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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(11): 1329-1345, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760921

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and an essential medical and social problem. In the first part of the review, we briefly highlight the biochemical basis of metabolic disbalance in obesity and evolution of our views on the mechanisms of insulin resistance development in insulin-sensitive tissues. Because obesity relates to the disturbance in the normal physiology of fat tissue, the second part of the review focuses on latent inflammation that develops in obesity and is supported by immune cells. Finally, the problem of adipocyte hypertrophy, reduced regenerative potential of fat progenitor cells, and impaired renewal of fat depots is discussed in the context of type 2 diabetes pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/patologia , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108842, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In view of the important role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in human pathophysiology, we studied the role of DPP-4 in stress-related vascular aging in mice, focusing on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mice were randomly divided into a non-stress group and an immobilization stress group treated for 2 weeks. Chronic stress accelerates aortic senescence and increases plasma DPP-4 levels. Stress increased the levels of gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, p53, p27, p21, p16INK4A, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cathepsin S (Cat S), and Cat K mRNAs and/or protein in the aorta of the stressed mice and decreased their levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SirTuin1 (SirT1). DPP-4 inhibitors can improve stress-induced targeting molecules and morphological changes. In vitro, the inhibition of DPP-4 also alleviated the changes in the oxidative and inflammatory molecules in response to hydrogen peroxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: DPP-4 inhibition can improve vascular aging in stressed mice, possibly by improving oxidative stress production and vascular inflammation. Our results suggest that DPP-4 may become a new therapeutic target for chronic stress-related vascular aging in metabolic cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/sangue , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Life Sci ; 237: 116896, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605707

RESUMO

AIMS: Population-based studies have shown that exercise has anti-atherosclerotic effects, but the mechanisms underlying this cardiac protection are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if the anti-atherosclerotic effects of exercise are associated with changes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. MAIN METHODS: Thirty-one male ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into regular exercise (5 days/week), occasional exercise (1-2 days/week), and sedentary groups. After 8 weeks, atherosclerotic burden and plaque stability were measured by histological and morphological analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of NPY and its receptors in the aorta. KEY FINDINGS: Eight weeks of occasional exercise was equally effective as regular exercise at preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation and enhancing atherosclerotic plaque stability. This was shown by increased plaque collagen and smooth muscle cell content and decreased plaque lipid and macrophage content. The expression of NPY and its receptors in the vasculature was decreased in the regular exercise and occasional exercise groups, and this expression was significantly correlated with the progress of atherosclerosis. Moreover, exercise may reduce the activity of macrophages by down-regulating the expression of NPY Y1 receptors, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that exercise training can attenuate plaque burden and enhance atherosclerotic plaque stability. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of exercise appears to be, at least in part, dependent on down-regulation of the expression of NPY and its receptors (especially Y1 receptors) in the aorta.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7475-7488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571859

RESUMO

Background: Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis and the consequent aseptic loosening constitute the leading reasons for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Several studies have demonstrated that the macrophage polarization state and immune response play critical roles in periprosthetic osteolysis and tissue repair, but the immunomodulatory role of lithium chloride (LiCl), which has a protective effect on wear particle-induced osteolysis by suppressing osteoclasts and attenuating inflammatory responses, has never been investigated. Methods: In this work, the immunomodulatory capability of LiCl on titanium (Ti) nanoparticle-stimulated transformation of macrophage phenotypes and the subsequent effect on osteogenic differentiation were investigated. We first speculated that LiCl attenuated Ti nanoparticle-stimulated inflammation responses by driving macrophage polarization and generating an immune micro-environment to improve osteogenesis. Furthermore, a metal nanoparticle-stimulated murine air pouch inflammatory model was applied to confirm this protective effect in vivo. Results: The results revealed that metal nanoparticles significantly activate M1 phenotype (proinflammatory macrophage) expression and increase proinflammatory cytokines secretions in vitro and in vivo, whereas LiCl drives macrophages to the M2 phenotype (anti-inflammatory macrophage) and increases the release of anti-inflammatory and bone-related cytokines. This improved the osteogenic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). In addition, we also provided evidence that LiCl inhibits the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in wear particle-treated macrophages. Conclusion: LiCl has the immunomodulatory effects to alleviate Ti nanoparticle-mediated inflammatory reactions and enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs by driving macrophage polarization. Thus, LiCl may be an effective therapeutic alternative for preventing and treating wear debris-induced inflammatory osteolysis.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
5.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 790-798, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661478

RESUMO

Recently, much attention has been drawn to unraveling the mechanisms of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease pathogenesis. A special role in the development of neuropathologies is assigned to the interaction of the nervous and the immune systems. Microglia are the cells of the immune system that function as resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in the development of CNS, as well as in homeostatic interactions. Impaired microglia can contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. With the help of genome editing technologies, the main paradigms in the development and functions of microglia have been addressed. At the same time, an understanding of the mechanisms of regulation of microglia in normal and pathological conditions is necessary to create an effective therapy aimed at treating various neurological diseases. This review focuses on recent findings on the origin of microglia, its regulatory role in the central nervous system, as well as its contribution to the development of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Homeostase , Inflamação/patologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia
6.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 97(5): 621-629, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580709

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential effect of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats, together with the underlying protective mechanisms, and screen out most effective ratio of n-6/n-3 within limits. The rats with pre-infarct treatment were distributed among 5 groups according to the n-6/n-3 ratio (36:1; 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1); for the post-infarct treatment, the rats were distributed among 6 groups, including the control group (36:1) which was subjected to a sham procedure; the model group (36:1); and 4 test groups (n-6/n-3 ratio: 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1). All of the rats were fed a purple perilla seed oil and safflower oil-based fatty emulsion. The serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, hematoxylin and eosin, or Masson's trichrome was performed for histological examination. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and signaling pathway proteins. Our data indicate that in both the pre-infarct treatment and post-infarct treatment, low ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the levels of serum inflammatory factors, the infarct size of MIRI rats, number of cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax in the MIRI group. Thus a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs ameliorates inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 732-740, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646327

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra (SNpc). Postmortem analysis of PD patients and experimental animal studies found that microglial cell activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors were common features of PD brain tissue. At the same time, the invasion and accumulation of peripheric immune cells were detected in the brain of PD patients. In this paper, peripheral inflammation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced microglial cell activation and intracerebral inflammation in PD are summarized, providing potential therapeutic measures for delaying the onset of PD.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Substância Negra/patologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Humanos , Microglia , alfa-Sinucleína
8.
Life Sci ; 237: 116930, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610190

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by symptoms that include social communication impairments, interaction deficits, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Recent studies have suggested that imbalanced cytokine levels are associated with impaired behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. VGX-1027 is a potent immunomodulatory compound that has shown promise for the treatment of several neuroinflammatory disorders. Here, we studied the effects of VGX-1027 on BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, an animal model of autism. BTBR mice exhibit most of the core behavioral features of ASD, such as reduced sociability and increased repetitive behaviors. In this study, we investigated the effects of VGX-1027 on self-grooming, marble burying and sociability tests using BTBR mice. We further examined its effect on IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NF-κB p65 production in splenic CD4+ cells and on IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, COX-2, and iNOS (NOS2) protein and mRNA expression in brain tissues. The administration of VGX-1027 was found to attenuate self-grooming and marble burying behaviors, and enhance social interactions in BTBR mice. Additionally, VGX-1027 treatment resulted in a substantial decrease in IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NF-κB p65 production, but increased IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells. Moreover, this agent was also found to significantly decrease IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, COX-2, and NOS2 levels and increase IL-10 expression at the protein and mRNA level in brain tissues. Based on results using BTBR mice, our data provide the first evidence that VGX-1027 could potentially be used for the amelioration of autism-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Transtorno Autístico/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/fisiologia , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Gene ; 721: 144107, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene environment interactions leading to epigenetic alterations play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Altered DNA methylation is one such epigenetic factor that could lead to altered disease etiology. In this study, we comprehensively identified methylation sites in several genes that have been previously associated with young CAD patients. METHODS: The study population consisted of 42 healthy controls and 33 young CAD patients (age group <50 years). We performed targeted bisulfite sequencing of promoter as well as gene body regions of several genes in various pathways like cholesterol synthesis and metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, apoptosis, which are implicated in the development of CAD. RESULTS: We observed that the genes like GALNT2, HMGCR were hypermethylated in the promoter whereas LDLR gene promoter was hypomethylated indicating that intracellular LDL uptake was higher in CAD patients. Although APOA1 did not show significant change in methylation but APOC3 and APOA5 showed variation in methylation in promoter and exonic regions. Glucokinase (GCK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) were hyper methylated in the promoter. Genes involved in apoptosis (BAX/BCL2/AKT2) and inflammation (PHACTR1/LCK) also showed differential methylation between controls and CAD patients. A combined analysis of the methylated CpG sites using machine learning tool revealed 14 CpGs in 11 genes that could discriminate CAD cases from controls with over 93% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique because it highlights important gene methylation alterations which might predict the risk of young CAD in Indian population. Large scale studies in different populations would be important for validating our findings and understanding the epigenetic events associated with CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto , Apolipoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sulfitos/química
10.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900703, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare four types of mesh regarding visceral adhesions, inflammatory response and incorporation. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with different meshes implanted intraperitoneally: polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE group); polypropylene with polydioxanone and oxidized cellulose (PCD); polypropylene (PM) and polypropylene with silicone (PMS). The variables analyzed were: area covered by adhesions, incorporation of the mesh and inflammatory reaction (evaluated histologically and by COX2 immunochemistry). RESULTS: The PMS group had the lowest adhesion area (63.1%) and grade 1 adhesions. The ePTFE and PM groups presented almost the total area of their surface covered by adherences (99.8% and 97.7% respectively) The group ePTFE had the highest percentage of area without incorporation (42%; p <0.001) with no difference between the other meshes. The PMS group had the best incorporation rate. And the histological analysis revealed that the inflammation scores were significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The PM mesh had higher density of adherences, larger area of adherences, adherences to organs and percentage of incorporation. ePTFE had the higher area of adherences and lower incorporation. The PMS mesh performed best in the inflammation score, had a higher incorporation and lower area of adherences, and it was considered the best type of mesh.


Assuntos
Hérnia Incisional/cirurgia , Inflamação/patologia , Próteses e Implantes , Telas Cirúrgicas/normas , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Parede Abdominal/patologia , Animais , Celulose Oxidada/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Polipropilenos/efeitos adversos , Politetrafluoretileno/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Silicones/efeitos adversos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle , Vísceras/fisiologia
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e085, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483051

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC), and to correlate the findings with clinical (tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage) and histopathological (grade of epithelial dysplasia and inflammatory infiltrate for AC and histopathological grade of malignancy for LLSCC) parameters. Twenty-four AC and 48 LLSCC cases (24 with regional nodal metastasis and 24 without regional nodal metastasis) were selected. The scores of immunopositive cells for HLA-DR in the epithelial component of the lesions were assessed and the results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Epithelial expression of HLA-DR was observed in only five (20.8%) cases of AC (two low-grade and three high-grade lesions), with a very low median score of immunopositivity. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was found in most LLSCC (97.9%), with a relatively high median score of positive cells. The score of HLA-DR-positive cells tended to be higher in tumors with regional lymph node metastasis, tumors in advanced clinical stages, and low-grade tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, there was a tendency towards higher expression of HLA-DR in highly/moderately keratinized tumors, and tumors with little/moderate nuclear pleomorphism (p > 0.05). The results suggest a potential role of HLA-DR in lip carcinogenesis, particularly in the development and progression of LLSCC. The expression of this protein can be related to the degree of cell differentiation in these tumors.


Assuntos
Queilite/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Neoplasias Labiais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Queilite/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Labiais/patologia , Neoplasias Labiais/secundário , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/secundário
12.
Life Sci ; 236: 116867, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520598

RESUMO

AIM: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent anticancer and immunosuppressant drug. Studies have shown significant oxidative stress and cognitive impairment but neuroinflammatory and histological aberrations with its administration is underexplored. Nerolidol (NER) is a lipophilic bioactive molecule with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties but it has not been explored for neuroprotective potential in CP-induced neurotoxic manifestations. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of NER in CP-induced neuroinflammation and associated comorbid conditions like depression and cognitive dysfunctions. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In-silico study using Schrödinger software was used to assess the binding affinity of NER with Nrf2. In the In vivo study, NER 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were given from 1st day to 14th day. CP 200 mg/kg, i.p., was administered on the 7th day. After 24 h of the last dosing, neurobehavioral tests like spontaneous body alternation, passive avoidance and forced swim test were performed. On completion of study, mice were sacrificed, hippocampus and cortex were removed for biochemical estimations, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of p65 NF- κB and Nrf2. KEY FINDINGS: In-silico study showed significant binding of NER into the pocket domain of Nrf2. In-vivo study showed protective effect of NER against CP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in the hippocampus and cortex regions. SIGNIFICANCE: Findings of the study suggested that NER is a potential therapeutic molecule which can mitigate CP-induced neurotoxic manifestations via Nrf2 and NF-κB pathway. However, more detailed studies are needed to explicate the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Life Sci ; 236: 116833, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491456

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing inflammation that affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing changes in colonic motility. The evolution of these changes is not completely understood and possibly related to symptoms that appear in different degrees of the intestinal inflammation. Therefore, our aim is evaluate during 14 days of assessment aspects of colonic contractility using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of inflammation in rats and associate the inflammatory process with colonic motility. METHODS: Contractility and inflammatory parameters were assessed in the same animal in six different moments: before intestinal inflammation induction, 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 days after induction. The mechanical activity was determined by alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) and subdivided into rhythmic propagating ripples (RPR) and rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMC). We assessed inflammation by determining myeloperoxidase activity in feces. RESULTS: Transient and permanent changes were observed in colonic motility as a function of the inflammatory process evaluated through myeloperoxidase activity. We identified two contraction profiles: RPR and RPMC. The microscopic analysis demonstrated a depth of damage caused by an injury that was associated with changes in motility. CONCLUSIONS: We implemented a robust and adequate (specific) signal processing to quantify two measured colonic frequency patterns. Thus, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of the consequences of TNBS-induced inflammation on colonic motility in rats. Our approach enables further long-term assessments in the same animal with different mechanisms and duration of injury, remission, treatments and their motor consequences.


Assuntos
Colite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/toxicidade , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 454-459, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets have the ability to influence the immune system and the inflammatory process and may be strongly involved in the whole pathogenic process of chronic inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. They may play a significant role even before the clinical onset of the disease, contributing to the loss of tolerance of the immune system and the induction of autoimmunity. Subsequently, they can interact with the most important cellular players involved in autoimmunity and inflammation, namely innate immunity cells and T cells and eventually contribute to the building of inflammation in the synovium, thus inducing the activation, migration, and proliferation of fibroblasts that eventually lead to joint damage. Due to their peculiar features, studying the behavior of platelets is a challenging task; however, platelets may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets in the future.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Sinovite/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Sinovite/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1635-1648, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551592

RESUMO

In neurodegenerative diseases, debris of dead neurons are thought to trigger glia-mediated neuroinflammation, thus increasing neuronal death. Here we show that the expression of neurotoxic proteins associated with these diseases in microglia alone is sufficient to directly trigger death of naive neurons and to propagate neuronal death through activation of naive astrocytes to the A1 state. Injury propagation is mediated, in great part, by the release of fragmented and dysfunctional microglial mitochondria into the neuronal milieu. The amount of damaged mitochondria released from microglia relative to functional mitochondria and the consequent neuronal injury are determined by Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation within the glial cells. The propagation of the inflammatory response and neuronal cell death by extracellular dysfunctional mitochondria suggests a potential new intervention for neurodegeneration-one that inhibits mitochondrial fragmentation in microglia, thus inhibiting the release of dysfunctional mitochondria into the extracellular milieu of the brain, without affecting the release of healthy neuroprotective mitochondria.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Animais , Morte Celular , Dinaminas/genética , Espaço Extracelular , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6539-6553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496699

RESUMO

Aim: This paper reports on the incorporation of oleic acid (OA) within nanostructured lipid carriers (OA-NLC) to improve the anti-inflammatory effects in the presence of albumin. Materials and methods: NLCs produced via hot high-shear homogenization/ultrasonication were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, and toxicity. We examined the effects of OA-NLC on neutrophil activities. Dermatologic therapeutic potential was also elucidated by using a murine model of leukotriene B4-induced skin inflammation. Results: In the presence of albumin, OA-NLC but not free OA inhibited superoxide generation and elastase release. Topical administration of OA-NLC alleviated neutrophil infiltration and severity of skin inflammation. Conclusion: OA incorporated within NLC can overcome the interference of albumin, which would undermine the anti-inflammatory effects of OA. OA-NLC has potential therapeutic effects in topical ointments.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inflamação/patologia , Lipídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Ácido Oleico/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia , Pele/patologia , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucotrieno B4 , Lipídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleico/toxicidade , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6601-6613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496701

RESUMO

Purpose: The primary goal of the present study was to explore and evaluate the highly conserved Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) molecule, fused with truncated HBV virus-like particles (VLPs), as a candidate vaccine against the virulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NMB). Methods: NspA was inserted into the major immunodominant region of the truncated hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc; amino acids 1-144). The chimeric protein, HBc-N144-NspA, was expressed from a prokaryotic vector and generated HBc-like particles, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Further, the chimeric protein and control proteins were used to immunize mice and the resulting immune responses evaluated by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and analysis of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) titer. Results: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the recombinant HBc-N144-NspA protein showed that it elicited the production of high levels of NspA-specific total IgG. The SBA titer of HBc-N144-NspA/F reached 1:16 2 weeks after the last immunization in BALB/c mice, when human serum complement was included in the vaccine. Immunization of HBc-N144-NspA, even without adjuvant, induced high levels of IL-4 and a high IgG1 to IgG2a ratio, confirming induction of an intense Th2 immune response. Levels of IL-17A increased rapidly in mice after the first immunization with HBc-N144-NspA, indicating the potential for this vaccine to induce a mucosal immune response. Meanwhile, the immunization of HBc-N144-NspA without adjuvant induced only mild inflammatory infiltration into the mouse muscle tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that modification using HBc renders NspA a candidate vaccine, which can trigger protective immunity against NMB.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Vírion/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade , Imunização , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Teste Bactericida do Soro , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Virulência
19.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2060-2065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect and underlying mechanism of allicin (ALC) on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rats. METHODS: The model of MI/R injury in rats was induced by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (n = 10): sham group, MI/R injury group, and ALC precondition group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the expression of cardiac troponin I, CK-MB, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-8 in the rats' serum. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the myocardial pathologic morphology. A physiological recorder was used to measure cardiac systolic and diastolic function. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of p38 and p-p38 in myocardium. The content of malondialdehyde and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in myocardium were examined by automatic analysis with the thiobarbituric acid chromogenic and dinitrobenzoic acid methods, respectively. RESULTS: ALC can significantly decrease the expression of cardiac troponin I, CK-MB, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-8 in the serum and reduce the myocardial pathologic injury and the expression of malondialdehyde and p-p38 in myocardial tissue. Moreover, ALC can upregulate the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and improve myocardial systolic and diastolic function with no influence on the expression of p38. CONCLUSION: ALC can protect rats against MI/R injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress. The mechanism is associated with alleviating the activation of p38 signaling.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/farmacologia , Animais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Life Sci ; 234: 116773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422095

RESUMO

AIMS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The anti-aging protein Klotho is suggested to modulate tissue inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of Klotho on DCM. MAIN METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model was established to assess the effects of Klotho in vivo, which was administered for 12 weeks. The characteristics of type 1 DCM were evaluated by general status, echocardiography, and histopathology. The expression of associated factors was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Parallel experiments to determine the molecular mechanism through which Klotho prevents DCM were performed using H9C2 cells exposed to high glucose (35 mM). KEY FINDINGS: Diabetes-induced increases in serum creatine kinase-muscle/brain and lactate dehydrogenase levels, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction were ameliorated by Klotho. Additionally, Klotho suppressed TXNIP expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ɑ, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-18 in vivo. In high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, Klotho and N-acetylcysteine significantly downregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pretreatment of H9C2 cells with NLRP3 siRNA or Klotho prevented high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the protective effect of Klotho on diabetes-induced cardiac injury is associated with inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, suggesting its therapeutic potential for DCM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Glucuronidase/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/imunologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Glucuronidase/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
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