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1.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 311(2): 151472, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461110

RESUMO

Numerous studies have associated alterations in the gut microbiota composition with almost every known inflammatory disease. However, proving the biological relevance of distinct microbial signatures and linking specific microorganisms to host phenotypes, remains a considerable challenge. Correspondingly, increased abundance of members of Prevotella genus within microbial communities colonizing distinct mucosal surfaces has been found in individuals diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, metabolic disorders, and intestinal and vaginal dysbiosis. Still, the role of Prevotella spp. in the incidence of these diseases continues to be debated. For many years, poor understanding of Prevotella biology could be in large part attributed to the lack of experimental tools. However, in the recent years significant advances have been made towards overcoming these limitations, including increased number of isolates and improved understanding of genetic diversity. Besides discussing the most relevant associations between Prevotella spp. and inflammatory disorders, in the present review we examine the recent efforts to expand the Prevotella experimental "toolbox" and we highlight remaining experimental challenges that should advance future research and our understanding of Prevotella-host interplay.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Prevotella/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos
2.
Yi Chuan ; 43(1): 30-39, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509772

RESUMO

Lung microbiome exists in the respiratory tract and parenchymal tissues. It mediates lung injury through a variety of mechanisms, including bacterial disturbance, metabolites, inflammatory response, immune response, and genotoxicity. Accumulating evidences suggest that changes in lung microbiome correlates with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, and the microbiome promotes the progression from COPD to lung cancer. In this review, we mainly introduce the impairment of the homeostasis of the lung microbiome and its inflammation that leads to COPD and lung cancer, then focus on how the microbiome mediates the progression from COPD to lung cancer through inflammatory response. The review may provide a new theoretical basis for clinical prevention, optimal treatment strategy and design of new drugs for COPD and lung cancer.


Assuntos
Inflamação/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
3.
Life Sci ; 269: 119008, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434535

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease related to intestinal dysbiosis. Luteolin has been reported to reduce inflammation. However, it remains unclear whether luteolin ameliorates UC and regulates gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on colonic structure and inflammation of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rats using hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and evaluated the effects of luteolin on gut microbiota using 16S rDNA sequencing. We found that luteolin treatment significantly reduced colonic damage, and inhibited colonic inflammation in UC rats, evidenced by the decreased levels of NF-κB, IL-17 and IL-23 in UC rats and the increased level of PPAR-γ. In addition, the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that luteolin treatment could alter diversity and composition of gut microbiota in UC rats. Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Roseburia and Butyricicoccus were dominant genera in the luteolin group. Luteolin treatment reduced DSS-induced increased ratios of Lactobacillus and Prevotella_9. Furthermore, KEGG analysis revealed that gut microbiota was mainly related to DNA repair and recombination proteins, ribosome, purine metabolism, peptidases, and pyrimidine metabolism. In conclusion, our results revealed that luteolin could alleviate DSS-induced colitis in rats, and gut microbiota had the potential to serve as promising biomarkers for uncovering the mechanism by which luteolin improved UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colo/patologia , Análise Discriminante , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/complicações , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacologia , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Wistar
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009107, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338061

RESUMO

Mycolactone, a lipid-like toxin, is the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. Its involvement in lesion development has been widely described in early stages of the disease, through its cytotoxic and immunosuppressive activities, but less is known about later stages. Here, we revisit the role of mycolactone in disease outcome and provide the first demonstration of the pro-inflammatory potential of this toxin. We found that the mycolactone-containing mycobacterial extracellular vesicles produced by M. ulcerans induced the production of IL-1ß, a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, in a TLR2-dependent manner, targeting NLRP3/1 inflammasomes. We show our data to be relevant in a physiological context. The in vivo injection of these mycolactone-containing vesicles induced a strong local inflammatory response and tissue damage, which were prevented by corticosteroids. Finally, several soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1ß, were detected in infected tissues from mice and Buruli ulcer patients. Our results revisit Buruli ulcer pathophysiology by providing new insight, thus paving the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies taking the pro-inflammatory potential of mycolactone into account.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macrolídeos/imunologia , Animais , Úlcera de Buruli/metabolismo , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium ulcerans
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e22867, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a major health problem worldwide; according to statistics, 10% to 25% of patients with NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A link between the composition and metabolites of intestinal microbiota and the development of NAFLD is becoming clearer. It is believed that microbiota factors are driving forces of hepatic steatosis and inflammation. The formulated food that contains prebiotics and dietary fiber may improve NAFLD by altering the intestinal flora and its metabolites. METHODS: The study plan to recruit adult patients (18-75 years, n = 120) with NAFLD, range of alanine aminotransferase is 1.5 to 5 times upper limit of normal (ULN) or liver biopsy is confirmed as NASH. Participants will be randomly allocated into 2 groups: formulated food (n = 80) and a placebo group (n = 40) for 24 weeks. Both groups will receive lifestyle and nutritional advice. The primary endpoint is a decrease in MRS-PDFF by more than 30% from baseline at 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints include the change of anthropometric, liver function, glycolipid metabolism, and systemic inflammation at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. In addition, we consider the changes in intestinal microbiota as an exploration to assess the abundance and diversity at 24 weeks. Weeks 24 to 36 are the follow-up period of drug withdrawal. DISCUSSION: This clinical trial will provide evidence of efficacy and safety of formulated food as a potential new therapeutic agent for NAFLD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered in the China Clinical Trial Center (ChiCTR1800016178).


Assuntos
Alimentos Formulados/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alimentos Formulados/microbiologia , Alimentos Formulados/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2127-2128, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901593

RESUMO

Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte with a worldwide distribution and is responsible for superficial mycosis with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report two atypical cases of tinea due to T. tonsurans in two children: a case of extensive tinea corporis and a case of inflammatory tinea capitis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Econazol/administração & dosagem , Griseofulvina/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/patologia
7.
Nature ; 585(7826): 509-517, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968260

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease of the intestinal epithelium that is characterized by the accumulation of mutations and a dysregulated immune response. Up to 90% of disease risk is thought to be due to environmental factors such as diet, which is consistent with a growing body of literature that describes an 'oncogenic' CRC-associated microbiota. Whether this dysbiosis contributes to disease or merely represents a bystander effect remains unclear. To prove causation, it will be necessary to decipher which specific taxa or metabolites drive CRC biology and to fully characterize the underlying mechanisms. Here we discuss the host-microbiota interactions in CRC that have been reported so far, with particular focus on mechanisms that are linked to intestinal barrier disruption, genotoxicity and deleterious inflammation. We further comment on unknowns and on the outstanding challenges in the field, and how cutting-edge technological advances might help to overcome these. More detailed mechanistic insights into the complex CRC-associated microbiota would potentially reveal avenues that can be exploited for clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Mutagênese
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4766, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958778

RESUMO

Germline telomere maintenance defects are associated with an increased incidence of inflammatory diseases in humans, yet whether and how telomere dysfunction causes inflammation are not known. Here, we show that telomere dysfunction drives pATM/c-ABL-mediated activation of the YAP1 transcription factor, up-regulating the major pro-inflammatory factor, pro-IL-18. The colonic microbiome stimulates cytosolic receptors activating caspase-1 which cleaves pro-IL-18 into mature IL-18, leading to recruitment of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells and intestinal inflammation. Correspondingly, patients with germline telomere maintenance defects exhibit DNA damage (γH2AX) signaling together with elevated YAP1 and IL-18 expression. In mice with telomere dysfunction, telomerase reactivation in the intestinal epithelium or pharmacological inhibition of ATM, YAP1, or caspase-1 as well as antibiotic treatment, dramatically reduces IL-18 and intestinal inflammation. Thus, telomere dysfunction-induced activation of the ATM-YAP1-pro-IL-18 pathway in epithelium is a key instigator of tissue inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Fosforilação , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo
9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L675-L682, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877221

RESUMO

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to a microbiome consisting of microorganisms that heavily influence human immunity and health. In the lung these microorganisms consist of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and exist in a relatively low biomass state. Bacterial communities of the lung modulate local inflammation and correlate with changes in pulmonary physiology and clinical outcomes in patients with lung disease. Instrumental to this progress has been the study of these bacterial communities in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, a fatal and progressive disease culminating in respiratory failure. Key pathophysiological mechanisms in pulmonary fibrosis include recurrent idiopathic alveolar epithelial injury, unchecked collagen deposition, mucociliary dysfunction due to muc5b overexpression, hypoxia, and altered host defense. These key mechanisms and their related consequences promote severe progressive architectural lung destruction and loss of local homeostasis. As such, pulmonary fibrosis is an appropriate target disease for the study of the lung microbiome. Herein, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. We highlight fundamental clinical observations and mechanistic insights and identify crucial areas for further discovery science. An improved understanding of how the lung microbiome acts to influence outcomes in patients with pulmonary fibrosis will lead to enhanced therapies for this devastating lung disease.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008695, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750090

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome has emerged as a central immune regulator that senses virulence factors expressed by microbial pathogens for triggering inflammation. Inflammation can be harmful and therefore this response must be tightly controlled. The mechanisms by which immune cells, such as macrophages, discriminate benign from pathogenic microbes to control the NLRP3 inflammasome remain poorly defined. Here we used live cell imaging coupled with a compendium of diverse clinical isolates to define how macrophages respond and activate NLRP3 when faced with the human yeast commensal and pathogen Candida albicans. We show that metabolic competition by C. albicans, rather than virulence traits such as hyphal formation, activates NLRP3 in macrophages. Inflammasome activation is triggered by glucose starvation in macrophages, which occurs when fungal load increases sufficiently to outcompete macrophages for glucose. Consistently, reducing Candida's ability to compete for glucose and increasing glucose availability for macrophages tames inflammatory responses. We define the mechanistic requirements for glucose starvation-dependent inflammasome activation by Candida and show that it leads to inflammatory cytokine production, but it does not trigger pyroptotic macrophage death. Pyroptosis occurs only with some Candida isolates and only under specific experimental conditions, whereas inflammasome activation by glucose starvation is broadly relevant. In conclusion, macrophages use their metabolic status, specifically glucose metabolism, to sense fungal metabolic activity and activate NLRP3 when microbial load increases. Therefore, a major consequence of Candida-induced glucose starvation in macrophages is activation of inflammatory responses, with implications for understanding how metabolism modulates inflammation in fungal infections.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Glucose/deficiência , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Animais , Células 3T3 BALB , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candidíase/metabolismo , Candidíase/microbiologia , Caspase 1/fisiologia , Caspases Iniciadoras/fisiologia , Feminino , Hifas , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/fisiologia , Piroptose
11.
Orthopade ; 49(8): 660-668, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is an acute emergency. It occurs more frequently in patients with pre-existing degenerative or chronic inflammatory joint diseases than in the general population. The causative microorganisms can be introduced in various ways. DIAGNOSTICS: A rapid diagnosis is of great importance for the success of the therapy. In the clinical examination, the typical signs of inflammation are noticeable. The gold standard is the aspiration of synovial fluid and the subsequent laboratory and microbiological investigation. THERAPY: A prerequisite for successful therapy is the early initiation of an antimicrobial pathogen-specific treatment and the surgical alleviation of the joint.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Drenagem/métodos , Ligamentos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo
12.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109577, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846611

RESUMO

The year 2020 will be remembered by a never before seen, at least by our generation, global pandemic of COVID-19. While a desperate search for effective vaccines or drug therapies is on the run, nutritional strategies to promote immunity against SARS-CoV-2, are being discussed. Certain fermented foods and probiotics may deliver viable microbes with the potential to promote gut immunity. Prebiotics, on their side, may enhance gut immunity by selectively stimulating certain resident microbes in the gut. Different levels of evidence support the use of fermented foods, probiotics and prebiotics to promote gut and lungs immunity. Without being a promise of efficacy against COVID-19, incorporating them into the diet may help to low down gut inflammation and to enhance mucosal immunity, to possibly better face the infection by contributing to diminishing the severity or the duration of infection episodes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Inflamação , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(3): H705-H721, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762560

RESUMO

Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorous (HOCl) reacts with membrane plasmalogens to yield α-chlorofatty aldehydes such as 2-chlorofatty aldehyde (2-ClFALD) and its metabolite 2-chlorofatty acid (2-ClFA). Recent studies showed that 2-ClFALD and 2-ClFA serve as mediators of the inflammatory responses to sepsis by as yet unknown mechanisms. Since no scavenger for chlorinated lipids is available and on the basis of the well-established role of the MPO/HOCl/chlorinated lipid axis in inflammatory responses, we hypothesized that treatment with MPO inhibitors (N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide or 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide) would inhibit inflammation and proinflammatory mediator expression induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We used intravital microscopy to quantify in vivo inflammatory responses in Sham and CLP rats with or without MPO inhibition. Small intestines, mesenteries, and lungs were collected to assess changes in MPO-positive staining and lung injury, respectively, as well as free 2-ClFA and proinflammatory mediators levels. CLP caused neutrophil infiltration, 2-ClFA generation, acute lung injury, leukocyte-/platelet-endothelium interactions, mast cell activation (MCA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production, and the expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor, changes that were reduced by MPO inhibition. Pretreatment with a PAI-1 inhibitor or MC stabilizer prevented CLP-induced leukocyte-endothelium interactions and MCA, and abrogated exogenous 2-ClFALD-induced inflammatory responses. Thus, we provide evidence that MPO instigates these inflammatory changes in CLP and that chlorinated lipids may serve as a mechanistic link between the enzymatic activity of MPO and PAI-1- and mast cell-dependent adhesive interactions, providing a rationale for new therapeutic interventions in sepsis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using two distinct myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitors, we show for the first time that MPO plays an important role in producing increases in free 2-chlorofatty aldehyde (2-ClFALD)-a powerful proinflammatory chlorinated lipid in plasma and intestine-a number of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, leukocyte and platelet rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules, and lung injury in a cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. In addition, the use of a plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inhibitor or a mast cell stabilizer prevented inflammatory responses in CLP-induced sepsis. PAI-1 inhibition also prevented the proinflammatory responses to exogenous 2-ClFALD superfusion. Thus, our study provides some of the first evidence that MPO-derived free 2-ClFA plays an important role in CLP-induced sepsis by a PAI-1- and mast cell-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/enzimologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sepse/enzimologia , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ceco/cirurgia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Intestino Delgado/enzimologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Ligadura , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Mastócitos/enzimologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mesentério/enzimologia , Mesentério/imunologia , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Punções , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101005, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522404

RESUMO

The epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of pythiosis in cats in northeastern Brazil are described. From January 2000 to December 2018 the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of the Federal University of Campina Grande received 1928 tissue samples of cats, three of which were diagnosed as pythiosis. Grossly, the cats showed a multinodular mass in the oral cavity associated with facial deformity (case 1), a large multinodular mass thickening the jejunum wall (case 2), and an ulcerated nodule in the skin at the base of the tail (case 3). Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation and necrosis, with intralesional predominantly negatively stained hyphae, were observed in all cases. Immunohistochemistry for Pythium insidiosum revealed strong immunolabelling of the hyphae. The diagnosis of pythiosis was based on the epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological findings, and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Although uncommon in cats, pythiosis should be readily considered as a differential diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous infections of the gastrointestinal tract and skin, especially in endemic areas, where the disease is often diagnosed in other animal species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Assimetria Facial/microbiologia , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Assimetria Facial/veterinária , Feminino , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Pitiose/microbiologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Pythium/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(2): 247-266, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric co-morbidities including depression and anxiety are common in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Emerging evidence suggests that interactions between the gut microbiota and brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms in IBD. AIM: To review the literature on microbiota-brain-gut interactions in gut inflammation, psychosocial stress and mental disorders and to discuss the putative mediating role of gut microbiota in the development of psychiatric symptoms or co-morbidities in IBD. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on Ovid and Pubmed to select relevant animal and human studies reporting an association between IBD, mental disorders and gut microbiota. RESULTS: Gut microbial alterations are frequently reported in subjects with IBD and with mental disorders. Both have been associated with reduced faecal bacterial diversity, decreased taxa within the phylum Firmicutes and increased Gammaproteobacteria. In animal studies, microbial perturbations induce behavioural changes and modulate inflammation in mice. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviours in animals can be transferred via faecal microbiota. In humans, modulation of the gut microbiota with probiotics is associated with behavioural and mood changes. Recent data show correlations in changes of faecal and mucosal microbiota and psychological distress in patients with IBD independent of disease activity. CONCLUSION: Both IBD and mental disorders are associated with gut microbial alterations. Preclinical and preliminary human studies have shown a mediating role of the gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation and anxiety, depression and stress. Targeting the gut microbiota may represent a useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of psychiatric co-morbidities in IBD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
16.
Nature ; 582(7810): 89-94, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483373

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide-repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic variant that contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia1,2. The C9ORF72 mutation acts through gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms to induce pathways that are implicated in neural degeneration3-9. The expansion is transcribed into a long repetitive RNA, which negatively sequesters RNA-binding proteins5 before its non-canonical translation into neural-toxic dipeptide proteins3,4. The failure of RNA polymerase to read through the mutation also reduces the abundance of the endogenous C9ORF72 gene product, which functions in endolysosomal pathways and suppresses systemic and neural inflammation6-9. Notably, the effects of the repeat expansion act with incomplete penetrance in families with a high prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia, indicating that either genetic or environmental factors modify the risk of disease for each individual. Identifying disease modifiers is of considerable translational interest, as it could suggest strategies to diminish the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia, or to slow progression. Here we report that an environment with reduced abundance of immune-stimulating bacteria10,11 protects C9orf72-mutant mice from premature mortality and significantly ameliorates their underlying systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Consistent with C9orf72 functioning to prevent microbiota from inducing a pathological inflammatory response, we found that reducing the microbial burden in mutant mice with broad spectrum antibiotics-as well as transplanting gut microflora from a protective environment-attenuated inflammatory phenotypes, even after their onset. Our studies provide further evidence that the microbial composition of our gut has an important role in brain health and can interact in surprising ways with well-known genetic risk factors for disorders of the nervous system.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Gliose/microbiologia , Gliose/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/microbiologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Autoimunidade/genética , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Gliose/genética , Gliose/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/microbiologia , Microglia/patologia , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Medula Espinal/microbiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15789-15798, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581129

RESUMO

Patients infected with influenza are at high risk of secondary bacterial infection, which is a major proximate cause of morbidity and mortality. We have shown that in mice, prior infection with influenza results in increased inflammation and mortality upon Staphylococcus aureus infection, recapitulating the human disease. Lipidomic profiling of the lungs of superinfected mice revealed an increase in CYP450 metabolites during lethal superinfection. These lipids are endogenous ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARα, and we demonstrate that Ppara -/- mice are less susceptible to superinfection than wild-type mice. PPARα is an inhibitor of NFκB activation, and transcriptional profiling of cells isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed that influenza infection inhibits NFκB, thereby dampening proinflammatory and prosurvival signals. Furthermore, network analysis indicated an increase in necrotic cell death in the lungs of superinfected mice compared to mice infected with S. aureus alone. Consistent with this, we observed reduced NFκB-mediated inflammation and cell survival signaling in cells isolated from the lungs of superinfected mice. The kinase RIPK3 is required to induce necrotic cell death and is strongly induced in cells isolated from the lungs of superinfected mice compared to mice infected with S. aureus alone. Genetic and pharmacological perturbations demonstrated that PPARα mediates RIPK3-dependent necroptosis and that this pathway plays a central role in mortality following superinfection. Thus, we have identified a molecular circuit in which infection with influenza induces CYP450 metabolites that activate PPARα, leading to increased necrotic cell death in the lung which correlates with the excess mortality observed in superinfection.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , PPAR alfa/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Superinfecção/genética , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Necroptose/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Superinfecção/mortalidade
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(698): 1266-1269, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558457

RESUMO

The microbiota is a subject of particular interest and research. It is defined as all microorganisms present in tissues and on body surfaces. It sits at the interface with many systems, including the immune system, plays a role in the metabolism, immunity, or inflammation and is thought to be associated with some pathological mechanisms. Its composition and metabolic activity are influenced by diverse factors such as aging. This article summarizes the 5th symposium «â€…Feeding the Microbiota ¼ (Geneva University Hospitals, February 6, 2020), focused on microbiota and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação/microbiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7823, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385413

RESUMO

This study investigates the role of NLRP3 inflammasome and its main effector Caspase-1 in inflammation and alveolar bone resorption associated with periodontitis. Heat-killed Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) was injected 3x/week (4 weeks) into gingival tissues of wild-type (WT), Nlrp3-KO and Caspase1-KO mice. Bone resorption was measured by µCT and osteoclast number was determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Inflammation was assessed histologically (H/E staining and immunofluorescence of CD45 and Ly6G). In vitro studies determined the influence of Nlrp3 and Caspase-1 in Rankl-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity and on LPS-induced expression of inflammation-associated genes. Bone resorption was significantly reduced in Casp1-KO but not in Nlrp3-KO mice. Casp1-KO mice had increased in osteoclast numbers, whereas the inflammatory infiltrate or on gene expression were similar to those of WT and Nlrp3-KO mice. Strikingly, osteoclasts differentiated from Nlrp3-deficient macrophages had increased resorbing activity in vitro. LPS-induced expression of Il-10, Il-12 and Tnf-α was significantly reduced in Nlrp3- and Casp1-deficient macrophages. As an inceptive study, these results suggest that Nlrp3 inflammasome does not play a significant role in inflammation and bone resorption in vivo and that Caspase-1 has a pro-resorptive role in experimental periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/genética , Caspase 1/genética , Inflamação/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Periodontite/genética , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Perda do Osso Alveolar/microbiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gengiva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoclastos/microbiologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/patologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 159, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san (SLBZS) regulates inflammation and gut microbiota which are associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn)-induced pneumonia. So, we studied the therapeutic effect of SLBZS and evaluated whether gut microbiota is associated with the effects of SLBZS in improving Spn-induced pneumonia. METHODS: Spn-induced pneumonia NIH mice were treated by SLBZS and cefixime. A CT scan was performed and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung homogenates was determined using the MPO Colorimetric Assay Kit. Inflammation levels in lung homogenates were measured using ELISA. Bacterial load was coated on a TSAII sheep blood agar. Intestinal gut microbiota information was analyzed according to sequencing libraries. RESULTS: SLBZS decreased bacterial load, reduced wet/dry weight ratio, inhibited myeloperoxidase activity, reduced the neutrophils count, and ameliorated lung injury. Furthermore, SLBZS inhibited interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12, and interferon-γ secretion and enhanced IL-10 secretion. These results suggest that SLBZS ameliorates lung injury in mice with Spn-induced pneumonia. Moreover, SLBZS reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in a concentration-dependent manner and increased gut microbiota abundance and diversity. After SLBZS treatment, bacteria such as Epsilonbacteraeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Patescibacteria were significantly reduced, while Tenericutes and Firmicutes were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: SLBZS ameliorates inflammation, lung injury, and gut microbiota in mice with S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/microbiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos
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