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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 269-273, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372375

RESUMO

Introducción. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, disminuyeron las notificaciones de infecciones respiratorias. El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia de virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR) e influenza en niños escolarizados asistidos en un hospital pediátrico durante el retorno a la presencialidad. Métodos. Estudio transversal de casos sospechosos de COVID-19, de 3-18 años, con prueba negativa para SARSCoV-2, entre agosto y octubre de 2021. Se estratificó por nivel educativo. Se utilizó PCR para detectar VSR e influenza. Resultados. Se incluyeron 619 niños: 234 del nivel inicial, 224 del primario y 161 del secundario; 25,5 % (158) fueron positivos para VSR (36,3 % del nivel inicial versus 21 % del primario y 16 % del secundario); en adolescentes se asoció la infección al contacto escolar con caso sintomático (OR 2,5; IC95%: 1-6,80; p = 0,04). No se aisló virus influenza. Conclusión. VSR se aisló en un cuarto de la población estudiada, con mayor frecuencia en el nivel inicial; en adolescentes, se asoció con contacto escolar sintomático. No se detectaron casos de influenza


Introduction. Reporting of respiratory infections reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza in schoolchildren seen at a children's hospital during the return to school. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients aged 3­18 years suspected of COVID-19 with a negative test for SARS-CoV-2 between August and October 2021. Participants were stratified by level of education. PCR was used to detect RSV and influenza. Results. A total of 619 children were included: 234 in preschool, 224 in primary and 161 in secondary school; 25.5% (158) tested positive for RS (36.3% in the pre-school level versus 21% in primary and 16% in secondary school). Infection among adolescents was associated with school contact with symptomatic cases (OR 2.5; 95%CI 1­6.80; p = 0.04). No case of influenza was detected. Conclusion. RSV was isolated in one fourth of the study population, with a higher frequency in pre-school; among adolescents, it was associated with school contact with symptomatic cases. No case of influenza was detected.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitais Pediátricos
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-04.
em Inglês, Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56217

RESUMO

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity decreased in the subregion while SARS-CoV-2 continued elevated. In Mexico, influenza activity with A(H3N2) virus predominance decreased, while SARS-CoV-2 positivity continued to increase. SARI activity remained at moderate-intensity levels, whereas ILI activity rose to high-intensity levels, driven by the SARS-CoV-2 circulation. In the United States, influenza activity was low, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominance. In addition, RSV activity remained stable compared to previous weeks, while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased with higher COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained low, with the predominance of the influenza A(H3N2) virus. Belize and the Dominican Republic, reported increased SARS-CoV-2 activity, with increased SARI cases, although below the epidemic thresholds, except in Haiti, with levels above average for this time of year. In the Dominican Republic, RSV activity remained elevated at levels seen in the pre-pandemic period with SARS-CoV-2 cocirculation. Central America: Influenza activity continued to decrease in the subregion, with influenza A(H3N2) virus predominance. In Nicaragua, influenza activity increased to moderate-intensity levels, with the A(H3N2) virus predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity rose across the subregion, with increased levels in Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Influenza and SARS-CoV-2-associated ILI counts remained at moderate levels in Guatemala. Andean Countries: Influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance, except in Bolivia and Peru where circulation increased above epidemic levels.SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to increase in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity remained at low levels with influenza A(H3N2) predominance and driven by its circulation in Chile and Uruguay. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to increase throughout the subregion. Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay reported SARI activity elevated above epidemic levels for the period, with RSV and SARS-CoV-2 predominance in Chile and Uruguay, while SARS-CoV-2 predominated in Paraguay.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó en la subregión, mientras que el SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevado. En México disminuyó la actividad de influenza con predominio del virus A(H3N2) mientras que la positividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió aumentando. La actividad de la ETI se mantuvo en niveles de intensidad moderada mientras que la actividad de la IRAG ascendió a niveles de intensidad altos, en ambos casos a expensas de la circulación de SARS-CoV-2. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza fue baja, predominando los virus influenza A(H3N2). La actividad del VRS se mantuvo estable respecto a las semanas previas mientras que la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en aumento con un mayor número de hospitalizaciones asociadas a la COVID-19. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo muy baja, con predominio del virus influenza A(H3N2). Belice y la República Dominicana notificaron un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, con un aumento de los casos de IRAG, sin superar los umbrales epidémicos, excepto en Haití donde los niveles se sitúan por encima del promedio para esta época del año. En la República Dominicana, la actividad del VRS se mantuvo elevada en niveles observados en el período previo a la pandemia con circulación concurrente de SARS-CoV-2. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó en descenso en la subregión, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2). En Nicaragua la actividad de la influenza ascendió en niveles de intensidad moderados con predominio del virus A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS CoV-2 continuó en aumento en toda la subregión con niveles elevados en Costa Rica, Honduras y Guatemala. Los recuentos de casos de ETI asociados con influenza y SARS-CoV-2 se mantuvieron en niveles moderados en Guatemala. Países Andinos: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja con predominio de A(H3N2), excepto en Bolivia y Perú donde la circulación aumentó por encima de los niveles epidémicos. La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió aumentando en Bolivia, Colombia y Perú, Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y a expensas de la circulación en Chile y Uruguay. La actividad del SARS-CoV‑2 siguió en aumento en niveles moderados en toda la subregión. Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay reportaron actividad de la IRAG elevada sobre los niveles epidémicos para el periodo, con predominio de VRS y SARS-CoV-2 en Chile y Uruguay, mientras que predominó el SARS-CoV-2 en Paraguay.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , América , Região do Caribe , Influenza Humana , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , América , Região do Caribe
3.
J Vis Exp ; (185)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938816

RESUMO

Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, orchestrate programmed cell death in response to various stimuli, including microbial infections. Initially described to occur by apoptosis, programmed cell death is now known to encompass three interconnected pathways: pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, together coined as one process, PANoptosis. Influence A virus (IAV) infection induces PANoptosis in mammalian cells by inducing the activation of different caspases, which, in turn, cleave various host as well as viral proteins, leading to processes like the activation of the host innate antiviral response or the degradation of antagonistic host proteins. In this regard, caspase 3-mediated cleavage of host cortactin, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been discovered in both animal and human epithelial cells in response to the IAV infection. To demonstrate this, inhibitors, RNA interference, and site-directed mutagenesis were employed, and, subsequently, the cleavage or resistance to cleavage and the recovery of cortactin, HDAC4, and HDAC6 polypeptides were measured by western blotting. These methods, in conjunction with RT-qPCR, form a simple yet effective strategy to identify the host as well as viral proteins undergoing caspase-mediated cleavage during an infection of IAV or other human and animal viruses. The present protocol elaborates the representative results of this strategy, and the ways to make it more effective are also discussed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Animais , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Cortactina/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2208011119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939703

RESUMO

The subunits of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) trimer are synthesized as single-chain precursors (HA0s) that are proteolytically cleaved into the disulfide-linked polypeptides HA1 and HA2. Cleavage is required for activation of membrane fusion at low pH, which occurs at the beginning of infection following transfer of cell-surface-bound viruses into endosomes. Activation results in extensive changes in the conformation of cleaved HA. To establish the overall contribution of cleavage to the mechanism of HA-mediated membrane fusion, we used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to directly image HA0 at neutral and low pH. We found extensive pH-induced structural changes, some of which were similar to those described for intermediates in the refolding of cleaved HA at low pH. They involve a partial extension of the long central coiled coil formed by melting of the preexisting secondary structure, threading it between the membrane-distal domains, and subsequent refolding as extended helices. The fusion peptide, covalently linked at its N terminus, adopts an amphipathic helical conformation over part of its length and is repositioned and packed against a complementary surface groove of conserved residues. Furthermore, and in contrast to cleaved HA, the changes in HA0 structure at low pH are reversible on reincubation at neutral pH. We discuss the implications of covalently restricted HA0 refolding for the cleaved HA conformational changes that mediate membrane fusion and for the action of antiviral drug candidates and cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies that can block influenza infectivity.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Fusão de Membrana , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Conformação Proteica
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1506, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires enhanced safety surveillance to be conducted for annual seasonal influenza vaccines with the aim of rapidly detecting any potential new safety concerns before the peak immunisation period of the vaccine in any given year. The aim of this study was to detect any clinically significant change in the frequency or severity of expected reactogenicity of the quadrivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4) during routine immunisation in Finland for the 2020/21 season. The primary objective was to investigate the frequency of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring within 7 days following vaccination. METHODS: Enhanced passive safety surveillance of individuals vaccinated with IIV4 was conducted from October 9, 2020 to November 30, 2020 across seven sites in Finland. The vaccinee reporting rate and ADR reporting rate were calculated and compared with known or expected safety data in order to identify any clinically significant changes. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1008 individuals with 29 vaccinees reporting 82 suspected ADRs. Of these, 28 people reported 79 suspected ADRs within 7 days following vaccination, corresponding to a vaccinee reporting rate of 2.78% (95% CI: 1.85, 3.99) (ADR reporting rate, 7.84% [95% CI: 6.25, 9.67%]). The most frequently reported ADRs were injection site reactions (vaccination site pain, vaccination site erythema and vaccination site swelling) (n = 46, 2.28%), myalgia (n = 9, 0.89%) and headache (n = 8, 0.79%). No serious suspected adverse events were reported at any point post-vaccination and ADR reporting rates were in general lower compared to those reported for IIV4 in the 2019/20 surveillance study. CONCLUSION: No clinically significant changes in what is known or expected for IIV4 were reported for the 2020/21 season which supports the safety profile of this vaccine and will help maintain public confidence in influenza vaccination.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Vacinas Combinadas , Vírion
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 930653, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937248

RESUMO

Background: During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, wearing masks became crucial for preventing infection risk and maintaining basic health. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavioral characteristics of the mask-wearing public to provide theoretical reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey on the mask-wearing behavior of the public and their health literacy levels by distributing electronic questionnaires. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors influencing mask-wearing behavior. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between mask-wearing behaviors and e-health literacy. Results: A total of 1,972 valid questionnaires were collected; 99.8% of the public wore masks when going out and 59.2% showed good mask-wearing behavior. Most people choose to wear disposable medical masks (61.3%), followed by medical surgical masks (52.9%). All participants indicated that they had understood the information on how to use masks, and most obtained it through social media (61.8%). The average of the e-health literacy scores of those with good mask-wearing behavior was significantly higher than those with poor mask-wearing behavior (P < 0.05), and each item score of the former's e-health literacy was significantly higher than the latter (P < 0.05). Further, there was a positive correlation between mask-wearing behavior and e-health literacy (R = 0.550, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that seven factors are related to mask-wearing behavior, including gender, place of residence, educational level, work or living environment, marital status, flu symptoms, and whether living with people in home quarantine (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The overall compliance of the public's mask-wearing behavior in China during COVID-19 is good. However, there are shortcomings regarding the selection, use, and precautions. The differences in mask-wearing behavior are related to factors including gender, place of residence, educational level, work or living environment, marital status, presence of flu symptoms, and whether living with people in home quarantine. Higher levels of e-health literacy indicated better mask-wearing behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the public's popularization and education regarding the prevention and control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Influenza Humana , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 954811, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937688

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses (IAV) spread rapidly and can infect a broad range of avian or mammalian species, having a tremendous impact in human and animal health and the global economy. IAV have evolved to develop efficient mechanisms to counteract innate immune responses, the first host mechanism that restricts IAV infection and replication. One key player in this fight against host-induced innate immune responses is the IAV non-structural 1 (NS1) protein that modulates antiviral responses and virus pathogenicity during infection. In the last decades, the implementation of reverse genetics approaches has allowed to modify the viral genome to design recombinant IAV, providing researchers a powerful platform to develop effective vaccine strategies. Among them, different levels of truncation or deletion of the NS1 protein of multiple IAV strains has resulted in attenuated viruses able to induce robust innate and adaptive immune responses, and high levels of protection against wild-type (WT) forms of IAV in multiple animal species and humans. Moreover, this strategy allows the development of novel assays to distinguish between vaccinated and/or infected animals, also known as Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) strategy. In this review, we briefly discuss the potential of NS1 deficient or truncated IAV as safe, immunogenic and protective live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) to prevent disease caused by this important animal and human pathogen.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Mamíferos , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
8.
Theranostics ; 12(12): 5317-5329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910807

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell derived brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity for various applications as in vitro model. Currently, human brain organoids as models have been used to understand virus-induced neurotoxicity. Methods: The brain organoids were separately challenged by multiple viruses including influenza viruses (H1N1-WSN and H3N2-HKT68), Enteroviruses (EV68 and EV71) and Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus (SFTSV) to investigate the impaired effect of these viruses on human brain development. Results: The brain organoids challenged by influenza viruses had decreased overall organoid size, while enteroviruses infected brain organoids displayed the opposite result. Then, we found WSN preferentially infected MAP2+ neurons compared to SOX2+ neural stem cells (NSCs) and GFAP+ astrocytes in brain organoids, and induced apoptosis of NSCs and neurons, and released inflammatory factors (TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-6), facilitating brain damage. Furthermore, transcriptional profiling revealed several co-upregulated genes (CSAG3 and OAS2) and co-downregulated genes (CDC20B, KCNJ13, OTX2-AS1) after WSN infection for 24 hpi and 96 hpi, implicating target for antiviral drugs development. Finally, we explored compound PYC-12 could significantly suppress virus infection, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Conclusions: Collectively, we established a tractable experimental model to investigate the impact and mechanism of virus infection on human brain development.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Antivirais/farmacologia , Encéfalo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Organoides
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 982, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the importance of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers and its role in maintaining their health and inhibiting the epidemic spread of Covid-19, the present study was done to identify the changes in intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine rate in two different time points and it's determinants based on the dimensions of the health belief model among healthcare workers in Iran. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys performed to investigate COVID-19 vaccination intent and associated factors based on the health belief model. The first conducted on 1244 participants from August 18 to 23, 2020, and the second on 1514 participants from February 5 to April 29, 2021, both using a questionnaire of intent to accept COVID-19 vaccination. The questionnaire distribution platform in both surveys was similarly, WhatsApp and Telegram social and working virtual groups of HCWs. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software for descriptive and analytical statistics. RESULTS: In the first survey, 58.4% (95% CI: 0.55-0.61%) of healthcare workers intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, the rate dropped to 45.7% (95% CI: 0.43-0.48%) in the second survey (P < 0.001). The regression analysis indicated six factors that were significantly associated with higher intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine: being a female (OR = 1.84, 95% CI (1.11-3.03)), history of Covid-19 infection (OR = 1.54, 95% CI (1.09-2.18), perceptions of Covid-19 disease (OR = 1.13, 95% CI (1.01-1.28)), perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.22-1.47)), prosocial norms for COVID-19 vaccination (OR = 1.25, 95% CI (1.21-1.29)), and COVID-19 vaccine safety/cost concerns (OR = 1.25, 95% CI (1.17-1.33)). CONCLUSIONS: Present study showed an undesirable rate of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers, especially decreasing over the time, emphasize the need of interventions to promote healthcare workers' intention to receive the vaccine and reduce the spread of COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2224657, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917125

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the high 3-dose vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) in Israel, a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in this group was observed during the Omicron wave. As a result, the Israeli Ministry of Health decided to recommend a fourth vaccine dose to medical staff. Objective: To evaluate the benefit of a fourth BNT162b2 vaccine dose on the breakthrough infection rate among HCWs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study was performed in January 2022, the first month of the 4-dose vaccination campaign, during a surge of the Omicron variant wave. All health care workers at 11 general hospitals in Israel who had been vaccinated with 3 doses up to September 30, 2021, and had not contracted COVID-19 before the vaccination campaign were included. Exposures: Vaccination with a fourth dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine during January 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breakthrough COVID-19 infections in 4-dose recipients vs 3-dose recipients measured by a polymerase chain reaction test result positive for SARS-CoV-2. Health care workers were tested based on symptoms or exposure. Results: A total of 29 611 Israeli HCWs (19 381 [65%] female; mean [SD] age, 44 [12] years) had received 3 vaccine doses between August and September 2021; of these, 5331 (18%) received the fourth dose in January 2022 and were not infected by the first week after vaccination. Overall breakthrough infection rates were 368 of 5331 (7%) in the 4-dose group and 4802 of 24280 (20%) in the 3-dose group (relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.32-0.39). Similar reductions were found in a matched analysis by the exact day of receiving the third vaccine (relative risk, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54-0.71) and in a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression model (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.50-0.63). In both groups, no severe disease or death occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the fourth BNT162b2 vaccine dose resulted in a reduced breakthrough infection rate among hospital staff. This reduction was lower than that observed after the third dose; nevertheless, considering the high infectivity of the Omicron variant, which led to critical medical staff shortages, a fourth vaccine dose should be considered to mitigate the infection rate among HCWs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2116818119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917349

RESUMO

How does the COVID-19 pandemic affect interpersonal trust? Most evidence shows that natural disasters reinforce trust and cooperation, but the COVID-19 virus differs from other calamities, since it spreads through contact with people, potentially increasing suspicion and distrust, as, according to contemporaneous writers' accounts, seems to have been the case with the Black Death, the London plague, and the Spanish influenza. We investigate the link between interpersonal trust and individuals exposed to COVID-19, either vicariously through their community or networks or directly by becoming infected. We rely on an original panel survey, including a survey experiment, with a representative sample of adults in Italy, one of the countries hardest struck by the pandemic. Our experimental findings reveal that priming people about the risk that the pandemic poses to their health leads to a substantial increase in their trust in strangers. Our panel data analysis of within-individual effects shows that those who become infected trust strangers more than those who are not infected. Our findings could be explained by people observing higher than expected altruistic behavior or becoming more dependent on other people's support, consistent with the "emancipation theory of trust." When people recover from COVID-19, however, they drop to trusting strangers as much as those who were not directly exposed to the virus, an indication that the positive effects on trust during the pandemic have an emotional source. Nonetheless, the evidence suggests that, in the aggregate, there has been a small but significant increase in trust among the general population relative to prepandemic levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança/psicologia
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(8): e38551, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participatory surveillance systems augment traditional surveillance systems through bidirectional community engagement. The digital platform evolution has enabled the expansion of participatory surveillance systems, globally, for the detection of health events impacting people, animals, plants, and the environment, in other words, across the entire One Health spectrum. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this landscape was to identify and provide descriptive information regarding system focus, geography, users, technology, information shared, and perceived impact of ongoing participatory surveillance systems across the One Health spectrum. METHODS: This landscape began with a systematic literature review to identify potential ongoing participatory surveillance systems. A survey was sent to collect standardized data from the contacts of systems identified in the literature review and through direct outreach to stakeholders, experts, and professional organizations. Descriptive analyses of survey and literature review results were conducted across the programs. RESULTS: The landscape identified 60 ongoing single-sector and multisector participatory surveillance systems spanning five continents. Of these, 29 (48%) include data on human health, 26 (43%) include data on environmental health, and 24 (40%) include data on animal health. In total, 16 (27%) systems are multisectoral; of these, 9 (56%) collect animal and environmental health data; 3 (19%) collect human, animal, and environmental health data; 2 (13%) collect human and environmental health data; and 2 (13%) collect human and animal health data. Out of 60 systems, 31 (52%) are designed to cover a national scale, compared to those with a subnational (n=19, 32%) or multinational (n=10, 17%) focus. All systems use some form of digital technology. Email communication or websites (n=40, 67%) and smartphones (n=29, 48%) are the most common technologies used, with some using both. Systems have capabilities to download geolocation data (n=31, 52%), photographs (n=29, 48%), and videos (n=6, 10%), and can incorporate lab data or sample collection (n=15, 25%). In sharing information back with users, most use visualization, such as maps (n=43, 72%); training and educational materials (n=37, 62%); newsletters, blogs, and emails (n=34, 57%); and disease prevention information (n=32, 53%). Out of the 46 systems responding to the survey regarding perceived impacts of their systems, 36 (78%) noted "improved community knowledge and understanding" and 31 (67%) noted "earlier detection." CONCLUSIONS: The landscape demonstrated the breadth of applicability of participatory surveillance around the world to collect data from community members and trained volunteers in order to inform the detection of events, from invasive plant pests to weekly influenza symptoms. Acknowledging the importance of bidirectionality of information, these systems simultaneously share findings back with the users. Such directly engaged community detection systems capture events early and provide opportunities to stop outbreaks quickly.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Saúde Única , Comunicação , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272040, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health care professionals working in primary and specialized care typically search for medical information from Internet sources. In Finland, Physician's Databases are online portals aimed at professionals seeking medical information. As dosage errors may occur when prescribing medication to children, professionals' need for reliable medical information has increased in public health care centers and hospitals. Influenza continues to be a public health threat, with young children at risk of developing severe illness and easily transmitting the virus. Oseltamivir is used to treat children with influenza. The objective of this study was to compare searches for children's oseltamivir and influenza diagnoses in primary and specialized care, and to determine if the searches could aid detection of influenza outbreaks. METHODS: We compared searches in Physician's Databases for children's oral suspension of oseltamivir (6 mg/mL) for influenza diagnoses of children under 7 years and laboratory findings of influenza A and B from the National Infectious Disease Register. Searches and diagnoses were assessed in primary and specialized care across Finland by season from 2012-2016. The Moving Epidemic Method (MEM) calculated seasonal starts and ends, and paired differences in the mean compared two indicators. Correlation was tested to compare seasons. RESULTS: We found that searches and diagnoses in primary and specialized care showed visually similar patterns annually. The MEM-calculated starting weeks in searches appeared mainly in the same week. Oseltamivir searches in primary care preceded diagnoses by -1.0 weeks (95% CI: -3.0, -0.3; p = 0.132) with very high correlation (τ = 0.913). Specialized care oseltamivir searches and diagnoses correlated moderately (τ = 0.667). CONCLUSION: Health care professionals' searches for children's oseltamivir in online databases linked with the registers of children's influenza diagnoses in primary and specialized care. Therefore, database searches should be considered as supplementary information in disease surveillance when detecting influenza epidemics.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Oseltamivir , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico
14.
Perm J ; 26(2): 64-68, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933671

RESUMO

Given the stalling improvement in vaccine hesitancy rates in the United States (US), it is important to understand why a chronically ill group, patients with left-ventricular assist devices (LVADs), might not get vaccinated and to delineate the barriers they may face in seeking care. We conducted an online survey to characterize the attitudes of patients with LVADs toward COVID-19 vaccination, identify their willingness to seek care during the pandemic, and characterize barriers to doing so. Our survey showed that the rate of vaccine hesitancy among LVAD patients is similar to that of the general population in the US. This rate is higher than expected for a chronically ill group at risk of severe COVID-19 infection. We also found that LVAD patients perceive barriers to seeking care during the pandemic. We recommend that LVAD care teams emphasize that patients should seek care for emergency medical conditions despite their fears of contracting COVID-19. Based on our results, we also recommend vaccine uptake education for this population focused on patients' concerns about serious side effects and not enough research done on the vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coração Auxiliar , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2205797119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914171

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), a disorder caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) cell loss, is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ0602 (98%) and T cell receptor (TCR) polymorphisms. Increased CD4+ T cell reactivity to HCRT, especially DQ0602-presented amidated C-terminal HCRT (HCRTNH2), has been reported, and homology with pHA273-287 flu antigens from pandemic 2009 H1N1, an established trigger of the disease, suggests molecular mimicry. In this work, we extended DQ0602 tetramer and dextramer data to 77 cases and 44 controls, replicating our prior finding and testing 709 TCRs in Jurkat 76 T cells for functional activation. We found that fewer TCRs isolated with HCRTNH2 (∼11%) versus pHA273-287 or NP17-31 antigens (∼50%) were activated by their ligand. Single-cell characterization did not reveal phenotype differences in influenza versus HCRTNH2-reactive T cells, and analysis of TCR CDR3αß sequences showed TCR clustering by responses to antigens but no cross-peptide class reactivity. Our results do not support the existence of molecular mimicry between HCRT and pHA273-287 or NP17-31.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Narcolepsia , Humanos , Orexinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13392, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927299

RESUMO

Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has primarily been achieved using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for acute infection, and serology for prior infection. Assay with RT-PCR provides data on presence or absence of viral RNA, with no information on virus replication competence, infectivity, or virus characterisation. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is typically not used in clinical virology, despite its potential to provide supplemental data about the presence of viral proteins and thus the potential for replication-competent, transmissible virus. Using the SARS-CoV-2 as a model virus, we developed a fast 'bottom-up' proteomics workflow for discovery of target virus peptides using 'serum-free' culture conditions, providing high coverage of viral proteins without the need for protein or peptide fractionation techniques. This workflow was then applied to Coronaviruses OC43 and 229E, Influenza A/H1N1 and H3N2, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses A and B. Finally, we created an LC-MS/MS method for targeted detection of the eight-virus panel in clinical specimens, successfully detecting peptides from the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9B and nucleoprotein in RT-PCR positive samples. The method provides specific detection of respiratory viruses from clinical samples containing moderate viral loads and is an important further step to the use of LC-MS/MS in diagnosis of viral infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Proteínas Virais
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270469, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921608

RESUMO

Shortly after the implementation of community mitigation measures in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), sharp declines in respiratory syncytial virus and influenza circulation were noted; post-mitigation circulation of other respiratory pathogens has gone unexplored. We retrospectively analyzed all records of a provider-ordered multiplex test between April 1, 2018, and July 31, 2021, in Nashville, Tennessee, and we noted disrupted historical seasonal patterns for common respiratory pathogens during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiologia
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 266, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922403

RESUMO

Defective interfering genes (DIGs) are short viral genomes and interfere with wild-type viral replication. Here, we demonstrate that the new designed SARS-CoV-2 DIG (CD3600) can significantly inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 including Alpha, Delta, Kappa and Omicron variants in human HK-2 cells and influenza DIG (PAD4) can significantly inhibit influenza virus replication in human A549 cells. One dose of influenza DIGs prophylactically protects 90% mice from lethal challenge of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and CD3600 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in hamster lungs when DIGs are administrated to lungs one day before viral challenge. To further investigate the gene delivery vector in the respiratory tract, a peptidic TAT2-P1&LAH4, which can package genes to form small spherical nanoparticles with high endosomal escape ability, is demonstrated to dramatically increase gene expression in the lung airway. TAT2-P1&LAH4, with the dual-functional TAT2-P1 (gene-delivery and antiviral), can deliver CD3600 to significantly inhibit the replication of Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in hamster lungs. This peptide-based nanoparticle system can effectively transfect genes in lungs and deliver DIGs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza virus in vivo, which provides the new insight into the drug delivery system for gene therapy against respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Nanopartículas , Animais , COVID-19/genética , Cricetinae , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(9): 9125-9146, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942752

RESUMO

Influenza is a respiratory infection caused influenza virus. To evaluate the effect of environment noise on the transmission of influenza, our study focuses on a stochastic influenza virus model with disease resistance. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the global solution to the model. Then we obtain the existence of a stationary distribution to the positive solutions by stochastic Lyapunov function method. Moreover, certain sufficient conditions are provided for the extinction of the influenza virus flu. Finally, several numerical simulations are revealed to illustrate our theoretical results. Conclusively, according to the results of numerical models, increasing disease resistance is favorable to disease control. Furthermore, a simple example demonstrates that white noise is favorable to the disease's extinction.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Simulação por Computador , Resistência à Doença , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Processos Estocásticos
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