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1.
S D Med ; 72(10): 454-458, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816206

RESUMO

Several immunotherapeutic agents function against the T cell immune checkpoint inhibitor pathways thereby reestablishing immune response to elusive malignancies. Namely, the programmed death-1 co-receptor (PD-1) or ligand (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte- associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) are well known checkpoint targets of current FDA approved drugs. Among these drugs nivolumab, an IgG4 anti-PD-1 antibody, and ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, are used to treat numerous malignancies but carry a large list of potential side effects termed immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). We describe the presentation, clinical course, and resolution of steroid-resistant immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced colitis secondary to administration of these two drugs in a 66-year-old female patient treated with infliximab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Colite , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 121(6): 111-115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The efficacy and safety of biosimilar infliximab (bio-IFX) was shown in randomised controlled trials and it was approved for all indications of the reference product in several countries. However, a previous case series of 3 patients with Behçet's syndrome (BS) reported disappointing results. We aimed to share our experience with bio-IFX treatment in different types of organ involvement in patients with BS. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all BS patients who were prescribed reference infliximab (ref-IFX) or bio-IFX in our BS clinic. Among the 181 BS patients who were prescribed IFX since 2003, 6 (3%) were prescribed bio-IFX due to refractory disease despite conventional immunosuppressives. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients (mean age: 32.1±6.2, mean disease duration: 5.3±1.8 years, 5 men and 1 woman) received bio-IFX for uveitis, nervous system, vascular and joint involvement. Four of the 6 patients obtained remission and stayed in remission during the 16±6.5 months they used bio-IFX. Among the 4 patients who obtained remission, 2 were switched to ref-IFX due to unavailability of bio-IFX infusion set and did not experience adverse events or loss of efficacy. However, relapses occurred during tapering. The other 2 patients are still in remission with bio- IFX. Among the remaining 2 patients, one had to be switched to ref-IFX after the first infusion, due to a change in the reimbursement policy and the other was non-responsive. CONCLUSIONS: Our limited experience showed that bio-IFX may be a safe and effective alternative for patients with BS, refractory to conventional immunosuppressives.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet , Medicamentos Biossimilares , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Síndrome de Behçet/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 121(6): 137-141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Initial recommendations on anti-TNF treatment for Behçet's disease (BD) included an intravenous infliximab infusion for acute posterior uveitis to achieve a fast-onset response. We aimed to examine the long-term outcome of our patients with acute sight-threatening BD who received successful short-term treatment with infliximab. METHODS: We performed a retrospective longitudinal outcome study including consecutive patients who responded to one infliximab infusion (5mg/kg) for BD-associated acute posterior uveitis or panuveitis, followed, or not, by one or two additional infusions. RESULTS: Twelve patients (aged 51±14 years, mean±SD, 67% men) with bilateral (n=9) or unilateral (n=3) ocular attack (relapsing in 9 patients) achieved resolution of ocular inflammation within 4 weeks after the first infusion of infliximab, given as add-on to azathioprine (n=9) or to azathioprine/cyclosporine combination. Ten of 12 patients received a second infusion at 4 weeks and 9 of them received a third infusion at 8 weeks from baseline. Except from a patient who relapsed after 6 months and responded to infliximab re-treatment, 11 patients remain ocular relapse-free during follow-up, ranging from 4 to 16 years (10±4). Five patients (45%) discontinued azathioprine being in full BD remission and remain any drug-free at end of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Successful short-term infliximab treatment combined with conventional immunosuppressives for BD-associated sight-threatening uveitis may lead to remission for many years thereafter. This observation may suggest that infliximab as a first-line therapy should be promptly administered to every patient with ocular BD for rapid remission of ocular inflammation and preservation of visual acuity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Uveíte , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Síndrome de Behçet/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Clin Biochem ; 74: 73-75, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For IFX therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), the most commonly used analysis is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) which do not allow results to be provided in real-time. The aim of this study was to compare the in-house ELISA (Promonitor IFX) with the much faster assay Quantum Blue® IFX (QB) for quantification of serum IFX concentration among IBD patients in maintenance IFX therapy. METHODS: We studied 30 serum samples from outpatients in IFX maintenance therapy at Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark. Samples were used to compare IFX measurements from Promonitor IFX with QB. Therapeutic intervals of <3 µg/mL, 3-7 µg/mL and >7 µg/mL were equally covered. Differences were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots and Student t-test. Correlation was evaluated using x,y-plot and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The intermediate imprecision (CV%) of QB was measured at two levels (3 µg/mL and 7 µg/mL). For qualitative comparison, weighted kappa statistics (κ) were determined after stratification of results by therapeutic interval. RESULTS: Promonitor IFX and QB were strongly correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.001). The mean difference between Promonitor IFX and QB was -0.57 µg/mL (p = 0.2). The CV% of QB was 16.3% at 3 µg/mL and 16.7% at 7 µg/mL. Classification of results according to therapeutic interval showed almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: QB is a suitable alternative to Promonitor IFX for TDM in patients treated with IFX for IBD. The results revealed a strong correlation between methods, in particular at lower IFX concentrations, representing the most interesting clinical range. When the samples were stratified according to the therapeutic interval, an almost perfect agreement between the methods was observed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Infliximab/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Dinamarca , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Harefuah ; 158(11): 752-754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: TNFα antagonists, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are widely used for induction and maintenance of remission in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Numerous studies in adult and pediatric patients have demonstrated that monitoring of anti-TNFα drug level improves various outcomes, especially in cases of primary non-response or loss-of-response. In this article we present the recommendations of the Israeli Pediatric Gastroenterology Association regarding measuring anti-TNFα drug and anti-drug levels in pediatric IBD patients. The recommendation to perform these studies will be provided only by a pediatric gastroenterologist based on clinical, laboratory, endoscopic or radiologic signs of active inflammation. We also recommend performing these studies once a year in patients with clinical and biochemical remission. We believe that implementing these recommendations will improve the care provided for pediatric patients with IBD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Criança , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Pacientes , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(17): 2161-2168, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574236

RESUMO

Introduction: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The aims of treatment of children with CD are to induce and maintain clinical remission of disease, optimize nutrition and growth, minimize adverse effects of therapies, and if possible, achieve mucosal healing.Areas covered: This review summarizes evidence for the various therapeutic options in the treatment of children with CD. Exclusive enteral nutrition, corticosteroids, and biologics may be used for induction of remission. Immunomodulators (thiopurines, methotrexate) and biologics (infliximab, adalimumab) may be employed for maintenance of remission to prevent flares of disease and avoid chronic steroid use. In cases of fibrotic disease, intestinal perforations, or medically refractory, surgery may be the best therapeutic option.Expert opinion: Exclusive enteral nutrition, corticosteroids, and biologics (including anti-TNF inhibitors) may be used for induction of remission in patients with active flare of their disease. Immunomodulators and TNF inhibitors may be used for maintenance of remission. Early use of anti-TNF inhibitors in patients with moderate to severe CD may improve efficacy and prevent penetrating complications of disease. While pediatric data is limited, newer biologics, such as vedolizumab and ustekinumab, are used off-label in anti-TNF refractory disease.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão
9.
Brasília; CONITEC; out. 2019. ilus, tab.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1024749

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A colite ulcerativa (RCU) é uma doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) crônica caracterizada por inflamação difusa da mucosa cólica e pela evolução recidivante e remitente. Os sinais e sintomas da RCU dependem da localização, significância e gravidade da doença. A incidência de colite ulcerativa é semelhante entre homens e mulheres. A idade do início da doença é entre 30 anos e 40 anos. No Brasil, estudo epidemiológico encontrou uma incidência média anual de 7,16 novos casos/100.000 habitantes/ano e uma prevalência de 28,3/100.000. O tratamento da RCU depende da gravidade e localização da doença. Os princípios gerais para tratar a colite ulcerativa ativa são considerar a atividade, distribuição (proctite, lado esquerdo, colite extensa) e padrão de doença (frequência de recaída, curso da doença, resposta a medicamentos anteriores, perfil de efeitos colaterais de medicação, manifestação intestinal). TECNOLOGIA: adalimumabe (Humira®), infliximabe (Remicade®, Bio-Manguinhos Infliximabe), golimumabe (Simponi®), vedolizumabe (Entyvio®). PERGUNTA: O adalimumabe, infliximabe, golimumabe e vedolizumabe são eficazes, seguros e custo-efetivos para tratamento da colite ulcerativa moderada a grave? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: a evidência disponível sobre eficácia e segurança comparativa entre biológicos para RCU moderada a grave é oriunda de metanálises indiretas. As evidências indiretas mostraram que, em pacientes que não fizeram uso prévio de biológicos, o infliximabe e o vedolizumabe são os mais bem classificados para induzir a remissão clínica e a cicatrização da mucosa. As evidências sugerem que o infliximabe apresenta um desempenho melhor do que o adalimumabe e o golimumabe. Todos os tratamentos avaliados (com exceção do infliximabe) não aumentaram as taxas de eventos adversos, enquanto o vedolizumabe foi estatisticamente inferior ao placebo em relação à ocorrência de eventos adversos graves. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Em comparação com a terapia com adalimumabe (menor custo e menor efetividade), o golimumabe apresentou uma relação de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 27.849,62 por QALY ganho e o infliximabe, mostrou uma RCEI de R$ 39.358,70 por QALY, ao passo que o vedolizumabe, mostrou uma RCEI de R$ 58.624,33. O infliximabe quando comparado com golimumabe mostrou uma RCEI de R$ 44.936,40 por QALY ganho. Já o vedolizumabe quando comparado ao infliximabe resultaria em uma RCEI de R R$76.227,79 por QALY ganho. AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: O impacto orçamentário com a inserção dos quatro biológicos para RCU moderada a grave após falha da terapia convencional, seria cerca de R$ 89,04 milhões no primeiro ano, totalizando cerca de R$ 393,5 milhões em cinco anos. Caso fosse incorporado apenas o golimumabe, o infliximabe e vedolizumabe nas proporções 20%, 40% e 40%, respectivamente, o impacto no orçamento no primeiro ano seria de R$ 96 milhões com total de R$ 425,8 milhões em cinco anos. MONITORAMENTO DO HORIZONTE TECNOLÓGICO: O horizonte tecnológico aponta que há terapias doze terapias com diferentes mecanismos de ação e com via de administração oral em desenvolvimento. CONSIDERAÇÕES: A evidência disponível sobre eficácia e segurança entre biológicos para RCU moderada a grave é oriunda de evidências indiretas que sugerem que o infliximabe e vedolizumabe apresentaram um desempenho melhor nas fases de indução e remissão. O infliximabe parece ser o biológico mais custo-efetivo comparado ao adalimumabe. A sociedade identificou uma necessidade em saúde ainda não atendida pelo PCDT para retocolite ulcerativa vigente, caracterizada pelos pacientes que não respondem, que perdem a resposta ou apresentam intolerância aos medicamentos convencionais. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Os membros do Plenário reconheceram que há uma população não contemplada no PCDT de RCU vigente que poderiam se beneficiar com o uso de biológico. Os medicamentos infliximabe e vedolizumabe apresentaram como candidatos potenciais para esta lacuna, desde que atendidos os requisitos de eficácia, segurança, custoefetividade e impacto orçamentário para o SUS. Neste sentido, a Conitec, em sua 79ª reunião ordinária, recomendou que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em consulta pública com recomendação preliminar pela incorporação no SUS do vedolizumabe e infliximabe para RCU moderada a grave. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Foram recebidas 1525 contribuições, sendo 121 técnico-científicas e 1404 contribuições de experiência ou opinião. A maioria discordou parcialmente da recomendação da Conitec sendo o principal argumento a necessidade de incorporação de todos os biológicos avaliados. As evidências apresentadas já haviam sido incluídas ou não estavam de acordo com os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos neste relatório. O tratamento da população pediátrica foi abordado, sendo o infliximabe, o único biológico com indicação em bula para esta população. A CONITEC entendeu que não houve argumentação suficiente para alterar sua recomendação inicial. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL: Os membros da Conitec presentes na 81ª reunião ordinária, deliberaram por recomendar a incorporação do infliximabe e do vedolizumabe para tratamento da retocolite ulcerativa moderada a grave, conforme Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas e não recomendar adalimumabe e golimumabe. Foram assinados os Registros de Deliberação nº 469/2019 e n° 473/2019. DECISÃO: Incorporar o infliximabe e o vedolizumabe para o tratamento da retocolite ulcerativa moderada a grave, limitados ao custo do tratamento com infliximabe conforme Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas do Ministério da Saúde e não incorporar o adalimumabe e o golimumabe para tratamento de retocolite ulcerativa moderada a grave, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS. Dada pela Portaria n° 49, publicada no Diário Oficial da União n° 206, seção 1, página 45, em 23 de outubro de 2019.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
10.
Harefuah ; 158(9): 571-575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infliximab is a protein with an anti TNF-α activity which is given in an intra-venous manner to treat inflammatory bowel disease and inflammatory joint disease. This treatment may cause infusion reaction events, but this may be prevented using treatment with pre-medication. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of infusion reaction in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and patients with rheumatic disease who are treated with Infliximab, with or without corticosteroid premedication respectively. To determine whether premedication with corticosteroids decreases the incidence of infusion reactions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the Soroka Medical Center that includes records from 92 patients treated with Infliximab: Group A includes 70 inflammatory joint disease patients who were not treated with hydrocortisone premedication and, group B includes 22 inflammatory bowel disease patients who were treated with hydrocortisone premedication. Incidence and severity of infusion reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The incidence of infusion reactions in the group which did not receive premedication was 26.1% (18/69), while in the group receiving premedication the incidence was 13.6% (3/22). Results are not statistically significant but reflect a trend. Most reactions occurred in the second treatment and most were of medium severity. CONCLUSIONS: The results seem to reflect a positive trend favoring the use of premedication with hydrocortisone before Infliximab infusion, especially given the minor side-effects of this treatment.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Intern Med ; 58(18): 2703-2709, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527369

RESUMO

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of the JC virus under an immunosuppressed state. This condition carries a high risk of cryptococcal meningitis. We herein report a 65-year-old woman who simultaneously developed PML and cryptococcal meningitis and presented with bilateral sixth nerve palsy. She had been treated with methotrexate and infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis. Her symptoms improved with antifungal drug treatment and discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy. Although concurrent PML and cryptococcal meningitis is rare, it should be considered in immunosuppressed patients.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Vírus JC/isolamento & purificação , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/etiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/etiologia , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1036-1042, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins were introduced into clinical rheumatology 20 years ago. Nowadays they are an established component of modern internal medical practice. OBJECTIVE: This article gives an overview of the breadth of biologics currently in clinical use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of published approval studies and guideline recommendations, discussion of the immunological principles and targets in the treatment with biologics. RESULTS: Monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins for influencing cytokine signals, T­cell costimulation and B­cell function are the most important innovations in the treatment of rheumatological diseases. Nowadays they are indispensible for the treatment of moderate and severe disease courses of rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathies and vasculitides. CONCLUSION: Although a cure or permanent freedom from symptoms in rheumatological autoimmune diseases is still not possible, much more favorable disease courses with less long-term limitations can be achieved by the early administration of biologics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Reumatologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16622, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum Jun-amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway-associated phosphatase (JKAP) level with disease risk, severity, inflammation, and treatment response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor in Crohn disease (CD) patients. METHOD: Ninety-six active CD patients and 90 healthy controls (HCs) were consecutively enrolled. Serum JKAP level of participants was determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In CD patients, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), and inflammatory cytokine levels (determined by ELISA) were recorded. All CD patients underwent infliximab (IFX) treatment for 12 weeks, then treatment response (defined as decrement of CDAI ≥70) was assessed at week 12 (W12). RESULTS: Serum JKAP level in CD patients was lower compared to HCs, and it disclosed a good predictive value for decreased CD risk; meanwhile, it was negatively correlated with CRP level, CDAI score, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17 levels in CD patients. Sixty-eight (70.8%) patients achieved treatment response to IFX at W12, and JKAP level was increased at W12 compared to baseline. Interestingly, baseline JKAP level in response patients was decreased compared to nonresponse patients, and it exhibited a good predictive value for decreased treatment response to IFX, multivariate logistic regression revealed that JKAP was an independent factor for predicting reduced IFX response. CONCLUSION: Circulating JKAP expression correlates with decreased disease risk, activity, and inflammation level, and it could be served as a novel biomarker for predicting reduced clinical response to TNF-α inhibitor in CD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 658, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of Bcr-Abl in hematopoietic stem cells is sufficient to cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) induce molecular remission in the majority of CML patients. However, the disease driving stem cell population is not fully targeted by TKI therapy, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) capable of re-inducing the disease can persist. Single-cell RNA-sequencing technology recently identified an enriched inflammatory gene signature with TNFα and TGFß being activated in TKI persisting quiescent LSC. Here, we studied the effects of human TNFα antibody infliximab (IFX), which has been shown to induce anti-inflammatory effects in mice, combined with TKI treatment on LSC function. METHODS: We first performed GSEA-pathway analysis using our microarray data of murine LSK cells (lin-; Sca-1+; c-kit+) from the SCLtTA/Bcr-Abl CML transgenic mouse model. Bcr-Abl positive cell lines were generated by retroviral transduction. Clonogenic potential was assessed by CFU (colony forming unit). CML mice were treated with nilotinib or nilotinib plus infliximab, and serial transplantation experiments were performed. RESULTS: Likewise to human CML, TNFα signaling was specifically active in murine CML stem cells, and ectopic expression of Bcr-Abl in murine and human progenitor cell lines induced TNFα expression. In vitro exposure to human (IFX) or murine (MP6-XT22) TNFα antibody reduced clonogenic growth of CML cells. Interestingly, TNFα antibody treatment enhanced TKI-induced effects on immature cells in vitro. Additionally, in transplant and serial transplant experiments, using our transgenic CML mouse model, we could subsequently show that IFX therapy boosted TKI-induced effects and further reduced the proportion of malignant stem cells in vivo. CONCLUSION: TNFα signaling is induced in CML stem cells, and anti-inflammatory therapy enhances TKI-induced decline of LSC, confirming that successful targeting of persisting CML stem cells can be enhanced by addressing their malignant microenvironment simultaneously.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infliximab/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Biopharm Drug Dispos ; 40(7): 250-261, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256430

RESUMO

Infliximab (IFX) is used as a therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Although the dosage regimen has been established through clinical trial experience, it has yet to be assessed with a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model. The present study analysed sequential changes of clinical response in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease following repeated administrations of infliximab using the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. In addition, the dosage regimen presently used for patients with ulcerative colitis was evaluated, as well as the potential efficacy gained by increasing the dose and/or reducing the interval of administration for patients with Crohn's disease. Furthermore, the possibility of evaluating the difference between both diseases with regard to the efficacy of infliximab was investigated. Sequential changes in the clinical response values obtained with our model were in good agreement with the observed values following administration of infliximab in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The results showed the importance of a loading dose for patients with ulcerative colitis, as well as the efficacy of increasing the dose and reducing the interval for patients with Crohn's disease. Also, the efficacy of infliximab for both diseases is suggested to be similar. In conclusion, our results show a possible modeling scenario that can accommodate the clinical response to infliximab administered for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Furthermore, it provides confirmation for the present dosage regimens given for these diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/farmacocinética , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Modelos Biológicos , Anti-Inflamatórios/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Humanos , Infliximab/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(3): 164-167, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257354

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that are typically transient but are sometimes severe or even fatal. No consensus exists for the treatment of severe immune-mediated pneumonitis that is refractory to corticosteroids. Here, we report an autopsy case of pembrolizumab-induced pneumonitis that was transiently improved using infliximab. A 67-year-old male with advanced lung adenocarcinoma developed pneumonitis two weeks after a single dose of first-line pembrolizumab. The pneumonitis was refractory to corticosteroids, and the patient required mechanical ventilation. Addition of a single dose of infliximab rapidly improved the respiratory status and chest CT showed resolution of ground-glass opacities in the right upper and middle lobes. However, the patient died from re-exacerbation of pneumonitis 17 days after infliximab administration. The autopsy confirmed organizing phase diffuse alveolar damage in the right lower lobe, while the right upper lobe remained almost intact consistent with the CT findings, which is suggestive of the therapeutic effect of infliximab. The half-life of infliximab is 7-12 days, and a second dose of infliximab two weeks after the first dose is sometimes required for the treatment of gastrointestinal toxicity induced by anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Although the current guidelines do not recommend repeated administration of infliximab for immune-mediated pneumonitis, the present case suggests that repeated infliximab therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of immune-mediated pneumonitis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Autopsia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Dermatol ; 46(9): 808-811, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290564

RESUMO

Disseminated granuloma annulare (GA) is a rare granulomatous dermatitis of unknown etiology. Treatment is often challenging and lack of a uniformly effective treatment, adds to the disease morbidity. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is an important cytokine in granuloma formation and previous reports have shown improvement of disseminated GA with anti-TNF-α therapy. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of actions of TNF-α inhibitors in GA remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate alterations in the inflammatory infiltrate in a patient who experienced complete clearance of GA after treatment with infliximab. A skin biopsy was obtained before and 24 weeks after treatment with infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14 and 24. Immunohistochemical stains were performed in pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens using CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD32, CD68, CD69, CD163, CD183 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR to characterize alterations of the infiltrates. Parallel with clinical improvement, we observed a marked decrease in myeloid (CD11c) dendritic cells, different macrophage subsets (CD68, CD32, CD163) and T cells. In addition, a marked reduction of activation markers (HLA-DR, CD69) and CD183+ (CXCR3) cells was observed in post-treatment biopsy specimens. In conclusion, the clinical improvement of disseminated GA by infliximab is paralleled by inhibition of activated myeloid dendritic cells, different macrophage subsets and type 1 T cells.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Granuloma Anular/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biópsia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Granuloma Anular/imunologia , Granuloma Anular/patologia , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146413

RESUMO

Autophagy is an intracellular process whereby cytoplasmic constituents are degraded within lysosomes. Autophagy functions to eliminate unwanted or damaged materials such as proteins and organelles as their accumulation would be harmful to the cellular system. Autophagy also acts as a defense mechanism against invading pathogens and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. In physiological processes, autophagy is involved in the regulation of tissue development, differentiation and remodeling, which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is linked to various diseases and involved in pathophysiological roles, such as adaptation during starvation, anti-aging, antigen presentation, tumor suppression and cell death. The modulation of autophagy has shown greatest promise in Crohn's disease as most of autophagy drugs involved in these diseases are currently under clinical trials and some has been approved by Food and Drug Administration. This review article discusses autophagy and potential drugs that are currently available for its modulation in Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Certolizumab Pegol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
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