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1.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203647

RESUMO

Influenza is a highly known contagious viral infection that has been responsible for the death of many people in history with pandemics. These pandemics have been occurring every 10 to 30 years in the last century. The most recent global pandemic prior to COVID-19 was the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. A decade ago, the H1N1 virus caused 12,500 deaths in just 19 months globally. Now, again, the world has been challenged with another pandemic. Since December 2019, the first case of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection was detected in Wuhan. This infection has risen rapidly throughout the world; even the World Health Organization (WHO) announced COVID-19 as a worldwide emergency to ensure human health and public safety. This review article aims to discuss important issues relating to COVID-19, including clinical, epidemiological, and pathological features of COVID-19 and recent progress in diagnosis and treatment approaches for the COVID-19 infection. We also highlight key similarities and differences between COVID-19 and influenza A to ensure the theoretical and practical details of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209247

RESUMO

Influenza is one of the most serious respiratory viral infections worldwide. Although several studies have reported that green tea catechins (GTCs) might prevent influenza virus infection, this remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of eight studies with 5,048 participants that examined the effect of GTC administration on influenza prevention. In a random-effects meta-analysis of five RCTs, 884 participants treated with GTCs showed statistically significant effects on the prevention of influenza infection compared to the control group (risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95%CIs 0.51-0.89, P = 0.005) without evidence of heterogeneity (I2= 0%, P = 0.629). Similarly, in three cohort studies with 2,223 participants treated with GTCs, there were also statistically significant effects (RR 0.52, 95%CIs 0.35-0.77, P = 0.001) with very low evidence of heterogeneity (I2 = 3%, P = 0.358). Additionally, the overall effect in the subgroup analysis of gargling and orally ingested items (taking capsules and drinking) showed a pooled RR of 0.62 (95% CIs 0.49-0.77, P = 0.003) without heterogeneity (I2= 0%, P = 0.554). There were no obvious publication biases (Egger's test (P = 0.138) and Begg's test (P = 0.103)). Our analysis suggests that green tea consumption is effective in the prophylaxis of influenza infections. To confirm the findings before implementation, longitudinal clinical trials with specific doses of green tea consumption are warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chá/química , Antivirais/química , Catequina/química , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Influenza Humana
4.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(3): 254-261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been likened to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. We aim to study the similarities and differences between patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza in order to provide better care to patients, particularly during the co-circulation of Influenza A Subtype H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in order to compare clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed H1N1 influenza pneumonia and COVID-19 at a tertiary care center in Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were compared with 55 patients with H1N1 Influenza A pneumonia. Median age was similar in both COVID-19 patients (54 years) and in patients with H1N1 influenza (59 years), but there was male predominance in COVID-19 patients (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.12-7.79). Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.14-1.62) times more likely to have a greater duration of illness prior to presentation compared to H1N1 influenza patients. COVID-19 patients were 4.59 times (95% CI: 1.32-15.94) more likely to be admitted to a general ward compared to H1N1 pneumonia patients. Moreover, patients with COVID-19 were 7.62 times (95% CI: 2.42-24.00) more likely to be treated with systemic steroids compared to patients with H1N1 pneumonia. The rate of nosocomial infections as well as mortality was similar in both H1N1 and COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Our study found a male predominance and longer duration of illness in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 compared to H1N1 influenza patients but no difference in outcomes with either infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 236, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229735

RESUMO

Infectious diseases may affect brain function and cause encephalopathy even when the pathogen does not directly infect the central nervous system, known as infectious disease-associated encephalopathy. The systemic inflammatory process may result in neuroinflammation, with glial cell activation and increased levels of cytokines, reduced neurotrophic factors, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, neurotransmitter metabolism imbalances, and neurotoxicity, and behavioral and cognitive impairments often occur in the late course. Even though infectious disease-associated encephalopathies may cause devastating neurologic and cognitive deficits, the concept of infectious disease-associated encephalopathies is still under-investigated; knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, which may be distinct from those of encephalopathies of non-infectious cause, is still limited. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of encephalopathies associated with peripheral (sepsis, malaria, influenza, and COVID-19), emerging therapeutic strategies, and the role of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , Citocinas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Malária/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198575

RESUMO

The infection caused by novel beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. However, in the last 20 years, this has not been the only viral infection to cause respiratory tract infections leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, referring in particular to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza H1N1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Although in this pandemic period SARS-CoV-2 infection should be the first diagnosis to exclude, many other viruses can cause pulmonary manifestations and have to be recognized. Through the description of the main radiological patterns, radiologists can suggest the diagnosis of viral pneumonia, also combining information from clinical and laboratory data.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205714

RESUMO

Weather conditions may have an impact on SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission, as has been shown for seasonal influenza. Virus transmission most likely favors low temperature and low humidity conditions. This systematic review aimed to collect evidence on the impact of temperature and humidity on COVID-19 mortality. This review was registered with PROSPERO (registration no. CRD42020196055). We searched the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane COVID-19 databases for observational epidemiological studies. Two independent reviewers screened the title/abstracts and full texts of the studies. Two reviewers also performed data extraction and quality assessment. From 5051 identified studies, 11 were included in the review. Although the results were inconsistent, most studies imply that a decrease in temperature and humidity contributes to an increase in mortality. To establish the association with greater certainty, future studies should consider accurate exposure measurements and important covariates, such as government lockdowns and population density, sufficient lag times, and non-linear associations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Umidade , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207479

RESUMO

Real-time online data sources have contributed to timely and accurate forecasting of influenza activities while also suffered from instability and linguistic noise. Few previous studies have focused on unofficial online news articles, which are abundant in their numbers, rich in information, and relatively low in noise. This study examined whether monitoring both official and unofficial online news articles can improve influenza activity forecasting accuracy during influenza outbreaks. Data were retrieved from a Chinese commercial online platform and the website of the Chinese National Influenza Center. We modeled weekly fractions of influenza-related online news articles and compared them against weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rates using autoregression analyses. We retrieved 153,958,695 and 149,822,871 online news articles focusing on the south and north of mainland China separately from 6 October 2019 to 17 May 2020. Our model based on online news articles could significantly improve the forecasting accuracy, compared to other influenza surveillance models based on historical ILI rates (p = 0.002 in the south; p = 0.000 in the north) or adding microblog data as an exogenous input (p = 0.029 in the south; p = 0.000 in the north). Our finding also showed that influenza forecasting based on online news articles could be 1-2 weeks ahead of official ILI surveillance reports. The results revealed that monitoring online news articles could supplement traditional influenza surveillance systems, improve resource allocation, and offer models for surveillance of other emerging diseases.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia
9.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199200

RESUMO

Glycan-targeting antibodies and pseudo-antibodies have been extensively studied for their stoichiometry, avidity, and their interactions with the rapidly modifying glycan shield of influenza A. Broadly neutralizing antiviral agents bind in the same order when they neutralize enveloped viruses regardless of the location of epitopes to the host receptor binding site. Herein, we investigated the binding of cyanovirin-N (CV-N) to surface-expressed glycoproteins such as those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120, hemagglutinin (HA), and Ebola (GP)1,2 and compared their binding affinities with the binding response to the trimer-folded gp140 using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Binding-site knockout variants of an engineered dimeric CV-N molecule (CVN2) revealed a binding affinity that correlated with the number of (high-) affinity binding sites. Binding curves were specific for the interaction with N-linked glycans upon binding with two low-affinity carbohydrate binding sites. This biologically active assembly of a domain-swapped CVN2, or monomeric CV-N, bound to HA with a maximum KD of 2.7 nM. All three envelope spike proteins were recognized at a nanomolar KD, whereas binding to HIV neutralizing 2G12 by targeting HA and Ebola GP1,2 was measured in the µM range and specific for the bivalent binding scheme in SPR. In conclusion, invariant structural protein patterns provide a substrate for affinity maturation in the membrane-anchored HA regions, as well as the glycan shield on the membrane-distal HA top part. They can also induce high-affinity binding in antiviral CV-N to HA at two sites, and CVN2 binding is achieved at low-affinity binding sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/metabolismo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200619

RESUMO

Background: The disease burden of seasonal influenza is substantial in China, while there is still a lack of nationwide economic burden estimates. This study aims to examine influenza-like illness (ILI) prevalence, healthcare-seeking behaviors, economic impact of ILI, and its influencing factors among three priority groups during the 2018-19 influenza season. Methods: From August to October 2019, 6668 children's caregivers, 1735 chronic disease patients, and 3849 elderly people were recruited from 10 provinces in China to participate in an on-site survey. The economic burden of ILI consisted of direct (medical or non-medical) and indirect burdens, and a two-part model was adopted to predict the influencing factors of total economic burden. Results: There were 45.73% children, 16.77% chronic disease patients, and 12.70% elderly people reporting ILI, and most participants chose outpatient service or over-the-counter (OTC) medication after ILI. The average economic burden was CNY 1647 (USD 237.2) for children, CNY 951 (USD 136.9) for chronic disease patients, and CNY 1796 (USD 258.6) for the elderly. Two-part regression showed that age, gender, whether the only child in the family, region, and household income were important predictors of ILI economic burden among children, while age, region, place of residence, basic health insurance, and household income were significant predictors of ILI economic burden among chronic disease patients and the elderly. Conclusions: A large economic burden of ILI was highlighted, especially among the elderly with less income and larger medical burdens, as well as children, with higher prevalence and higher self-payment ratio. It is important to adopt targeted interventions for high-risk groups, and this study can help national-level decision-making on the introduction of influenza vaccination as a public health project.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199658

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics, therefore is an important research subject for scientists around the world. Despite the high variability of its genome, the structure of viral RNA (vRNA) possesses features that remain constant between strains and are biologically important for virus replication. Therefore, conserved structural motifs of vRNA can represent a novel therapeutic target. Here, we focused on the presence of G-rich sequences within the influenza A/California/07/2009(H1N1) genome and their ability to form RNA G-quadruplex structures (G4s). We identified 12 potential quadruplex-forming sequences (PQS) and determined their conservation among the IAV strains using bioinformatics tools. Then we examined the propensity of PQS to fold into G4s by various biophysical methods. Our results revealed that six PQS oligomers could form RNA G-quadruplexes. However, three of them were confirmed to adopt G4 structures by all utilized methods. Moreover, we showed that these PQS motifs are present within segments encoding polymerase complex proteins indicating their possible role in the virus biology.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Biologia Computacional , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/patologia , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reproduction number is one of the most crucial parameters in determining disease dynamics, providing a summary measure of the transmission potential. However, estimating this value is particularly challenging owing to the characteristics of epidemic data, including non-reproducibility and incompleteness. METHODS: In this study, we propose mathematical models with different population structures; each of these models can produce data on the number of cases of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic in South Korea. These structured models incorporating the heterogeneity of age and region are used to estimate the reproduction numbers at various terminal times. Subsequently, the age- and region-specific reproduction numbers are also computed to analyze the differences illustrated in the incidence data. RESULTS: Incorporation of the age-structure or region-structure allows for robust estimation of parameters, while the basic SIR model provides estimated values beyond the reasonable range with severe fluctuation. The estimated duration of infectious period using age-structured model is around 3.8 and the reproduction number was estimated to be 1.6. The estimated duration of infectious period using region-structured model is around 2.1 and the reproduction number was estimated to be 1.4. The estimated age- and region-specific reproduction numbers are consistent with cumulative incidence for corresponding groups. CONCLUSIONS: Numerical results reveal that the introduction of heterogeneity into the population to represent the general characteristics of dynamics is essential for the robust estimation of parameters.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049302, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic will be associated with an increase in suicides, but evidence supporting a link between pandemics and suicide is limited. Using data from the three influenza pandemics of the 20th century, we aimed to investigate whether an association exists between influenza deaths and suicide deaths. DESIGN: Time series analysis. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Deaths from influenza and suicides extracted from the Statistical Yearbook of Sweden for 1910-1978, covering three pandemics (the Spanish influenza, the Asian influenza and the Hong Kong influenza). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual suicide rates in Sweden among the whole population, men and women. Non-linear autoregressive distributed lag models was implemented to explore if there is a short-term and/or long-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates with suicide rates during 1910-1978. RESULTS: Between 1910 and 1978, there was no evidence of either short-term or long-term significant associations between influenza death rates and changes in suicides (ß coefficients of 0.00002, p=0.931 and ß=0.00103, p=0.764 for short-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates, respectively, with suicide rates, and ß=-0.0002, p=0.998 and ß=0.00211, p=0.962 for long-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates, respectively, with suicide rates). The same pattern emerged in separate analyses for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of short-term or long-term association between influenza death rates and suicide death rates across three 20th century pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Suicídio , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(29): 1013-1019, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292924

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., cessation of global travel, mask use, physical distancing, and staying home) reduced transmission of some viral respiratory pathogens (1). In the United States, influenza activity decreased in March 2020, was historically low through the summer of 2020 (2), and remained low during October 2020-May 2021 (<0.4% of respiratory specimens with positive test results for each week of the season). Circulation of other respiratory pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) types OC43, NL63, 229E, and HKU1, and parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) types 1-4 also decreased in early 2020 and did not increase until spring 2021. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) circulation decreased in March 2020 and remained low through May 2021. Respiratory adenovirus (RAdV) circulated at lower levels throughout 2020 and as of early May 2021. Rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV) circulation decreased in March 2020, remained low until May 2020, and then increased to near prepandemic seasonal levels. Circulation of respiratory viruses could resume at prepandemic levels after COVID-19 mitigation practices become less stringent. Clinicians should be aware of increases in some respiratory virus activity and remain vigilant for off-season increases. In addition to the use of everyday preventive actions, fall influenza vaccination campaigns are an important component of prevention as COVID-19 mitigation measures are relaxed and schools and workplaces resume in-person activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 673, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of proven therapies, we evaluated the effect of CBP on Influenza-Associated Neurological Disease in children. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was conducted in Luoyang, Henan province, China from January 2018 to January 2020. Children (<18 years) with influenza-associated neurological disease were enrolled in the study. Children with indications for CBP and parental consent received CBP (Continuous Blood purification), while others received maximal intensive care treatment because of the absence of parental consent. The outcomes of the CBP and non-CBP groups were compared. Categorical variables were presented as percentage and compared by Chi-square test. Continuous variables were expressed as median (interquartile ranges) and compared with non-parametric independent sample test. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS (version 26.0) and p < 0.05 (2 tailed) was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: 30 children with influenza-associated neurological disease were recruited to the study. 18 received CBP and the other 12 received maximal intensive care. There were no differences between CBP and non-CBP children in age, sex, body weight, type of influenza virus, neurological complications, Glasgow score, PIM-2 score and PCIS at admission (p > 0.05). The inflammatory factors (CRP, PCT and IL-6) of 30 cases were tested at admission and after 3 days of admission. In the CBP group, there was a significant decrease in IL-6 levels at 3 days of admission (p = 0.003) and a decrease in CRP and PCT levels, but no significant difference (p > 0.05). In the non-CBP group, there were no significant difference on levels of CRP, PCT and IL-6 at admission and 3-day of admission (p > 0.05). The 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the CBP group compared with the non-CBP group (11.11% vs. 50%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: CBP definitely reduces IL-6 levels significantly. We did find that the survival rate of patients in the CBP group was improved. But we don't know if there is a relationship between the reduction of IL-6 levels and the survival rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (ChiCTR2000031754).


Assuntos
Hemofiltração , Influenza Humana/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/terapia , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(26): 2029-2036, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275235

RESUMO

The disease burden and economic burden of seasonal influenza is substantial in China, and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought new challenges to the prevention and control of influenza. As a priority group of influenza vaccination, the elderly are at higher risk of influenza-associated severe symptoms and deaths, and they are more price-sensitive vaccine users with better cost-effectiveness of vaccination program. Therefore, a reasonable financing mechanism of influenza vaccination should be designed for the elderly to increase their vaccination rate. This study proposes three financing strategies of influenza vaccination for the elderly in China, trying to explore the distribution of vaccination costs among individuals, central government and local governments under different financing strategies, including the individual-central-local mechanism (strategy 1), the central-local mechanism (strategy 2), and the local payment mechanism (strategy 3). Strategy 1 is feasible and sustainable for most regions in the short term. Strategy 2 is conducive to further increasing the vaccine coverage rate of the elderly. Strategy 3 encourages local fiscal payments to help relieve the financial pressure of the central government. The results revealed a relatively heavy financial burden of influenza vaccination for the elderly, and it is recommended to promote the development of a multiparty co-payment mechanism gradually based on local conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Idoso , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
18.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(8): 801-806, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236439

RESUMO

Influenza is the infectious disease with the highest population-based mortality. It mainly affects those aged 60 years and older, mainly due to immune senescence, which also favors complicated courses and compromises vaccine effectiveness. Therefore, various approaches have been developed for more immunogenic vaccines, which are now available for use. The Ständige Impfkommission (STIKO) has taken this into account in its current recommendation on influenza vaccination and has recommended a quadrivalent, inactivated high-dose vaccine as the standard vaccine for all ≥ 60-year-olds. Despite these successes, vaccination for prevention remains underutilized. Germany has never reached the WHO vaccination target of 75% of the elderly population. The main reasons for this are a lack of confidence in the effectiveness of vaccination, a lack of/restricted risk perception of the disease, and barriers to implementation. Initial approaches to overcoming these barriers, such as low-threshold vaccination services by involving pharmacies, are being implemented. However, further steps are needed to realize the potential of influenza vaccination, especially for such vulnerable groups as older adults.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Alemanha , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4313, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262041

RESUMO

How a history of influenza virus infections contributes to protection is not fully understood, but such protection might explain the contrasting age distributions of cases of the two lineages of influenza B, B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Fitting a statistical model to those distributions using surveillance data from New Zealand, we found they could be explained by historical changes in lineage frequencies combined with cross-protection between strains of the same lineage. We found additional protection against B/Yamagata in people for whom it was their first influenza B infection, similar to the immune imprinting observed in influenza A. While the data were not informative about B/Victoria imprinting, B/Yamagata imprinting could explain the fewer B/Yamagata than B/Victoria cases in cohorts born in the 1990s and the bimodal age distribution of B/Yamagata cases. Longitudinal studies can test if these forms of protection inferred from historical data extend to more recent strains and other populations.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Distribuição por Idade , Proteção Cruzada , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Vírus da Influenza B/classificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Probabilidade
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4427, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285233

RESUMO

The membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins are E3 ligases that regulate the stability of various cellular membrane proteins. MARCH8 has been reported to inhibit the infection of HIV-1 and a few other viruses, thus plays an important role in host antiviral defense. However, the antiviral spectrum and the underlying mechanisms of MARCH8 are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that MARCH8 profoundly inhibits influenza A virus (IAV) replication both in vitro and in mice. Mechanistically, MARCH8 suppresses IAV release through redirecting viral M2 protein from the plasma membrane to lysosomes for degradation. Specifically, MARCH8 catalyzes the K63-linked polyubiquitination of M2 at lysine residue 78 (K78). A recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus carrying the K78R M2 protein shows greater replication and more severe pathogenicity in cells and mice. More importantly, we found that the M2 protein of the H1N1 IAV has evolved to acquire non-lysine amino acids at positions 78/79 to resist MARCH8-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Together, our data support the important role of MARCH8 in host anti-IAV intrinsic immune defense by targeting M2, and suggest the inhibitory pressure of MARCH8 on H1N1 IAV transmission in the human population.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Células A549 , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ubiquitinação/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
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