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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/genética
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(26): 2569-2580, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881145

RESUMO

Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology ("next-generation sequencing") have inspired optimism about the potential of human genomics for "precision medicine." Meanwhile, pathogen genomics is already delivering "precision public health" through more effective investigations of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, better-targeted tuberculosis control, and more timely and granular influenza surveillance to inform the selection of vaccine strains. In this article, we describe how public health agencies have been adopting pathogen genomics to improve their effectiveness in almost all domains of infectious disease. This momentum is likely to continue, given the ongoing development in sequencing and sequencing-related technologies.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Parasitos/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Vírus/genética
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 964, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical and imaging findings with a worse clinical outcome in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of H1N1 influenza A virus. METHODS: Patients with a positive viral test for influenza A H1N1 in 2016 and chest radiography (CR) and/or computed tomography (CT) results had clinical and imaging data reviewed. Hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit or death were defined as worse clinical outcomes. The association between clinical and imaging features and the worse outcome was calculated in a logistical regression model. RESULTS: Eighty of 160 (50%) patients were men, with a mean age of 43 ± 19 years. The most common symptoms were as follows: flu-like symptoms 141/160 (88%), dyspnea (25/160, 17%), and thoracic pain (7/160, 5%). Abnormalities on CR were detected in 8/110 (7%) patients, and 43/59 (73%) patients had an abnormal CT. The following variables were associated with worse clinical outcomes: the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, dyspnea, thoracic pain, abnormal CR or CT regardless of the type of finding, CT with consolidation or ground glass opacity. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of DM, hypertension, dyspnea, thoracic pain, or an abnormal CR or CT on admission were associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with H1N1 influenza A virus infection. Thus, the use of readily accessible clinical and imaging features on admission may have a role in the evaluation of patients with H1N1 infection.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 967, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza causes a considerable burden to healthcare services every year. To better measure the impact of severe influenza cases in Romania, we analyzed active surveillance data collected during the 2017-2018 season from patients admitted for influenza-like illness (ILI) at a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest. METHODS: Patients admitted for acute ILI were included if they were resident in the Bucharest-Ilfov region, had been hospitalized for at least 24 h, and had onset of symptoms within 7 days before admission. Patient demographics, healthcare use, vaccination status, and outcome data were collected by questionnaire or by searching clinical records. Respiratory swabs were also obtained from each patient to confirm influenza A (A/H1 and A/H3 subtypes) or influenza B (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) infection by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The study included 502 patients, many (45.2%) of whom were aged < 5 years. Overall, 108 patients (21.5%) had one or more comorbidities. Seventeen adults aged 18-64 years (3.4%) had been vaccinated against influenza. Patients were hospitalized for a median of 5 days and most (90.4%) were prescribed antiviral treatment. More than one-half of the patients (n = 259, 51.6%) were positive for influenza. Most influenza cases were caused by B viruses (172/259, 66.4%), which were mostly of the B/Yamagata lineage (85 of 94 characterized, 90.4%). Most of the subtyped A viruses were A/H1 (59/74, 79.7%). A/H1 viruses were frequently detected in influenza-positive admissions throughout the 2017-2018 season, whereas the predominant B/Yamagata viruses were detected around the middle of the season, with a peak in cases at week 7 of 2018. Eleven patients were admitted to an intensive care unit; of these, one patient with confirmed B/Yamagata infection died. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that seasonal influenza results in considerable hospitalization in Bucharest-Ilfov, Romania and suggest vaccine coverage should be extended, especially to the youngest age groups. The data from this study should help inform and optimize national influenza healthcare policies.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenzavirus A/genética , Influenzavirus A/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Romênia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 966, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among pediatric patients hospitalized for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), the risk factors for 90-day readmission after discharge is undefined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients <14 years of age who were discharged with a diagnosis of MPP between January 2016 and February 2017. We collected clinical, laboratory and radiographic variables at the time of initial admission. We assessed pneumonia-related readmission within 90-day after discharge. Risk factors independently associated with rehospitalization were identified using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 424 MPP hospitalizations, 48 (11.3%) were readmitted within 90 days and were mainly diagnosed with pneumonia. Patients with younger age or coinfection with influenza A were more likely to be readmitted. In addition, compared with children without readmission, the readmission ones showed different clinical and laboratory characteristics at the index hospital admission. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age (OR 0.815, 95%CI 0.706-0.940) and body temperature (OR 0.659, 95%CI 0.518-0.839) were significantly associated with lower risk of 90-day readmission. Coinfection with influenza was independently associated with a greater likelihood of 90-day readmission (OR 4.746, 95%CI 1.191-18.913). CONCLUSIONS: Readmission after MPP are common and is related to patients' age, body temperature and influenza A coinfection during initial hospital stay, indicating potential targets could be noticed to reduce the rehospitalization after pediatric MPP.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
FP Essent ; 486: 19-25, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710454

RESUMO

Acute bronchitis and pneumonia are conditions commonly diagnosed in inpatient and outpatient settings. Acute bronchitis is a lower respiratory tract infection characterized by cough, with or without sputum production, lasting 1 to 3 weeks. It typically is viral. Testing for influenza should be obtained in patients at high risk of influenza complications. Antibiotics are not indicated in patients without chronic lung disease unless Bordetella pertussis infection is suspected. If pertussis is confirmed, macrolide antibiotics should be prescribed. Otherwise, symptom control and patient education are key to management. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of death in children and adults. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and imaging study results. Ultrasonography is more accurate than chest x-rays. Severity scoring systems are used to aid clinical judgement in selecting inpatient versus outpatient management. Antibiotics should be administered according to current guidelines. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. Microorganisms responsible for HAP and VAP have high rates of resistance and vary based on geographic regions. Implementation of prevention protocols has decreased rates of VAP.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(10): 750-754, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594108

RESUMO

Objective: To analyzed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with H7N9 avian influenza. Methods: The baseline characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatments, laboratory and imaging findings were collected and analyzed for 20 patients with H7N9 avian influenza admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from December 2016 to March 2017. According to the final clinical outcome, the patients were divided into the death group and the survival group. Ten patients in the death group died, and 10 patients in the survival group were discharged. The data with normal distribution were analyzed by t test. The data with non-normal distribution were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Of the 20 patients, 13 were males and 7 were females, aging 40-82 years, with a mean age of (60±12) years. Twelve patients had a definite history of poultry exposure and 10 had chronic underlying diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. The clinical manifestations were mainly fever, cough, hemoptysis, respiratory distress, fatigue, etc. In the survival group, the platelet count was(167-315)×10(9)/L, while it was (78-152)×10(9)/L in the death group. The average white blood cell count was (7.78-11.52)×10(9)/L and (9.91-15.93)×10(9)/L in the survival and death groups respectively. The average value of lymphocyte count was (0.69-1.59)×10(9)/L and (0.58-0.86)×10(9)/L in the survival and death groups respectively. In the death group the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) value was (14.0-352.0) U/L, the total bilirubin value was (6.9-34.5) µmol/L, the creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was (16.0-162.0) U/L, the serum calcium value was (1.4-2.0) mmol/L, the C-reactive protein value was (33.1-414.0) mg/L, and the calcium reduction prime value was (0.6-100.0) µg/L. In the survival group,the ALT value was (25.0-181.0) U/L, the total bilirubin value was (4.8-25.9) µmol/L, the CK-MB value was (15.0-40.0) U/L, the serum calcium value was (1.9-2.4) mmol/L, the C-reaction protein value was (12.8-52.5) mg/L, and the procalcitonin value was (0.3-23.3) µg/L. Sixteen cases suffered severe pneumonia. Twelve patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and 4 survived. The cause of death was mainly related to factors such as age, chronic underlying diseases and severity of illness. Conclusions: Human infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus was highly pathogenic, and prone to progress into severe pneumonia, with a high mortality. Decreased platelet count was associated with mortality (t=4.07, P=0.001), predictive of patient outcome.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Aves , China/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 75-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559569

RESUMO

People most at risk of influenza complications are the elderly with impaired immunity. Clinical picture of influenza virus infection includes symptoms such as chills, increased body temperature, dry cough, chest pain, or dizziness as well as headaches and muscle aches. In the diagnosis of influenza, quick and effective tests are necessary. Sensitive diagnostic methods of molecular biology require more time, but the result firmly confirm or exclude the presence of the genetic material of influenza or other respiratory viruses. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in combating influenza infection. Unfortunately, the awareness of vaccination benefits is insufficient in Poland. In this study we demonstrate the results of examination of 4,507 people aged over 14 years toward the influenza infection in the epidemic season of 2017/18. Most of the confirmed infections were reported in older people aged over 65, a high-risk population group. A low percentage of the vaccinated population may affect an increased number of confirmed influenza viruses in the elderly. The findings demonstrate a need to increase awareness of vaccination benefits, which is particularly essential to avoid influenza infection in the elderly.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 825, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting avian influenza virus has become an important public health strategy for controlling the emerging infectious disease. METHODS: The HIS (hospital information system) modified influenza surveillance system (ISS) and a newly built pneumonia surveillance system (PSS) were used to monitor the influenza viruses in Changsha City, China. The ISS was used to monitor outpatients in two sentinel hospitals and to detect mild influenza and avian influenza cases, and PSS was used to monitor inpatients in 49 hospitals and to detect severe and death influenza cases. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2016, there were 3,551,917 outpatients monitored by the ISS system, among whom 126,076 were influenza-like illness (ILI) cases, with the ILI proportion (ILI%) of 3.55%. After the HIS was used, the reported incident cases of ILI and ILI% were increased significantly. From March, 2009 to September, 2016, there were 5,491,560 inpatient cases monitored by the PSS system, among which 362,743 were pneumonia cases, with a proportion of 6.61%. Among pneumonia cases, about 10.55% (38,260/362,743) of cases were severe or death cases. The pneumonia incidence increased each year in the city. Among 15 avian influenza cases reported from January, 2005 to September, 2016, there were 26.7% (4/15) mild cases detected by the HIS-modified ISS system, while 60.0% (9/15) were severe or death cases detected by the PSS system. Two H5N1 severe cases were missed by the ISS system in January, 2009 when the PSS system was not available. CONCLUSIONS: The HIS was able to improve the efficiency of the ISS for monitoring ILI and emerging avian influenza virus. However, the efficiency of the system needs to be verified in a wider area for a longer time span in China.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos
11.
JAMA ; 322(9): 824-833, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479137

RESUMO

Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P = .18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P = .10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P = .47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P = .39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P = .08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Máscaras , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 08 29.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483584

RESUMO

An influenza epidemic can greatly increase the workload in primary care and the emergency department (ED) and can even disrupt the healthcare system. It is difficult to diagnose influenza by history taking and physical examination. A fast diagnosis usinginfluenza point-of-care tests (POCTs) could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, diagnostic tests, consultations and hospital admissions. Moreover, length of stay on EDs and length of admission could be shortened. The analytical accuracy of antigen detection tests for influenza is relatively low compared to the well performing RT-PCR assays (sensitivity and specificity approximately 95%). Only 1 randomized controlled trial has shown the effect of a (combined) RT-PCR assay for influenza detection on clinically relevant outcome measures. Observational research suggests that introduction of RT-PCR assays for influenza detection reduces length of stay on the ED and decreased time from sample reception to result. For practical reasons, we should embrace the introduction of RT-PCR assays for influenza detection on EDs. Before POCTs can be implemented in primary care (family medicine) the analytical accuracy and time to receive results should be improved and effects of its clinical impact should be proven.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Medicina Geral , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Tempo de Internação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 911-916, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484253

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Shanghai, China. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, one Tertiary hospital and one Secondary hospital were chosen as the surveillance sites. Two respiratory tract specimens per case were collected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. One specimen was tested for 22 respiratory pathogens by RT-PCR, and the other specimen was cultured for 6 respiratory bacteria. Results: A total of 287 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. 70.73% of the cases were aged 60 years and older, with 41.46% (119/287) were positive for at least one pathogen. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen, accounting for 17.77% (51/287) of all SARI cases. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus and Coronavirus were both accounting for 7.32% (21/287), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5.57%, 16/287). The positive rates of parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumo virus were all less than 5%. Bacterial strains were identified in seven SARI cases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 strain). Two or Three pathogens were co-detected from 40 cases, accounting for 33.61% of 119 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 cases). Influenza cases peaked in winter-spring and summer. Mycoplasma pneumoniae peaked in winter-spring season and overlapped with influenza. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between different age groups. Conclusions: Various respiratory pathogens can be detected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen and the co-detection of influenza virus with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common one.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
15.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(11): 1127-1135, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus (IV)-associated mortality and morbidity remains high in Europe. OBJECTIVE: This article gives an overview of the pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment optimization strategies according to the currently existing guidelines and clinical trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search and analysis of national and international guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment and prevention of IV infections. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of IV infections remains underrecognized, it is the leading infectious disease-associated cause of mortality and morbidity in Europe. Viruses are mainly transmitted by aerosol inhalation and can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild signs of a cold to severe respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The clinical diagnosis should be verified through a PCR-based test in patients with indications for treatment. Neuraminidase inhibitors are currently the treatment of choice for IV infections. Seasonal influenza vaccination is an efficient preventive method. It is therefore imperative to improve vaccination rates in Germany, which have been continuously declining since the pandemic of 2009/2010.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neuraminidase/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1089, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring seasonal influenza epidemics is the corner stone to epidemiological surveillance of acute respiratory virus infections worldwide. This work aims to compare two sentinel surveillance systems within the Daily Acute Respiratory Infection Information System of Catalonia (PIDIRAC), the primary care ILI and Influenza confirmed samples from primary care (PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLU) and the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza system (SHLCI), in regard to how they behave in the forecasting of epidemic onset and severity allowing for healthcare preparedness. METHODS: Epidemiological study carried out during seven influenza seasons (2010-2017) in Catalonia, with data from influenza sentinel surveillance of primary care physicians reporting ILI along with laboratory confirmation of influenza from systematic sampling of ILI cases and 12 hospitals that provided data on severe hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed influenza (SHLCI-FLU). Epidemic thresholds for ILI and SHLCI-FLU (overall) as well as influenza A (SHLCI-FLUA) and influenza B (SHLCI-FLUB) incidence rates were assessed by the Moving Epidemics Method. RESULTS: Epidemic thresholds for primary care sentinel surveillance influenza-like illness (PIDIRAC-ILI) incidence rates ranged from 83.65 to 503.92 per 100.000 h. Paired incidence rate curves for SHLCI -FLU / PIDIRAC-ILI and SHLCI-FLUA/ PIDIRAC-FLUA showed best correlation index' (0.805 and 0.724 respectively). Assessing delay in reaching epidemic level, PIDIRAC-ILI source forecasts an average of 1.6 weeks before the rest of sources paired. Differences are higher when SHLCI cases are paired to PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLUB although statistical significance was observed only for SHLCI-FLU/PIDIRAC-ILI (p-value Wilcoxon test = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The combined ILI and confirmed influenza from primary care along with the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza data from PIDIRAC sentinel surveillance system provides timely and accurate syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza from the community level to hospitalization of severe cases.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/terapia , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(7): 510-514, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365967

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of influenza A (H3N2) infected patients in Jinhua area, and therefore to improve the understanding of infection with H3N2 influenza virus. Methods: The pharynx swab specimens for pathogenic detection were collected from acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases in the fever clinic of the sentinel hospital in Jinhua area from 2014 to 2017. Descriptive statistics method was used to analyze the clinical features and pathogenics characteristics of the patients infected with H3N2 influenza virus. The t test or χ(2) test of independent samples were used for comparison between groups. Results: A total of 3 803 cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) were reported in the sentinel hospital in Jinhua area from 2014 to 2017. Among them, 245 cases (6.4%) of H3N2 influenza were diagnosed, including 153 males (62.4%) and 92 females (37.6%), aged from 0.5 to 95 years, with an average age of (50.1+15.7) years. They were divided into 5 age groups, with 107 (43.7%) patients aged 60 years and older. The incidence of major diseases was 43.7%. There was no significant difference in the gender in different age groups (χ(2)=4.581, P=0.333). The seasonal peak of H3N2 influenza A virus infection was mainly in summer (In June-September), but was also seen in other months. In the 4 years from 2014 to 2017, there were a total of 4 peaks, which occurred in July-September, July-August, June-August, and June-August. The body temperature of most patients (73.1%) was between 38.0 and 38.9 ℃. The main positive signs of H3N2 influenza A virus infection were different degrees of pharyngeal hyperemia and tonsillar enlargement. Fever (>38 ℃), cough, dizziness, fatigue, sore throat, headache, chills, shortness of breath, runny nose, myalgia, expectoration, nasal congestion were the main symptoms of H3N2 cases. The proportion of abnormal X-ray/CT manifestations in H3N2 influenza A virus infection cases was lower than that of other influenza viruses. 89.8% of the patients were positive for H3N2 influenza A. The average lymphocyte count was (1.1±0.5) × 10(9)/L, total platelet count (157±39) × 10(9)/L in H3N2 influenza A infection group, which were lower than those in other influenza positive patients [(1.2±0.6)×10(9)/L and (165±42) × 10(9)/L], while the neutrophil count (3.6±0.8) × 10(9)/L was higher than that in other influenza positive patients (3.4±1.0) × 10(9)/L(all P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with H3N2 influenza A in Jinhua mostly presented with throat congestion and tonsillar enlargement in varying degrees, fever (>38 ℃), cough and sputum production. The seasonal peak of influenza A was in summer (June-September). Elderly aged 60 years or older were the susceptible group.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 560-565, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365976

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of peramivir trihydrate in patients with influenza. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo and positive control, multicenter clinical trial, comparing peramivir trihydrate with oseltamivir and placebo. The inclusive criteria were 15-70 years old, onset within 48 h, positive rapid influenza antigen test, and febrile (>38℃) accompanied with at least two associated symptoms. The severe cases complicated with chronic pulmonary and cardiac diseases, malignancies, organ transplantation, hemodialysis, uncontrolled diabetes, immunocompromised status, pregnancy and coexistence of bacterium infections were excluded. All patients were randomized 2∶2∶1 to receive peramivir, oseltamivir and placebo respectively. The primary endpoint was the disease duration, the secondary endpoints included time to normal axillary temperature and normal living activities, viral response, and adverse effects. Results: Following informed consent, 133 patients were included in this study. Four patients were exclude due to missing medical records, not fitting inclusion or exclusion criteria and poor compliance. A total of 129 patients were finally analyzed, including 49 cases, 54 cases and 26 cases in peramivir group, oseltamivir group and placebo group. The median disease duration were 96 (76, 120) hours, 105 (90,124) hours, and 124 (104, 172) hours in three groups respectively (P>0.05) . The time to normal axillary temperature, normal living activities and viral response were not significantly different in three groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: The value of antiviral therapy in patients with mild influenza needs to be further determined.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 700, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze hospitalization episodes with an ICD-9 diagnosis code of influenza (codes 487 and 488) in any diagnostic position from 2009 to 2015 in the Spanish hospital surveillance system. METHODS: Information about age, length of stay in hospital, mortality, comorbidity with an influenza diagnosis code between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2015 was obtained from the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD). RESULTS: 52,884 hospital admissions were obtained. A total of 24,527 admissions corresponded to diagnoses ICD-9 code 487 (46.4%), and 28,357 (53.6%) corresponded to ICD-9 code 488. The global hospitalization rates were 8.7 and 10.6 per 100,000 people, respectively. Differences between the two diagnostic groups were found for each of the six analyzed seasons. The diagnostic ICD-9-CM 488, male gender, and high-risk patients classified by risk vaccination groups showed direct relationship with inpatient hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza diagnosis was present in a significant number of hospital admissions. The code used for diagnosis (ICD-9-CM 488), male sex, age groups and associated risk clinical conditions showed a direct relationship with inpatient hospital fatality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação
20.
Virol J ; 16(1): 91, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments. METHODS: This study was designed to compare the performance of two different one-step-combined test strips for the detection of influenza A and B: one strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the other strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT). To test the strips, cultures of influenza A, B, and other pathogenic viruses were used, in addition to 1085 clinical specimens from symptomatic patients with respiratory infections. Real-time RT-PCR was also considered as a reference method used to detect the different results of FMT and CTM. RESULTS: Detection thresholds for influenza A and B cultures using serial dilutions revealed that the sensitivity of FMT was higher than that of CMT (both P < 0.05). With the culture mixtures of Coxsackie virus (A16), enteric cytopathic human orphan virus (ECHO type30), enterovirus (EV71), rotavirus (LLR strain), and enteric adenovirus (AdV 41), specificity assessment demonstrated that there was no cross reaction during the usage of the two test strips as shown by the results which were negative. In the detection of influenza A in 1085 clinical specimens, the total coincidence rate was 96.7%, the positive coincidence rate was 97.1%, and the negative coincidence rate was 96.7%. In the case of influenza B detection, the total coincidence rate was 99.1%, the positive coincidence rate was 92.6%, and the negative coincidence rate was 98.5%. In addition, with influenza A or B real-time RT-PCR detection method, the results showed that, for influenza A, 26 of the 33 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 3 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result; For influenza B, 12 of the 15 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 5 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result. CONCLUSIONS: FMT performed better than CMT in the combined detection of influenza A and B viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Microesferas , Fitas Reagentes/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Cor , Fluorescência , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia
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