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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693730

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of trace amounts of antibiotic on growth performance, diarrhea, systemic immunity, and intestinal health of weaned pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Weaned pigs (n = 34, 6.88 ± 1.03 kg body weight [BW]) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of the three dietary treatments: nursery basal diet (CON) and two additional diets supplemented with 0.5 or 50 mg/kg carbadox to the nursery basal diet (TRA or REC), respectively. The experiment lasted 18 d with 7 d before and 11 d after the first E. coli inoculation. The E. coli F18 inoculum was orally provided to all pigs with a dose of 1010 colony-forming unit (CFU)/3 mL for three consecutive days. Fecal and blood samples were collected on day 0 before inoculation and days 2, 5, 8, and 11 postinoculation (PI) to test the percentage of ß-hemolytic coliforms in total coliforms and complete blood cell count, respectively. Sixteen pigs were euthanized on day 5 PI, whereas the remaining pigs were euthanized at the end of the experiment to collect the jejunal and ileal mucosa and mesenteric lymph node for gene expression and bacterial translocation, respectively. Pigs in REC had greater (P < 0.05) final BW and lower (P < 0.05) overall frequency of diarrhea compared with pigs in the CON and TRA groups. Pigs in TRA had the lowest (P < 0.05) average daily gain and feed efficiency from day 0 to 5 PI, highest (P < 0.05) percentage of ß-hemolytic coliforms in fecal samples on days 2 and 5 PI, and greatest (P < 0.05) bacterial colonies in mesenteric lymph nodes on day 11 PI compared with pigs in the CON and REC groups. Pigs in TRA had the greatest (P < 0.05) neutrophils on day 5 PI and higher (P < 0.05) white blood cell counts and lymphocytes than other groups on day 11 PI. Pigs in TRA had the greatest (P < 0.05) serum C-reactive protein on days 2 and 5 PI and serum tumor necrosis factor-α on day 5 PI, compared with pigs in the CON and REC groups. Pigs fed REC had increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin (OCDN) and reduced (P < 0.05) interleukin-1 beta (IL1B), interleukin-6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) in ileal mucosa on day 5 PI, compared with the CON, whereas TRA upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) in the ileal mucosa on day 11 PI, compared with the REC. In conclusion, trace amounts of antibiotic may exacerbate the detrimental effects of E. coli infection on pig performance by increasing diarrhea and systemic inflammation of weanling pigs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças dos Suínos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente , Desmame
2.
Animal ; 15(2): 100078, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712217

RESUMO

Inflammation and loss of tail integrity can be reasons for serious impairment of animal welfare and one of the major challenges facing modern pig farming. Evidence from practice increasingly suggests that tail lesions might be caused not only by tail biting but also by inflammation and necrosis, which can occur without any action from other pigs. Such changes are not limited to the tail but can also be observed in the ears, heels and soles, claw coronary bands, teats, navel, vulva and face. To describe inflammatory and necrotic manifestations in newborn piglets, all 146 piglets from 11 sows were clinically examined not later than 2 h after birth. In addition, the tail base of 30 randomly selected piglets out of the 146 was histo-pathologically examined as one of the most conspicuously affected body parts. Over 80% of the newborns showed affections in the tail base, claw wall and heels. In 65-87% of the animals, the coronary bands, teats, the face and the ears were affected. None of the 146 piglets was completely free from pathological manifestations. On average, the piglets were affected in six out of nine body parts simultaneously. Histological examinations showed that clear alterations in the skin were already manifested around the time of birth in all examined piglets. Alterations were characterised by the occurrence of numerous lymphocytes and granulocytes throughout the entire subepithelial connective tissue, predominantly in perivascular and perifollicular localisation but also within directly subepithelial glandular ducts and diffusely within the subepithelial connective tissue. In the majority of individuals, the epithelial structure was intact. This concurrence of symptoms in the newborns indicates a primarily endogenous aetiology of an inflammation and necrosis syndrome. Further studies in diverse herd contexts are necessary to establish the conditions for the emergence of such a syndrome and develop welfare indicators.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Inflamação/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Cauda
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 159-170, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387756

RESUMO

Joint pain is a major cause of lameness in animals such as horses and dogs, and it may affect their athletic performance and quality of life. The intra-articular administration of analgesic/antinflammatory drugs is a common practice in veterinary medicine, for both lameness diagnosis and joint pain management. It is used either perioperatively, such as in animals undergoing arthroscopy/arthrotomy, and in osteoarthritic animals. However, evidence regarding efficacy and safety of each drug is limited, and controversies persist in these areas. In particular, it is often uncertain whether a defined treatment is effective by simply relieving the symptomatic pain associated with the joint disease, or whether it has a positive effect on the joint environment. Moreover, there is still much hesitation about treatments for joint diseases, related to the time of their application for the best outcome, and to any possible deleterious side effects. This article includes a review of the literature concerning the main analgesic/antinflammatory drugs used intra-articularly for managing acute and chronic joint pain/inflammation in dogs and horses. Three main issues for each class of drugs are considered, including clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and local cytotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intra-Articulares/veterinária , Artropatias/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Cavalos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Artropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1276-1290, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358163

RESUMO

Dairy cattle are at the greatest risk of developing diseases around the time of calving because of compromised immune responses and the occurrence of oxidative stress. Both the development of compromised immunity and oxidative stress are influenced directly or indirectly by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fat-soluble vitamins. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family of enzymes is central to the metabolism of both classes of these compounds, but to date, the importance of CYP450 in the health of dairy cattle is underappreciated. As certain CYP450 isoforms metabolize both PUFA and fat-soluble vitamins, potential interactions may occur between PUFA and fat-soluble vitamins that are largely unexplored. For example, one CYP450 that generates anti-inflammatory oxylipids from arachidonic acid additionally contributes to the activation of vitamin D. Other potential substrate interactions between PUFA and vitamins A and E may exist as well. The intersection of PUFA and fat-soluble vitamin metabolism by CYP450 suggest that this enzyme system could provide an understanding of how immune function and oxidant status interconnect, resulting in increased postpartum disease occurrence. This review will detail the known contributions of bovine CYP450 to the regulation of oxylipids with a focus on enzymes that may also be involved in the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E that contribute to antioxidant defenses. Although the activity of specific CYP450 is generally conserved among mammals, important differences exist in cattle, such as the isoforms primarily responsible for activation of vitamin D that makes their specific study in cattle of great importance. Additionally, a CYP450-driven inflammatory positive feedback loop is proposed, which may contribute to the dysfunctional inflammatory responses commonly found during the transition period. Establishing the individual enzyme isoform contributions to oxylipid biosynthesis and the regulation of vitamins A, D, and E may reveal how the CYP450 family of enzymes can affect inflammatory responses during times of increased susceptibility to disease. Determining the potential effect of each CYP450 on disease susceptibility or pathogenesis may allow for the targeted manipulation of the CYP450 pathways to influence specific immune responses and antioxidant defenses during times of increased risk for health disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2123-2139, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358155

RESUMO

Glutamine (GLN) has many types of biological activity in rats, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and anti-apoptosis effects. However, little is known about the effects of GLN on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). γ-d-Glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) is a cell wall peptidoglycan component of gram-negative bacteria that can be recognized by the intracellular receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and can cause bovine mastitis. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether GLN protects BMEC from iE-DAP-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. We cultured BMEC in a GLN-free medium for 24 h and then separated them into 4 groups: cells treated with 1× PBS for 26 or 32 h (control); cells stimulated by 10 µg/mL iE-DAP for 2 or 8 h (2- or 8-h iE-DAP); cells pretreated with 8 or 4 mM GLN for 24 h followed by 2 or 8 h of 1× PBS treatment (8 or 4 mM GLN); and cells pretreated with 8 or 4 mM GLN for 24 h followed by 2 or 8 h of iE-DAP treatment (DG). In the 2-h iE-DAP group, when levels of inflammation peaked, iE-DAP treatment increased both the mRNA and protein expression of NOD1, inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NFKBIA, IκB), and nuclear factor-κB subunit p65 (RELA, NF-κB p65), as well as the mRNA expression of IL6 and IL8 and levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in cell culture supernatants. In contrast, 8 mM GLN pretreatment inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory-related factors by suppressing the NOD1/NF-κB pathway. In the 8-h iE-DAP group, iE-DAP treatment decreased the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular regulated kinase (Erk, ERK) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-associated factor2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2), as well as the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), coenzyme II oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1, HO1). In addition, iE-DAP treatment increased the expression of malondialdehyde in BMEC when oxidative stress levels peaked. Interestingly, 4 mM GLN pretreatment induced the mRNA and protein expression of antioxidative stress-related factors and inhibited the expression of reactive oxygen species in BMEC by promoting the ERK/Nrf2 pathway. Moreover, GLN reduced apoptosis caused by inflammation and oxidative stress in BMEC. This is the first report showing that GLN protects against iE-DAP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress via the NOD1/NF-κB and ERK/Nrf2 pathways in BMEC.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análogos & derivados , Glutamina/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Diaminopimélico/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/farmacologia
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2410-2421, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358164

RESUMO

Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing 40 mg/kg of dietary Zn from Zn sulfate (ZS) with Zn amino acid complex (ZA; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) on inflammation and intestinal integrity in heat-stressed and pair-fed (PF) ruminants. Forty Holstein steers (173.6 ± 4.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary-environmental treatments: (1) thermoneutral (TN) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) ZS (ZSCON); (2) TN pair-fed with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSPF); (3) TN pair-fed with 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAPF); (4) heat stress (HS) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSHS); and (5) HS ad libitum 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAHS). Before study initiation, calves were fed their respective diets for 21 d. Following the pre-feeding phase, steers were transferred into environmental chambers and were subjected to 2 successive experimental periods. During period 1 (5 d), all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and housed in TN conditions (20.2 ± 1.4°C, 30.4 ± 4.3% relative humidity). During period 2 (6 d), ZSHS and ZAHS steers were exposed to cyclical HS conditions (27.1 ± 1.5°C to 35.0 ± 2.9°C, 19.3 ± 3.5% relative humidity), whereas the ZSCON, ZSPF, and ZAPF steers remained in TN conditions and were fed ad libitum or pair-fed relative to their ZSHS and ZAHS counterparts. Overall, steers exposed to HS had markedly increased rectal temperature (0.83°C), respiration rate (26 breaths per min), and skin temperature (8.00°C) relative to TN treatments. Rectal temperature from ZAHS steers was decreased (0.24°C) on d 4 to 6 of HS relative to ZSHS steers. Regardless of diet, HS decreased DMI (18%) relative to ZSCON steers. Circulating glucose from HS and PF steers decreased (16%) relative to ZSCON steers. Heat stress and nutrient restriction increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids 2- and 3-fold, respectively, compared with ZSCON steers. Serum amyloid A increased ~2-fold in PF relative to ZSCON and HS steers. We detected no treatment effect on blood pH; however, ZAHS steers had increased HCO3 relative to ZSHS. Relative to ZSHS, ZAHS steers had increased jejunum villi height (25%), a tendency for increased ileum villi height (9%), and decreased duodenal villi width (16%). In summary, ZA supplementation has some beneficial effects on thermal indices, intestinal architecture characteristics, and biomarkers of leaky gut in heat-stressed steers, indicative of an ameliorated heat load, and thus may be a nutritional strategy to minimize negative consequences of HS.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Cutânea
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 50, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894191

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP), which is released during tissue damage and inflammation, is a useful nonspecific inflammatory marker in both human and veterinary clinical practice. Veterinarians have often used human CRP assays to analyze samples from canine patients, but cross-reactivities between the species affect assay sensitivity and reliability, leading to inaccurate inflammation assessment. To improve the efficiency of inflammation assessment, we developed a canine CRP detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative analysis and an immunochromatography assay (ICA) for semiquantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis. The ELISA demonstrated an assay detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL, quantitative linear assay range of 1.6-100 ng/mL, and intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variations of 0.7 to 10.0% and 6.0 to 9.0%, respectively; the recovery rates of samples spiked with purified canine CRP were 105 to 109%, and the parallelism assessments were 82.7 to 104.4%. The correlation between the CRP level results obtained with the ELISA and those of a currently available quantitative POC assay was 0.907 with the regression formula of y = 0.55x + 0.05. In addition, the ICA requires only 5 µL samples and a 10-min assay time, and clearly distinguished positive, weak positive, and negative samples (P < 0.001) at an approximately 5-10 µg/mL cut-off value. The developed canine CRP ELISA and ICA showed reliable assay results and a high correlation with a commercially available POC assay in clinical use. The ICA can be a useful canine CRP screening test for diagnostic purposes in veterinary clinics.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815992

RESUMO

Stress negatively affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier function, resulting in compromised animal health. A deeper understanding of how diet and stress impacts the GIT barrier function in feedlot cattle is needed. Aspirin decreases mucus production and mucosal repair in the GIT and could be used as a model for GIT barrier dysfunction research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aspirin to induce GIT barrier dysfunction in beef cattle. In experiment 1, sixteen crossbred heifers (425.0 ± 8.6 kg) were allotted to 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) aspirin doses based on BW. Experiment 1 consisted of two periods separated by 4 wk where four heifers per treatment received the same aspirin dose during each period. Heifers were fed a 49.4% corn silage and 50.6% concentrate diet. The 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatment was dosed as a 100 mg/kg BW aspirin oral bolus 36 and 24 h prior to Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) dosing (1 liter; 180 mM). The 50 and 100 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments were dosed as an oral bolus 24 h prior to Cr-EDTA dosing. Urine was collected every 3 h for 48 h and analyzed for Cr. Serum was collected at 0 and 48 h and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and aspartate aminotransferase. In experiment 2, sixteen crossbred steers (576.0 ± 14.2 kg) fed a similar diet were allotted by BW to the 0 and 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments (eight steers/treatment) and were slaughtered 24 h after the last dose. Jejunal tissues were collected, and claudin (CLDN) 1, 2, and 3, occludin, and zonula occludens tight junction messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was determined. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Urinary Cr excretion increased linearly at hours 3, 6, 9, and 12 (P ≤ 0.04) as aspirin dose increased from 0 to 200 mg/kg. Aspirin linearly increased Cr absorption (P = 0.02) and elimination (P = 0.04) rates and linearly decreased mean retention time of Cr (P = 0.02). Aspirin increased SAA (P = 0.04) and tended to increase LBP (P = 0.09) in serum but did not affect any other serum inflammatory marker (P ≥ 0.19). Aspirin tended to increase jejunal CLDN-1 mRNA expression (P = 0.10) but did not affect the mRNA expression of other genes regulating tight junction function (P ≥ 0.20). Results from this study indicate that aspirin disrupts the GIT barrier function in beef cattle and has a potential as a model in GIT permeability research.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Cromo/urina , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Masculino , Silagem/análise , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Zea mays
9.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 503-516, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772513

RESUMO

As of June 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To examine the effect of age on death, we established a SARS-CoV-2 infection model in Chinese rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) of varied ages. Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b + and CD8 + cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b + cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8 + cells in the lungs at 2 wpi. In addition, peripheral blood T cells from aged macaques showed greater inflammation and chemotaxis, but weaker antiviral functions than that in cells from young macaques. Thus, the delayed but more severe cytokine storm and higher immune cell infiltration may explain the poorer prognosis of older aged patients suffering SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Carga Viral/veterinária , Replicação Viral/imunologia
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735667

RESUMO

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) is an essential oil component, possessing antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties; however, the effect of eugenol on porcine gut inflammation has not yet been investigated. In this study, an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) has been set up. Cells were pretreated with 100 µM (16.42 mg/L) eugenol for 2 h followed by 10 µg/mL LPS stimulation for 6 h. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion; reactive oxygen species; gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, and nutrient transporters; the expression and distribution of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER); and cell permeability were measured to investigate the effect of eugenol on inflammatory responses and gut barrier function. The results showed that eugenol pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-stimulated interleukin-8 level and the mRNA abundance of tumor necrosis factor-α and restored the LPS-stimulated decrease of the mRNA abundance of tight junction proteins, such as ZO-1 and occludin, and the mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters, such as B0 1 system ASC sodium-dependent neutral amino acid exchanger 2, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1, excitatory amino acid transporter 1, and peptide transporter 1. In addition, eugenol improved the expression and even redistribution of ZO-1 and tended to increase TEER value and maintained the barrier integrity. In conclusion, a low dose of eugenol attenuated inflammatory responses and enhanced selectively permeable barrier function during LPS-induced inflammation in the IPEC-J2 cell line.


Assuntos
Eugenol/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ocludina/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717077

RESUMO

Developments of pulmonary diseases, often accompanied by infections of bacteria, severely affect the meat production and welfare of pigs. This study investigated 307 pigs at age of 240 d from an eight-breed cross reared under standardized housing conditions for associations among the extent of lung lesions, bacteria load inferred from 16S rRNA sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as 57 immune cells and 25 hematological traits. We showed that the pigs under study suffered substantial and varied lung lesions, and the Mycoplasma is the most associated bacteria genera. At a false discovery rate of 0.05 (FDR < 0.05), the severity of lung lesions were significantly associated with greater CD8+ to CD3+ cell ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and standard deviation of red blood cell volume distribution width (RDW-SD), and lower CD4-CD8-/CD3+, CD3+CD4-CD8-/PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and CD14-CD16-/PBMCs cell ratios, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage, reflecting an status of inflammation, immune suppression, and hypoxia of the pigs accompanying the progression of the lung lesions. The Mycoplasma abundance showed positive correlations with neutrophil count, neutrophil count percentage, NLR, monocyte count, coefficient of variation in red blood cell volume distribution width , and RDW-SD, and negative correlations with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage; these correlations are largely consistent with those of lung lesions, supporting the comorbidity of lung lesions and Mycoplasma infection. We also observed nonlinear associations that sharp increases in neutrophil count and neutrophil count percentage occurred only when Mycoplasma abundance raised above the population-average level. The results provide helpful insights into the changes of host immune status in response to Mycoplasma relevant lung diseases in pigs.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pulmão/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Linfócitos , Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Neutrófilos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
12.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 273-288, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654783

RESUMO

Host defenses against infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites are critical to survival. It has been estimated that upwards of 7% of the coding genes of mammals function in immunity and inflammation. This high level of genomic investment in defense has resulted in an immune system characterized by extraordinary complexity and many levels of redundancy. Because so many genes are involved with immunity, there are many opportunities for mutations to arise that have negative effects. However, redundancy in the mammalian defense system and the adaptive nature of key immune mechanisms buffer the untoward outcomes of many such deleterious mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/veterinária , Animais , Cavalos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária
13.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 379-394, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654786

RESUMO

Laminitis is a devastating disease with diverse etiologies and few, if any, effective treatments. Gene expression and hypothesis-generating genomic studies have provided a fresh look at the key molecular players at crucial timepoints in diverse experimental and naturally affected tissues. We summarize findings to date, and propose a unifying model of the laminitis disease process that includes several pathogenesis concepts shared with other diseases of epidermal and epithelial tissues. The value of these new pathways as potential therapeutic targets is exciting but will require careful future work to validate new methods and launch systematic clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Pé/genética , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Casco e Garras/metabolismo , Casco e Garras/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101005, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522404

RESUMO

The epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of pythiosis in cats in northeastern Brazil are described. From January 2000 to December 2018 the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of the Federal University of Campina Grande received 1928 tissue samples of cats, three of which were diagnosed as pythiosis. Grossly, the cats showed a multinodular mass in the oral cavity associated with facial deformity (case 1), a large multinodular mass thickening the jejunum wall (case 2), and an ulcerated nodule in the skin at the base of the tail (case 3). Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation and necrosis, with intralesional predominantly negatively stained hyphae, were observed in all cases. Immunohistochemistry for Pythium insidiosum revealed strong immunolabelling of the hyphae. The diagnosis of pythiosis was based on the epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological findings, and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Although uncommon in cats, pythiosis should be readily considered as a differential diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous infections of the gastrointestinal tract and skin, especially in endemic areas, where the disease is often diagnosed in other animal species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Assimetria Facial/microbiologia , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Assimetria Facial/veterinária , Feminino , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Pitiose/microbiologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Pythium/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7451-7461, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448574

RESUMO

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose (RPG) supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk (305ME) yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: (1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or (2) a diet containing RPG (pre-fresh 5.3% of dry matter and 6.0% of dry matter postpartum; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving, and dry matter intake was calculated daily during the same period. Weekly body weight, milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d in milk (DIM), and milk yield was recorded through 105 DIM. Blood samples were collected on d -7, 3, 7, 14, and 28 relative to calving. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with previous 305ME as a covariate. Fecal pH was similar between treatments and decreased (0.6 units) postpartum. Dry matter intake pre- and postpartum were unaffected by treatment, as was milk yield during the first 28 or 105 DIM. Milk fat, protein, and lactose concentration were similar for both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose concentrations were unaffected by treatment; however, results showed increased concentration of circulating insulin (27%), lower nonesterified fatty acids (28%), and lower postpartum ß-hydroxybutyrate (24%) in RPG-fed cows. Overall, circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin did not differ by treatment, but at 7 DIM, RPG-fed cows had decreased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin concentrations (31 and 27%, respectively) compared with controls. Supplemental RPG improved some biomarkers of post-absorptive energetics and inflammation during the periparturient period, changes primarily characterized by increased insulin and decreased nonesterified fatty acids concentrations, with a concomitant reduction in acute phase proteins without changing milk production and composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/análise , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(4): 409-416, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436257

RESUMO

Xanthogranulomatous disease is a rare condition, which can be caused by infection, inflammation, hemorrhage, immunologic disease, or inherited lysosomal disorders. It is characterized by non-intracellular lipid and cholesterol deposits among an inflammatory infiltrate of vacuolated macrophages and giant cells. The diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous disease is challenging, with nonspecific imaging findings often misinterpreted as aggressive neoplastic processes in humans. In this retrospective case series study, we describe the diagnostic imaging characteristics of a disseminated xanthogranulomatous condition identified in five eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus). Decreased serosal detail and celomic distension were present in all three birds radiographed, with multifocal variably sized celomic mineralization (3/3 birds), and extracelomic mineralized masses (1/3 birds). Celomic effusion with foci of celomic mineralization and hepatomegaly were identified in all birds (3/3) imaged with ultrasound. Finally, a mineralized mural ventricular mass was present in one of three patients imaged with CT, multifocal celomic mineralization with moderate to severe celomic effusion in two of three patients, diffuse severe proventricular and intestinal dilation in all three patients, and atherosclerosis of the major arterial trunks in all three patients. Veterinary radiologists should be aware of this inflammatory condition in birds, especially in eclectus parrots, and should be able to recognize the imaging features of xanthogranulomatous inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/veterinária , Papagaios , Xantomatose/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Xantomatose/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428228

RESUMO

Heat stress hinders growth and well-being in livestock, an effect that is perhaps exacerbated by the ß1 agonist ractopamine. Heat stress deficits are mediated in part by reduced feed intake, but other mechanisms involved are less understood. Our objective was to determine the direct impact of heat stress on growth and well-being in ractopamine-supplemented feedlot lambs. Commercial wethers were fed under heat stress (40 °C) for 30 d, and controls (18 °C) were pair-fed. In a 2 × 2 factorial, lambs were also given a daily gavage of 0 or 60 mg ractopamine. Growth, metabolic, cardiovascular, and stress indicators were assessed throughout the study. At necropsy, 9th to 12th rib sections (four-rib), internal organs, and feet were assessed, and sartorius muscles were collected for ex vivo glucose metabolic studies. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) rectal temperatures and respiration rates throughout the study and reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed efficiency over the first week, ultrasonic loin-eye area and loin depth near the end of the study, and four-rib weight at necropsy. Fat content of the four-rib and loin were also reduced (P < 0.05) by heat stress. Ractopamine increased (P < 0.05) loin weight and fat content and partially moderated the impact of heat stress on rectal temperature and four-rib weight. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) spleen weight, increased (P < 0.05) adrenal and lung weights, and was associated with hoof wall overgrowth but not organ lesions. Ractopamine did not affect any measured indicators of well-being. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen and increased (P < 0.05) circulating monocytes, granulocytes, and total white blood cells as well as epinephrine, TNFα, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Cortisol and insulin were not affected. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) blood pressure and heart rates in all lambs and increased (P < 0.05) left ventricular wall thickness in unsupplemented but not ractopamine-supplemented lambs. No cardiac arrhythmias were observed. Muscle glucose uptake did not differ among groups, but insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in muscle from heat-stressed lambs. These findings demonstrate that heat stress impairs growth, metabolism, and well-being even when the impact of feed intake is eliminated by pair-feeding and that systemic inflammation and hypercatecholaminemia likely contribute to these deficits. Moreover, ractopamine improved muscle growth indicators without worsening the effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Fenetilaminas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenetilaminas/efeitos adversos , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 344-354, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use a biopolymer delivery system to investigate the ability of interleukin (IL)-4 to recruit neutrophils into subcutaneous tissues of equids. ANIMALS: 16 horses and 2 ponies. PROCEDURES: Animals were assigned to 3 experiments (6/experiment). Effects of recombinant equine (Req) IL-4 (100, 250, or 500 ng/site) versus a positive control (ReqIL-8; 100 ng, 250 ng, or 1 µg/site) and a negative control (Dulbecco PBSS or culture medium) on neutrophil chemotaxis were assessed after SC injection into the neck with an injectable biopolymer used as the vehicle. Tissue samples including the biopolymer plug were collected by biopsy at various time points from 3 hours to 7 days after injection. Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by histologic scoring (experiments 1, 2, and 3) or flow cytometry (experiment 3). RESULTS: Histologic neutrophil infiltration scores did not differ significantly among treatments at most evaluated time points. On flow cytometric analysis, log-transformed neutrophil counts in biopsy specimens were significantly greater for the ReqIL-8 treatment (1 µg/site) than the negative control treatment at 3 but not 6 hours after injection; results did not differ between ReqIL-4 and control treatments at either time point. Negative control treatments induced an inflammatory response in most equids in all experiments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Flow cytometry was a more reliable method to estimate neutrophil migration than histologic score analysis. The ReqIL-4 treatment did not induce a detectable neutrophil response, compared with the negative control treatment in this study. Evidence of inflammation in negative control samples suggested the biopolymer is not a suitable vehicle for use in equids.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4 , Neutrófilos , Animais , Biopolímeros , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Cavalos , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-8
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5561-5574, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278565

RESUMO

Inflammation is critical in the progression from benign hepatic lipidosis to pathological hepatic steatosis. The objective of this study was to examine the potential role of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in the etiology of hepatic steatosis in dairy cows during early lactation. Using a nested case-control design, we compared blood and liver samples from 10 healthy cows and 10 age-matched cows with moderate fatty liver. Cows with moderate fatty liver had high liver triacylglycerols, elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate, and low concentrations of glucose. Cows with moderate fatty liver had overactivated inflammatory pathways in the liver, as indicated by increased abundance of phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 inflammasome protein, and elevated plasma concentrations and hepatic mRNA abundance of their molecular targets IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In the cell culture model, we were able to replicate our findings in cows with moderate fatty liver: 1.2 mM exogenous FFA decreased the abundance of MFN2 and upregulated phosphorylation levels of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) α and NF-κB p65, the IκB kinase ß activity, and the abundance of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Whereas MFN2 knockdown potentiated the FFA-induced activation of these inflammatory pathways, overexpression of MFN2 attenuated the detrimental effect of excess exogenous FFA by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing the release of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that MFN2 may be a potential therapeutic target for FFA-induced hepatic inflammation in dairy cows during early lactation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/veterinária , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1862-1874, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241466

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and gut microbiota of broiler chickens subjected to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. One hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acres male birds were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including diet treatment (with or without 0.3% Arg supplementation) and immunological stress (with or without S. typhimurium challenge). Samples were obtained at 7 D after infection (day 23). Results showed that S. typhimurium challenge caused histopathological and morphological damages, but Arg addition greatly reduced these intestinal injuries. S. typhimurium challenge elevated the levels of serum inflammatory parameters, including diamine oxidase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITNF) homolog. However, Arg supplementation decreased the serum procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and LITNF concentration. S. typhimurium challenge significantly increased jejunal IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 mRNA expression and tended to upregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, but Arg supplementation remarkably reduced IL-8 mRNA expression, tended to downregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, and dramatically elevated IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA expression. In addition, sequencing data of 16S rDNA indicated that the population of Proteobacteria phylum; Enterobacteriaceae family; Escherichia-Shigella, and Nitrosomonas genera; and Escherichia coli and Ochrobactrum intermedium species were more abundant, but the population of Rhodocyclaceae and Clostridiaceae_1 families and Candidatus Arthromitus genus were less abundant in the ileal digesta of birds with only S. typhimurium infection when compared with the controls. Treatment with Arg in birds subjected to S. typhimurium challenge increased the abundances of Firmicutes phylum, Clostridiaceae_1 family, Methylobacterium and Candidatus Arthromitus genera but decreased the abundance of Nitrosomonas genus and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum and Rubrobacter xylanophilus species as compared with the only S. typhimurium-challenged birds. In conclusion, Arg supplementation can alleviate intestinal mucosal impairment by ameliorating inflammatory response and modulating gut microbiota in broiler chickens challenged with S. typhimurium.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Galinhas/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
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