells and eventually contribute to the building of inflammation in the synovium, thus inducing the activation, migration, and proliferation of fibroblasts that eventually lead to joint damage. Due to their peculiar features, studying the behavior of platelets is a challenging task; however, platelets may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets in the future.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Sinovite/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Sinovite/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 381-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders may be correlated with a low-grade systemic inflammation but the origin of this inflammatory response remains unclear and both genetics and environmental factors seems to be concerned. Recent researches observed that gut microbiota seems to have an impact on the brain and immune processes. METHOD: We review recent literature to a better understanding of how microbiota interacts with brain, immunity and psychiatric disorders. We search on Pubmed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Sciencedirect articles with the keywords "gastrointestinal microbiota" and "mental disorders" or "psychological stress". RESULTS: We showed links between gut microbiota and brain-gut axis regulation, immune and endocrine system activity, neurophysiological changes, behavior variations and neuropsychiatric disorders. Communications between brain and gut are bidirectional via neural, endocrine and immune pathway. Microbiota dysbiosis and increase gut permeability with subsequent immune challenges seems to be the source of the chronic mild inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Repeated immune or stress events early in life may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior later in life. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological stress impact gut microbiota with subsequent immune activation leading to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior and altering neurophysiology and reactivity to stress or lifestyle.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/psicologia , Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Neuropsiquiatria , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17019, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517821

RESUMO

The role of cytokines in the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is now well established. This is in keeping with the role of the SIR in tumorigenesis, malignant spread, and the development of cachexia. However, the relationship between performance status/systemic inflammation frameworks and cytokine profiles is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status/modified Glasgow prognostic score (ECOG-PS/mGPS) and cooperative oncology group performance status/neutrophil platelet score (ECOG-PS/NPS) frameworks and their cytokine profile in patients with advanced cancer.This was a retrospective interrogation of data already collected as part of a recent clinical trial (NCT00676936). The relationship between the independent variables (ECOG-PS/mGPS and ECOG-PS/NPS frameworks), and dependent variables (cytokine levels) was examined using independent Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests where appropriate.Of the 40 patients included in final analysis the majority had evidence of an SIR assessed by mGPS (78%) or NPS (53%). All patients died on follow-up and the median survival was 91 days (4-933 days). With increasing ECOG-PS there was a higher median value of Interleukin 6 (IL-6, P = .016) and C-reactive protein (CRP, P < .01) and lower albumin (P < .01) and poorer survival (P < .001). With increasing mGPS there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .016), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, P = .010), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, P < .01) and poorer survival (P < .01). With increasing NPS there was a higher median value of TGF-ß (P < .001) and C-reactive protein (P = .020) and poor survival (P = .001). When those patients with an ECOG-PS 0/1 and mGPS0 were compared with those patients with an ECOG-PS 2 and mGPS2 there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .017) and poorer survival (P < .001). When those patients with an ECOG-PS 0/1 and NPS0 were compared with those patients with an ECOG-PS 2 and NPS1/2 there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .002), TGF-ß (P < .001) and poorer survival (P < .01).In patients with advanced cancer IL-6 was associated with the ECOG-PS/mGPS and ECOG-PS/NPS frameworks and survival in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, the present work provides supporting evidence that agents targeting IL-6 are worthy of further exploration.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(4): 645-656, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440762

RESUMO

Mast cells are widely distributed in various parts of the body, especially in the mucosal surface between the body and the external environment. Mast cell is one of the important immune cells and plays important roles in innate immunity, adaptive immunity and immune regulation. Previous researches have shown that excessive activation of mast cells is closely related to the development of allergic and inflammatory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, acute and chronic itching. Mast cells infiltrate into the inflammation site and release various allergic mediators during the occurrence and development of these diseases. Therefore, termination of mast cell activation can be one of the effective methods for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases, and receptors related to mast cell activation are potential targets for the development of anti-allergic drugs. There are many receptors related to mast cell activation, and the effects mediated by different receptors varied from each other. In the recent years, new mast cell receptors are being discovered, but there are not many literatures discussing the possible functions of these newly discovered receptors. This review aims to summarize the receptors involved in mast cell activation and classify related receptors according to their effects.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Mastócitos/citologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mastócitos/imunologia
9.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(2): 66-71, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406045

RESUMO

Cytokine signal is essential for the biological function including development, maintenance of homeostasis and progression of disease. There are growing evidences that signaling via pro-inflammatory cytokines underlie a variety of immunological diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndromes, in which cytokine signals are known as a potential therapeutic target of antibody drugs. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines, which is represented by IL-10, largely contribute to suppression of inflammation and restoration of injured tissues. IL-19 is a member of IL-10 cytokine family, which comprises IL-20 cytokine subfamily with IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26. IL-19 is produced by myeloid and epithelial cells with stimulation of bacterial components and cytokines. Although IL-19 has been originally recognized as a potential Th2-related cytokine, in recent researches, it has been reported that this cytokine upregulates Th17 response to reflect and promote progression of Th17-related disease including psoriasis. On the other hand, IL-19 has anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory diseases such as infectious skin disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, IL-19 may exert pleiotropic effects dependent on the pathological mechanism of inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize recent studies about IL-19 and introduce the pathophysiological and therapeutic role of IL-19 in inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
10.
Life Sci ; 234: 116773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422095

RESUMO

AIMS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The anti-aging protein Klotho is suggested to modulate tissue inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of Klotho on DCM. MAIN METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model was established to assess the effects of Klotho in vivo, which was administered for 12 weeks. The characteristics of type 1 DCM were evaluated by general status, echocardiography, and histopathology. The expression of associated factors was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Parallel experiments to determine the molecular mechanism through which Klotho prevents DCM were performed using H9C2 cells exposed to high glucose (35 mM). KEY FINDINGS: Diabetes-induced increases in serum creatine kinase-muscle/brain and lactate dehydrogenase levels, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction were ameliorated by Klotho. Additionally, Klotho suppressed TXNIP expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ɑ, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-18 in vivo. In high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, Klotho and N-acetylcysteine significantly downregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pretreatment of H9C2 cells with NLRP3 siRNA or Klotho prevented high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the protective effect of Klotho on diabetes-induced cardiac injury is associated with inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, suggesting its therapeutic potential for DCM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Glucuronidase/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/imunologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Glucuronidase/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
11.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180550, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the inflammatory cells, vascular density and IL-6 immunolabeled cells present in the pulp after pulpotomy with white MTA versus 15.5% ferric sulfate (FS). METHODOLOGY: Forty-eight mandibular first molars from 24 Wistar rats were divided into MTA or FS groups and subdivided according to the period after pulpotomy procedure (24, 48 and 72 hours). Four teeth (sound and untreated) were used as controls. Histological sections were obtained and assessed through the descriptive analysis of morphological aspects of pulp tissue and the quantification of inflammatory cells, vascular density and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. Data were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). RESULTS: The number of inflammatory cells was similar in both groups, being predominantly localized at the cervical radicular third. In the MTA group, increased inflammation was observed at 48 hours. Vascular density was similar in both groups and over time, being predominant in the medium radicular third. No correlation was found between the number of inflammatory cells and the vascular density. Pulp tissue was more organized in MTA-treated teeth. In both groups, a weak to moderate IL-6 expression was detected in odontoblasts and inflammatory cells. Comparing both groups, there was a greater IL-6 expression in the cervical radicular third of teeth treated with MTA at 24 hours and in the medium and apical thirds at 72 hours, while in the FS group a greater IL-6 expression was found in the apical third at 24 hours. CONCLUSION: The MTA group presented better histological features and greater IL-6 expression than the FS group. However, no difference was observed between the groups regarding the inflammatory status and vascularization, suggesting the usefulness of FS as a low-cost alternative to MTA.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia , Pulpotomia/efeitos adversos , Silicatos/farmacologia , Animais , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(2): 355-365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been reported to be an early mechanism responsible for glomerular inflammation and injury in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism of obesity-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unknown. The present study explored whether adipokine visfatin mediates obesity-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent podocyte injury. METHODS: Inflammasome formation and immunofluorescence expressions were quantified by confocal microscopy. Caspase-activity, IL-1ß production and VEGF concentrations were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Confocal microscopic analysis showed that visfatin treatment increased the colocalization of Nlrp3 with Asc or Nlrp3 with caspase-1 in podocytes indicating the formation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. This visfatin-induced NLRP3 inflammasome formation was abolished by pretreatment of podocytes with Asc siRNA. Correspondingly, visfatin treatment significantly increased the caspase-1 activity and IL-1ß production in podocytes, which was significantly attenuated by Asc siRNA transfection. Further RT-PCR and confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that visfatin treatment significantly decreased the podocin expression (podocyte damage). Podocytes pretreatment with Asc siRNA or caspase-1 inhibitor, WEHD attenuated this visfatin-induced podocin reduction. Furthermore, Asc siRNA transfection was found to preserve podocyte morphology by maintaining the distinct arrangement of F-actin fibers normally lost in response to visfatin. It also prevented podocyte dysfunction by restoring visfatin-induced suppression of VEGF production and secretion. CONCLUSION: Visfatin induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes and thereby resulting in podocyte injury.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/imunologia , Podócitos/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Podócitos/citologia , Podócitos/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109914, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420065

RESUMO

This pilot study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of genotype on acute innate immune pro-inflammatory, metabolic and endocrine responses to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered to growing heifers. Heifers (n = 4/genotype) were from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) or contemporary (CH) Holstein cows that differed in milk yield (6200 vs 11,100 kg milk/305 d) or from contemporary Black Angus (CA) cows bred to contemporary Red Angus bulls. Heifers were challenged with iv administration of 0.5 µg LPS/kg body weight on day 1 (Challenge 1) and d 5 (Challenge 2) of study to assess endotoxin tolerance. Plasma was collected at -1, -0.5, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h relative to each LPS administration. Rectal body temperature (BT) was measured before each blood sampling and at 5 and 7 h. Data were analyzed by repeated measures with sampling time as the repeated effect. Each genotype had at least one pro-inflammatory response that indicated it might have a more robust response than the other genotypes. The CH heifers had a greater TNF-α response, UH heifers had greater IL-6 and XO responses and CA heifers had greater BT and SAA response to LPS than the other genotypes. There was a genotype by time by interaction as cortisol peaked earlier in CH and UH than in CA heifers. Glucose response was less in CA and insulin response was greater in CH heifers. Endotoxin tolerance to LPS was evident as pro-inflammatory, cortisol, glucose and insulin responses were less during Challenge 2 than during Challenge 1. Differences among genotypes during Challenge 1 were eliminated during Challenge 2 except for the greater SAA response in CA heifers and indicate the potential for differential impacts of genotype on the development of endotoxin tolerance. Specific reasons for these effects of genotype are not clear from these data but the results support the hypothesis for differential innate immune signaling among these bovine genotypes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Genótipo , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Projetos Piloto
14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(10): 102369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404701

RESUMO

Macrophages are pivotal cells involved in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In fact, during these diseases, activated macrophages may play a critical role, promoting the inflammation as well as mediating the damage resolution. This dichotomy is referred to two end-stage phenotypes of macrophages, conventionally known as M1 and M2, playing a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role, respectively. The M1 macrophages are the mainly subset involved during inflammatory processes, producing pro-inflammatory mediators. Conversely, the M2 macrophages are proposed to contribute to the resolution phase of inflammation, when cells with pro-resolving property are recruited and activated. In fact, this subset of macrophages may activate regulatory T lymphocytes, which play a critical role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and preventing the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. On these bases, the polarization toward the M2 phenotype could play a therapeutic role for autoimmune diseases. In this Review we discussed the characteristic of M1 and M2 macrophages, focusing on the immunoregulatory role of M2 cells and their potential ability to control the inflammation and to promote the immunological tolerance.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Prognóstico
15.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 563-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292062

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) is an amine hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. The main physiological function of MLT is to regulate the circadian rhythm. Recent studies have shown that MLT could affect the immune system through several ways to regulate the function of immune system. In infectious diseases, MLT can regulate the number of immune cells and the expression of cytokines. Moreover, MLT may enhance the function of the immune system by reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors, down-regulating the adhesion of leukocytes and anti-oxidation, which may reduce the pathology caused by inflammation damage. Meanwhile, MLT could play a role against pathogens infection by directly inhibiting the replication and proliferation of pathogens. Therefore, MLT may be considered as a novel target and a new method for the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. This article reviews the progress of the effects and mechanisms of MLT in regulating the immune system and the important role in infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/fisiopatologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Melatonina/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261556

RESUMO

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive inflammatory marker that can useful in the assessment of inflammatory activity, especially in pediatric ages. The aim of our study was to establish correlations between the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) proved histologically and NLR in children.A prospective, case-control study was performed on 137 pediatric patients aged between 1 and 18 years, admitted in a Pediatric Tertiary Hospital from Romania, between April 2016 and January 2018. According to the histologic examination, the children were divided into 2 groups: group 1: 50 children with HP infection, and group 2: 87 children without any pathologic findings.The mean age for the study group was 12.86 ±â€Š3.796 years, whereas for control group, it was 12.10 ±â€Š3.879 years (P = .3001). HP infection was significantly more frequent among children from rural area (P = .0089). Epigastric pain and loss of appetite were significantly associated with HP infection (P = .0350 /P = .0281). We noticed that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher in group 1 (P = .0076/P = .0306). We did not find any significant statistical differences between the 2 groups in terms of lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and NLR or other assessed laboratory parameters. Regarding the IgA antibodies anti-HP and rapid urease test, they were both significantly associated with histologically confirmed HP infection (P < .0001).Even though, we did not identify significant differences in term of NLR between HP-induced gastritis children and healthy controls, the mean NLR values were higher HP-positive patients.


Assuntos
Gastrite/sangue , Gastrite/imunologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315358

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role of autophagy in PM2.5-induced inflammation in human nasal epithelial cells and related mechanism. Methods: Human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to different concentration of PM2.5 for different times, and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 Ⅱ (LC3 Ⅱ) and Beclin1 proteins were measured by Western blot. The typical autophagosome and autolysosome were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To observe autophagic flux, mRFP-GFP-LC3 plasmid was transfected to nasal epithelial cells and the punctate staining of mRFP-GFP-LC3 were determined by confocal laser scanning microscope. The expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cell culture supernatant were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To assess the role of autophagy in PM2.5-mediated inflammation, autophagy related gene Atg5 and Beclin-1 were silenced by siRNA knockdown, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed.GraphPad Prism 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: PM2.5 exposure increased the expression of LC3 Ⅱ and Beclin-1 proteins in a dose- (in PM2.5 group with concentration of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 µg/ml, the expression of LC3 Ⅱ was 0.021±0.001(x±s), 0.037±0.002, 0.058±0.005, 0.075±0.006, 0.085±0.004, respectively, F=126.8, P<0.05; the expression of Beclin-1 was 0.002±0.000, 0.003±0.000, 0.005±0.000, 0.007±0.001, 0.008±0.001, respectively, F=137.3, P<0.05) and time-dependent manner (in PM2.5 group with exposure time of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h, the expression of LC3Ⅱ was 0.160±0.007, 0.222±0.003, 0.251±0.015, 0.483±0.029, 0.585±0.035, respectively, F=215.3, P<0.05; the expression of Beclin-1 was 0.059±0.002, 0.080±0.002, 0.087±0.002, 0.183±0.007, 0.228±0.005, respectively, F=137.3, P<0.05) in human nasal epithelial cells. TEM analysis showed typical autophagosome and autolysosome in cells after PM2.5 exposure for 24 h. PM2.5 significantly increased the number of yellow and red dots representing autophagosomes and autolysosomes respectively, indicating autophagic flux was elevated. Moreover, PM2.5 enhanced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, which was dramatically prevented by Atg5-siRNA and Beclin-1-siRNA. Conclusion: Autophagy plays an important role in PM2.5-caused inflammation response in nasal epithelial cells, which can induce release of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α and advance the inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Material Particulado/imunologia , Proteína Beclina-1/biossíntese , Humanos , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/biossíntese , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8794-8809, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345023

RESUMO

Oxidative stress may play a critical role in the progression of liver disorders. Increasing interest has been given to the associations among diet, oxidative stress, gut-liver axis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the effects of processed meat proteins on biomarkers of lipid homeostasis, hepatic metabolism, antioxidant functions, and gut microbiota composition in glutaredoxin1 deficient (Glrx1-/-) mice. The wild-type (WT) and Glrx1-/- mice were fed a soy protein diet (SPD), a dry-cured pork protein diet (DPD), a braised pork protein diet (BPD), and a cooked pork protein diet (CPD) at a dose of 20% of protein for 3 months. Serum and hepatic total cholesterol, serum endotoxin, hepatic liver droplet %, and antioxidant capacity were significantly increased in the CPD fed WT mice. In addition, CPD fed Glrx1-/- mice significantly increased total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and pro-inflammatory cytokines which are accompanied by higher steatosis scores, intrahepatic lipid accumulation, and altered gene expression associated with lipid metabolism. Furthermore, hepatic gene expression of Nrf2/keap1 signaling pathway and its downstream signaling targets were determined using RT-qPCR. Glrx1 deficiency increased Nrf2 activity and expression of its target genes (GPx, catalase, SOD1, G6pd, and Bbc3), which was exacerbated by intake of CPD. Metagenomic analyses revealed that Glrx1-/- mice fed meat protein diets had higher abundances of Mucispirillum, Oscillibacter, and Mollicutes but lower abundances of Bacteroidales S24-7 group_norank, Blautia, and Anaerotruncus than their wild-type counterparts. In summary, Glrx1 deficiency induced an increase in serum biomarkers for lipid homeostasis, gut microbiota imbalance, and upregulation of Nrf2/Keap1 and antioxidant defense genes, which was aggravated by cooked meat protein diet.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glutarredoxinas/deficiência , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Carne Vermelha , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 180(2): 150-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284281

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+ T regulatory cells [Treg], CD8+ Treg, and B regulatory cells [Breg]) play a critical role in immune homeostasis and tolerance. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with increased susceptibility to infections and increased frequency of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. CD4+ Treg cell abnormalities have been reported in CVID; however, CD8+ Treg cells have not been reported in CVID. The objective of this study was to evaluate CD4+ Treg and CD8+ Treg cells in CVID patients. METHODS: In 25 patients with CVID and age-matched healthy controls, Treg cells, evaluated in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (natural; nCD4+ Treg and nCD8+ Treg) and following in vitro activation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies (induced; iCD4+ Treg and iCD8+ Treg) as well as Breg cells were analyzed with specific monoclonal antibodies and isotype controls using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The proportions of nCD4+ Treg (CD4+ CD127low CD25high FoxP3+), iCD4+ Treg (CD4+ CD127low CD25high FoxP3+), iCD8+ Treg (CD8+ CD25high CD183+ FoxP3+), and Breg (CD19+ CD24high CD38high) lymphocytes were significantly lower in patients with CVID than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regulatory lymphocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis and autoimmunity and inflammation associated with CVID.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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