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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1920-1923, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058578

RESUMO

Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for non-infiltrating bladder tumors. Although rare, « BCGitis ¼, local or disseminated, is a serious complication of this therapy. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed but the infection may progress to multi-systemic failure and can be fatal. The microbiological samples are often negative, and biopsies sometimes do not help. Treatment consists of antimycobacterial agents in combination with corticosteroids in case of severe presentation.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Administração Intravesical , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104680, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980059

RESUMO

The progression of neurodegenerative disease is very complex biological process and the molecular crosstalk of inflammatory cytokines during neurodegeneration is associated with multiple cascade signalling. Few evidences suggest that environmental toxin, Paraquat (PQ) administration activates the microglia and intensify the release of proinflamatory cytokines during progression of Parkinson''s disease (PD) but the proper aetiology remained unknown. However, the fundamental role of anti-inflammatory molecule Decapentaplegic (Dpp), homologue of the secreted mammalian Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signalling molecule during neurodegeneration of invertebrate fly model is yet to establish. To elucidate the molecular processes during early stage of Parkinson's disease, we observed neuro-toxin plays a determining role in the increased vulnerability to a particular PQ exposure that is attended by decreased lifespan, severe locomotor deficits, and more loss of dopaminergic (DA) neuron in PQ-treated Dpp deficient fly than wild type (WT). Simultaneously, activated microglia induced the inflammatory response with the release of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine in Drosophila during neurodegeneration. Moreover, neuro-toxin exposure altered the expression of innate immune genes in both WT and mutant fly compared to the respective PQ-treated flies. Interestingly, PQ exposure reduced the expression of innate immune genes in mutant fly compared to WT. It may indicate that PQ exposure had broken down the immune defence response in mutant fly than WT whereas, without PQ exposure the innate immune tolerance level was higher in fly with reduced Dpp expression than WT. Thus, we observed the conserve anti-inflammatory factor TGF-ß may exhibit a crucial defensive role during inflammation mediated neurodegeneration in invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Neuroglia , Paraquat/toxicidade
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111036, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784013

RESUMO

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) due to contaminated fish intake as part of a high-fat (HFD), high-carbohydrate diets is a reality today for many populations. HFD is associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Some studies suggest that MeHg induces those risk factors. We evaluated the effect of MeHg exposure in mice fed with HFD or control diet for eight weeks. In the last experimental 15 days, the half group received a MeHg solution (20 mg/L) replacing water. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, lipoprotein concentrations, and paraoxonase activity were evaluated. Liver cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and IBA-1+ cells, as well as transcriptional levels of genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, were also assessed. HFD and both MeHg groups presented increased BP and total cholesterol (TC). In the liver, HFD but not MeHg was related to an increase in TC. Also, MeHg intoxication reduced paraoxonase activity regardless of diet. MeHg intoxication and HFD increased steatosis and the number of IBA-1+ cells and modified some gene transcripts associated with lipid metabolism. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MeHg effects on CVD risk factors resemble those caused by HFD.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Risco
4.
Hautarzt ; 71(10): 805-808, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696202

RESUMO

Tattoos, including permanent makeup, may entail diverse complications like viral or bacterial infections and allergic and inflammatory reactions. In the latter case, besides exogenous pigment, histology shows an either lymphocytic or histiocytic-granulomatous infiltrate, depending on the predominant reaction pattern. We report successful treatment with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injections in two individuals who developed granulomatous inflammation after tattooing.


Assuntos
Granuloma/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Granuloma/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Injeções Intralesionais
5.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 233-238, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710722

RESUMO

The exposure of methylmercury (MeHg) has become a public health concern because of its neurotoxic effect. Various neurological symptoms were detected in Minamata disease patients, who got intoxicated by MeHg, including paresthesia, ataxia, gait disturbance, sensory disturbances, tremors, visual, and hearing impairments, indicating that MeHg could pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause impairment of neurons and other brain cells. Previous studies have reported some expected mechanisms of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity including the neuroinflammation pathway. It was characterized by the up-regulation of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Therefore, the use of anti-inflammatories such as N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) may act as a preventive compound to protect the brain from MeHg harmful effects. This mini-review will explain detailed information on MeHg-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines activation as well as possible preventive strategies using anti-inflammation NAC to protect brain cells, particularly in in vivo and in vitro studies.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Encéfalo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Ratos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111006, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684520

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) is a widely distributed metal in the environment and an important pollutant because of its many industrial applications. With increasing incidences of Ni contamination, Ni toxicity has become a global public health concern and recent evidence suggests that Ni adversely affects the immune system. Hence, this paper reviews the literature on immune-related effects of Ni exposure, the immunotoxicological effects of Ni, and the underlying mechanism of Ni immunotoxicity. The main focus was on the effect of Ni on the development of organs of immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines, immunoglobulins, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. Moreover, Ni toxicity also induces inflammation and several studies demonstrated that Ni could induce immunotoxicity. Excessive Ni exposure can inhibit the development of immune organs by excessively inducing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Furthermore, Ni can decrease T and B lymphocytes, the specific mechanism of which requires further research. The effects of Ni on immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM remain unknown and while Ni inhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in an animal experiment, the opposite result was found in research on humans. Ni inhibits the production of cytokines in non-inflammatory responses. Cytokine levels increased in Ni-induced inflammation responses, and Ni activates inflammation through toll like (TL)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transduction cascades mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Ni has been indicated to inactivate NK cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the Ni-induced immunotoxicity may help to explain the growing risk of infections and cancers in human populations that have been exposed to Ni for a long time. Such knowledge may also help to prevent and treat Ni-related carcinogenicity and toxicology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40262-40276, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661967

RESUMO

PM2.5 induces pulmonary inflammation via oxidative stress, and this role in the lungs is widely accepted, but studies on whether oxidative stress and inflammation can self-recover and be fully restored are limited. In this study, the oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs of rats, which were first exposed to different PM2.5 dosages (0, 0.5, 3.0, and 15.0 mg/kg body weight) and different recovery days (0, 15, and 30 days) and then were exposed to the same PM2.5 dosages (30 mg/kg b.w.) after 30 days of recovery, were investigated. Results showed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly inhibited, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) significantly increased. These changes were accompanied with damage to the pathological structure of the rat lungs. After stopping PM2.5 exposure, the difference between the PM2.5 group and the control group gradually decreased with the extension of recovery time. However, when the rats were again exposed to the same dose of PM2.5, the levels of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, MDA, and iNOS were significantly increased, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly inhibited in the high-dose group. And the high-dose group was accompanied by more severe lung pathological structural damage. Results showed that PM2.5 could induce oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the lungs of rats, and these damages gradually recovered as exposure ceased, but increased lung susceptibility in rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado , Animais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Malondialdeído , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
8.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609449

RESUMO

Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an uncommon skin condition that can be inherited or may occur sporadically with multiple red-brown, thin plaques in a photodistribution. The condition more often affects middle-aged women and is often recalcitrant to therapy. In rare literature reports, systemic medications can trigger exacerbation or promote inflammation in pre-existing lesions of DSAP. We present a novel case of chemotherapy-associated DSAP inflammation in a 66-year-old woman after triple therapy with durvalumab (PD-L1 inhibitor), olaparib (PARP inhibitor) and paclitaxel, showing similarities to primary lichen planus-like eruption from immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Erupções Liquenoides/diagnóstico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Poroceratose/patologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erupção por Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Poroceratose/complicações , Pele/patologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658933

RESUMO

The attenuation of hyper-inflammation in sepsis with the administration of anti-inflammatory macrophages is an interesting adjuvant therapy for sepsis. Because the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages by microRNA (miR), a regulator of mRNA, has been mentioned, the exploration on miR-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages was performed. The over-expression of miR-223 and miR-146a in RAW264.7 induced M2 macrophage-polarization (anti-inflammatory macrophages) as evaluated by the enhanced expression of Arginase-1 and Fizz. However, miR-223 over-expressed cells demonstrated the more potent anti-inflammatory property against LPS stimulation as lesser iNOS expression, lower supernatant IL-6 and higher supernatant IL-10 compared with miR-146a over-expressed cells. Interestingly, LPS stimulation in miR-223 over-expressed cells, compared with LPS-stimulated control cells, demonstrated lower activity of glycolysis pathway and higher mitochondrial respiration, as evaluated by the extracellular flux analysis, and also down-regulated HIF-1α, an important enzyme of glycolysis pathway. In addition, the administration of miR-223 over-expressed macrophages with IL-4 pre-conditioning, but not IL-4 stimulated control cells, attenuated sepsis severity in LPS injected mice as evaluated by serum creatinine, liver enzymes, lung histology and serum cytokines. In conclusion, miR-223 interfered with the glycolysis pathway through the down-regulation of HIF-1α, resulting in the anti-inflammatory status. The over-expression of miR-223 in macrophages prevented the conversion into M1 macrophage polarization after LPS stimulation. The administration of miR-223 over-expressed macrophages, with IL-4 preconditioning, attenuated sepsis severity in LPS model. Hence, a proof of concept in the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages through the cell-energy interference for sepsis treatment was proposed as a basis of cell-based therapy in sepsis.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Glicólise , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/transplante , MicroRNAs/genética , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/patologia
10.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1319-1331, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542395

RESUMO

Aldosterone, as a major product of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), determines multiple pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular diseases. The excess inflammatory response is one of the key profiles in aldosterone-mediated cardiac remodeling. However, the potential mechanisms of aldosterone/inflammatory signaling were still not fully disclosed. The present study aimed to investigate whether TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-ß (Trif) participated in the aldosterone-induced cardiac remodeling, and to explore potential molecular mechanisms. Trif knockout mice and their littermates were osmotically administrated with aldosterone (50 µg/kg per day) for 21 and 42 days. The cardiac structural analysis, functional parameters, and mitochondrial function were measured. Aldosterone dose- or time-dependently increased the levels of TRIF in primary mouse cardiomyocytes or mouse heart tissues. Trif deficiency protected against aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction. Moreover, Trif deficiency also suppressed aldosterone-induced cardiac inflammatory response and mitochondrial injuries. Mechanistically, overexpression of cardiac microRNAs (miR)-34a reversed the cardiac benefits of Trif deficiency in aldosterone-treated mice. Taken together, Trif/miR-34a axis could provide a novel molecular mechanism for explaining aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and functional disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular , Aldosterona , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Fibrose , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/patologia
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(2): 175-183, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel®) is a sustained-release formulation of bupivacaine for use in surgical infiltration anaesthesia. We analysed the histological nerve toxicity and clinical effectiveness of perineural Exparel® alone or with added dexamethasone in a mouse model. METHODS: We assigned 98 mice receiving a perineural sciatic nerve injection into seven groups: sham (n=14, perineural saline), B (n=14, perineural bupivacaine), BDIP (n=14, perineural bupivacaine + intraperitoneal dexamethasone), BDPN (n=14, perineural bupivacaine + perineural dexamethasone), E (n=14, perineural Exparel®), EDIP (n=14, perineural Exparel® + intraperitoneal dexamethasone), and EDPN (n=14, perineural Exparel® + perineural dexamethasone). The duration of thermoalgesic and motor block was evaluated in 49 mice (seven mice randomly selected by group) every 30 min until recovery. Mice were killed for sciatic nerve histological assessment at 14 or 28 days. RESULTS: The median duration of motor block was 90, 120, 120, 120, 180, and 180 min and the duration of thermoalgesic block was 240, 300, 360, 360, 360, and 420 min for groups B, BDIP, BDPN, E, EDIP, and EDPN, respectively. The B group mice showed mild neural inflammation at 14 days and the E group mice showed mild neural inflammation at 28 days. Addition (intraperitoneal or perineural) of dexamethasone reduced neural inflammation induced by bupivacaine, whereas only perineural dexamethasone reduced neural inflammation induced by Exparel®. CONCLUSIONS: Perineural or systemic dexamethasone had a protective effect against the neural inflammation induced by bupivacaine, and perineural dexamethasone attenuated delayed inflammation induced by perineural Exparel®.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bupivacaína/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tempo
12.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(7): 1274-1281, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551893

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is an immune inflammatory disease and a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is generally considered that a number of potent proinflammatory cytokines have a great influence on its pathogenesis, including IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB. A growing amount of empirical evidence indicates that the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the activation of inflammation, but the exact mechanism in atherosclerosis is still unclear. Previous studies have shown that interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1) participates in inflammation, but the effects and possible mechanism of action of IFIT1 on proinflammatory response remain largely unexplained. We found that LPS induced upregulation of IFIT1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Overexpression of IFIT1 significantly upregulated LPS-induced expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB in HUVECs. IFIT1-siRNA treatment dramatically decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB in HUVECs. The above results show that LPS induces expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB through upregulating IFIT1 expression in HUVECs, and suggested that IFIT1 could act as potential therapeutic target to ameliorate atherosclerosis-related diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109166, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531310

RESUMO

Boldine is the main alkaloid of Peumus boldus Molina, widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of digestive disorders. It is a compound with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties already described. Despite the widespread use of P. boldus for digestive disorders treatment, the gastroprotective effect of Boldine remains unknown. Considering the need for new approaches to treat gastric ulcers with fewer side effects than current therapy, this study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Boldine in mice, as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect. The gastroprotective effect of Boldine was evaluated on gastric ulcer induced by 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl or indomethacin (100 mg/kg) in mice. Histological analysis and the mucin-like glycoprotein content were evaluated in ethanol-ulcerated tissue, as well as, oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters. The mechanisms involved in the effect of Boldine were evaluated by pretreating mice with NEM (a sulfhydryl group chelator, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), l-NAME (a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 70 mg/kg, i.p.), yohimbine (an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 2 mg/kg, i.p.) and indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, the in vitro effect of Boldine on H+/K+-ATPase activity was determined. Boldine was able to protect gastric mucosa against the damage induced by ethanol/HCl and indomethacin, as evidenced by reduced lesion area and histological analysis. Moreover, the alkaloid reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in ethanol-ulcerated tissue, beyond has increased mucin-like glycoprotein amount. Finally, Boldine effect is dependent on non-protein sulfhydryl groups and prostanoids but does not involve the inhibition of H+/K + -ATPase activity, being a promising natural resource for gastric ulcer treatment.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Aporfinas/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Etanol , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , ATPase Trocadora de Hidrogênio-Potássio/metabolismo , Indometacina , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Coelhos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109176, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534989

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with high incidence in alcoholics. Ethanol-induced fat accumulation and the subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven inflammation bring liver from reversible steatosis, to irreversible hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and plays pivotal roles in the regulation of fatty acid homeostasis as well as the inflammation control in the liver. It has been well documented that PPARα activity and/or expression are downregulated in liver of mice exposed to ethanol, which is thought to be one of the prime contributors to ethanol-induced steatosis, hepatitis and fibrosis. This article summarizes the current evidences from in vitro and animal models for the critical roles of PPARα in the onset and progression of ALD. Importantly, it should be noted that the expression of PPARα in human liver is reported to be similar to that in mice, and PPARα expression is downregulated in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease sharing many similarities with ALD. Therefore, clinical trials investigating the expression of PPARα in the liver of ALD patients and the efficacy of strong PPARα agonists for the prevention and treatment of ALD are warranted.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/etiologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Etanol , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234867, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569300

RESUMO

Different modes of exogenous electrical stimulation at physiological strength has been applied to various diseases. Previously, we extensively demonstrated the usability of mild electrical stimulation (MES) with low frequency pulse current at 55 pulses per second (MES55) for several disease conditions. Here we found that MES with high frequency pulse-current (5500 pulse per second; MES5500) suppressed the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin in Jurkat T cells and primary splenocytes. MES5500 also suppressed the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, improved liver damage and reduced mouse spleen enlargement in concanavalin-A-treated BALB/c mice. The molecular mechanism underlying these effects included the ability of MES5500 to induce modest amount of hydrogen peroxide and control multiple signaling pathways important for immune regulation, such as NF-κB, NFAT and NRF2. In the treatment of various inflammatory and immune-related diseases, suppression of excessive inflammatory cytokines is key, but because immunosuppressive drugs used in the clinical setting have serious side effects, development of safer methods of inhibiting cytokines is required. Our finding provides evidence that physical medicine in the form of MES5500 may be considered as a novel therapeutic tool or as adjunctive therapy for inflammatory and immune-related diseases.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/terapia , Animais , Concanavalina A , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Células Jurkat , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia
16.
Toxicology ; 441: 152519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525085

RESUMO

Nanoparticles are promising bioengineering platforms facilitating various consumer product formulations, including packaged food, electrical, biosensor and biomedical tools. The unique surface and physicochemical properties of amorphous nanosilica supports advanced nano-biomolecular applications for various manufacturing, biotechnology, and healthcare industries including cosmetics, packaging, implants, drug delivery systems and cancer diagnostics. The increased technological and economic benefits of amorphous nanosilica, raises concerns regarding their adverse biological effects on humans. The cellular mechanisms underlying amorphous nanosilica internalization, evasion of biological barriers, inadvertent nano-bio interactions and unexpected long term exposure effects must be taken into consideration from the diverse ecosystems and human safety aspects. Recent research studies reveal cytotoxic, inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of amorphous nanosilica particles. Our review focuses on studies demonstrating hazardous impact of amorphous nanosilica/bio-systems interface on the cellular and biochemical processes. The review further seeks to evaluate amorphous nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, innate immune responses, inflammation and immune related dysfunctions, and discuss open research questions related to the use of amorphous nanosilica in biomedicine.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109128, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416088

RESUMO

Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. The present study for the first time demonstrated that mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON), permeates through Swiss albino mice skin, which demands awareness of health risks in people who are dermally exposed to mycotoxins especially agricultural farmers. Despite the widespread contamination of DON in food commodities studies to alleviate DON's toxicity are sparsely reported. Thus effective measures to combat mycotoxins associated toxicity remains an imperative aspect to be considered from the angle of dermal exposure. Topical application of Celecoxib (1-2 mg), followed by DON (100 µg) application on the dorsal side of mice, resulted in substantial decrease in DON-induced (i) edema, hyperplasia, cell proliferation (ii) inhibition of cytokine and prostaglandin-E2 levels (iii) phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, MAPKKs, CREB, P90-RSK (iv) downregulation of c-Jun, c- Fos, phospho-NF-kB and their downstream target proteins cyclin D1 and COX-2. Using Ro-31-8220 (Protein-Kinase-C inhibitor), it was observed PKC was responsible for DON induced upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS proteins. Treatment of Celecoxib decreased DON-induced translocation of Protein Kinase C isozymes (α,ε,γ), demonstrating the role of PKC in DON-mediated biochemical and molecular alterations responsible for its dermal toxicity. The present findings indicate that topical application of celecoxib is effective in the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxin DON. The skin permeation potential of Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NSAID, was also assessed, and the results indicated that the permeation was relatively lower as compared to the oral mode of administration. Hence topical use of celecoxib may be preferred over oral dosing because of lower systemic absorption and to avoid the unwanted side effects. This study provides a prospect for exploring the clinical efficacy of topically applied COX-2 inhibitors for the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxins.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 255: 117844, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464124

RESUMO

AIMS: Interleukin (IL) 9 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and recent studies have demonstrated that IL-9 is associated with several cardiovascular diseases, via regulation of the inflammatory response. Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to induce severe cardiac injury and dysfunction by enhancing inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-9 in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DOX was used to induce cardiac dysfunction and the expression of IL-9 in the murine cardiac tissues was measured. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with recombinant mouse IL-9 (rmIL-9) or anti-IL-9 neutralizing antibody (IL-9nAb) for investigating the effect of IL-9 on DOX-induced cardiac injury and dysfunction. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined in each group by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The effect of rmIL-9 or IL-9nAb on DOX-induced apoptosis was determined both in vivo and vitro. KEY FINDINGS: IL-9 levels significantly increased in the heart following DOX injection. Cardiac injury and dysfunction were induced by DOX, and treatment with IL-9nAb significantly alleviated DOX-induced injury, whereas rmIL-9 administration aggravated the cardiac damage. IL-9nAb decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the DOX-treated mice, while rmIL-9 administration increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-9nAb reduced DOX-induced myocardial apoptosis, whereas rmIL-9 administration produced the opposite results. Additionally, IL-9nAb mitigated the DOX-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells, while administration of rmIL-9 produced the opposite effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that IL-9 aggravated DOX-induced cardiac injury and dysfunction by promoting the inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-9/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos
20.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 688: 108409, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464089

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to determine how aronia berry polyphenols and its microbial catabolites improve intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 cells were cultured on transwell plates and allowed differentiate to form a model intestinal barrier, having baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) ≥ 300 Ω cm2. Barrier function of differentiated Caco-2 cells was compromised by the addition of an inflammatory cocktail (IC: TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IFN-γ to the basolateral media and lipopolysaccharide to the apical media). Polyphenol-rich aronia berry powder or individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or catabolites were applied to the basolateral media concurrently with IC. TEER was determined subsequently by chopstick electrode or continuous analysis. Permeability was determined by application of 4 kDa FITC-dextran or Lucifer yellow. Expression of tight junction proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis. Application of the IC to differentiated Caco-2 cells routinely reduced TEER by ~40% within 24 h. Individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or phenolic microbial catabolites at 100 µM did not inhibit IC reduction of TEER in Caco-2 cells. Whole aronia berry powder inhibited loss of TEER by ~50% at 24 h after application of the IC. Furthermore 5 mg/mL of aronia berry powder prevented an IC-induced barrier permeability of FITC-dextran and Lucifer yellow. After 12 h of IC treatment, Caco-2 cells had increased claudin 1 (CLDN1) relative to the untreated control. Application of aronia berry powder inhibited CLDN1 and also increased expression of zonula ocludens-1 (ZO-1) after 12 h. In summary, aronia berry, but not its microbiota-derived catabolites improved intestinal barrier function in a cellular model of chronic colonic inflammation. In this case, improved barrier function was associated with modulation of tight junction expression.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Photinia/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-1beta , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ocludina/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
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