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2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 981233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062112

RESUMO

Background: We compared the clinical characteristics of the patients with COVID-19, infected by the wild type or delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in connection with those of patients with seasonal influenza, all in mild cases. Methods: We retrospectively studied 245 and 115 patients with mild COVID-19 infected by the wild type and the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, respectively, with their demographic information, medical history, and laboratory data from hospital records, individually compared to 377 patients with mild seasonal influenza, before and after individual treatment. Results: Compared to the influenza cohort, the COVID-19 cohort or the COVID-19 delta variant cohort demonstrated younger median age, lower male ratio, and shorter duration from disease onset to hospitalization. Hypertension remained the top comorbidity among all cohorts. Based on patients' data upon hospitalization, the correlation of clinical characteristics between patients with influenza and those with the wild-type COVID-19 is greater than that between patients with influenza and those with the delta variant COVID-19. Individual treatment in each viral disease alleviated most hematological parameters, but some compromised biomarkers at the time of hospital discharge revealed persistent renal or myocardial impairment among patients with COVID-19 and influenza in recovery. Conclusion: Timely and proper treatment using broad-spectrum antibiotics and antiviral drugs could moderately alleviate the acute viremia and possible bacterial co-infection in patients with mild COVID-19 and influenza, followed by compromised recovery. To prepare for the flu season amid the COVID-19 pandemic, preventive and adequate immunizations of both flu and COVID-19 vaccines, as well as specific therapeutics to effectively reverse viral impairments, are in urgent need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
3.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aiming to the containment of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, governments worldwide have implemented a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Many of them and especially school closures have impacted the circulation of multiple airborne pathogens among children and adolescents. This study investigates the incidence of influenza and invasive meningococcal disease among children aged 0-14 years in Greece during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data regarding the number of influenza-like illness cases, influenza-related paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions and invasive meningococcal disease cases among children 0-14 years old were obtained from the National Public Health Organization. The incidence of the two diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020/2021) was compared with that of the six preceding seasons (2014-2019). RESULTS: A notable decrease was observed in both influenza and invasive meningococcal disease cases during the period 2020/2021 compared with the years 2014-2019. The mean annual rate of influenza-like illness cases and influenza-related PICU admissions in children 0-14 years old has reduced by 66.9% and 100%, respectively, while the mean annual invasive meningococcal disease rate has declined by 70%. Both weekly influenza-like illness and monthly invasive meningococcal disease rates were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The activity of influenza and invasive meningococcal disease in the children and adolescents of Greece has decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Reduced transmission is likely related to the public health measures that were implemented to control the pandemic. The value of these measures may have relevance to the future management of influenza or invasive meningococcal disease epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Infecções Meningocócicas , Viroses , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Viroses/epidemiologia
5.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 32(5): 720-726, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses show a strong seasonal spreading in temperate regions. Several studies indicated that changes in indoor humidity could be one of the key factors explaining this. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to quantify the association between relevant epidemiological metrics and humidity in both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 epidemic periods. METHODS: The atmospheric dew point temperature serves as a proxy for indoor relative humidity. This study considered the weekly mortality rate in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2019 to determine the correlation between the dew point and the spread of influenza. During influenza epidemic periods in the Netherlands, governmental restrictions were absent; therefore, there is no need to control this confounder. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, governmental restrictions strongly varied over time. To control this effect, periods with a relatively constant governmental intervention level were selected to analyze the reproduction rate. We also examine SARS-CoV-2 deaths in the nursing home setting, where health policy and social factors were less variable. Viral transmissibility was measured by computing the ratio between the estimated daily number of infectious persons in the Netherlands and the lagged mortality figures in the nursing homes. RESULTS: For both influenza and SARS-CoV-2, a significant correlation was found between the dew point temperature and the aforementioned epidemiological metrics. The findings are consistent with the anticipated mechanisms related to droplet evaporation, stability of virus in the indoor environment, and impairment of the natural defenses of the respiratory tract in dry air. SIGNIFICANCE: This information is helpful to understand the seasonal pattern of respiratory viruses and motivate further study to what extent it is possible to alter the seasonal pattern by actively intervening in the adverse role of low humidity during fall and winter in temperate regions. IMPACT: A solid understanding and quantification of the role of humidity on the transmission of respiratory viruses is imperative for epidemiological modeling and the installation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The results of this study indicate that improving the indoor humidity by humidifiers could be a promising technology for reducing the spread of both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 during winter and fall in the temperate zone. The identification of this potential should be seen as a strong motivation to invest in further prospective testing of this non-pharmaceutical intervention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Umidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e055945, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the main factors affecting the knowledge, attitude and practice about influenza and influenza vaccine as well as the intention to receive influenza vaccination among the same group of medical students before (2019) and after (2021) the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: A population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: A longitudinal cohort study of a selected medical school in Chongqing, China, which ran from 2019 to 2021. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 803 medical students participated in the study in 2019 and only 484 students responded in 2021. The response rate for our survey was only 60.27% due to graduation, emails being abandoned, etc. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate of students at this medical school was 6.7% in 2019, compared with 25.8% in 2021. The awareness rate of medical students about influenza and influenza vaccine was 82.8% in 2019 and 86% in 2021, and there was no significantly statistical difference between the 2 years (p=0.134); the number of medical students with supportive attitude towards influenza vaccine was 95.1% in 2019 and 97.1% in 2021, and there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 years (p=0.078); the number of students who actively learnt about knowledge related to influenza vaccine rose from 183 (22.8%) in 2019 to 195 (40.3%) in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak prompted an increase in influenza vaccination rates among medical students in Chongqing, with almost all students (96.0%) believing that the spread of COVID-19 promoted their knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccine, and the vast majority (74.8%) believing that the spread of COVID-19 promoted their willingness to receive influenza vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Estudantes de Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05040, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112521

RESUMO

Background: With the easing of COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions, the resurgence of both influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was observed in several countries globally after remaining low in activity for over a year. However, whether co-infection with influenza or RSV influences disease severity in COVID-19 patients has not yet been determined clearly. We aimed to understand the impact of influenza/RSV co-infection on clinical disease severity among COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of publications comparing the clinical severity between the co-infection group (ie, influenza/RSV with SARS-CoV-2) and mono-infection group (ie, SARS-CoV-2), using the following four outcomes: need or use of supplemental oxygen, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and deaths. We summarized the results by clinical outcome and conducted random-effect meta-analyses where applicable. Results: Twelve studies reporting a total of 7862 COVID-19 patients were included in the review. Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection were found to be associated with a higher risk of ICU admission (five studies, odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-2.68) and mechanical ventilation (five studies, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.10-4.85). No significant association was found between influenza co-infection and need/use of supplemental oxygen or deaths among COVID-19 patients (four studies, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.37-2.95; 11 studies, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.65-3.08, respectively). For RSV co-infection, data were only sufficient to allow for analyses for the outcome of deaths, and no significant association was found between RSV co-infection and deaths among COVID-19 patients (three studies, OR = 5.27, 95% CI = 0.58-47.87). Conclusions: Existing evidence suggests that co-infection with influenza might be associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk for ICU admission and for mechanical ventilation among COVID-19 patients whereas evidence is limited on the role of RSV co-infection. Co-infection with influenza does not increase the risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Registration: PROSEPRO CRD42021283045.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Coinfecção/complicações , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Oxigênio , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272415, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054097

RESUMO

Influenza viruses (Inf-V) are an important cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Inf-V infections in a sample of hospitalized children with ARI. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) from 500 children between 1 month to 5 years old with symptoms of ARI were collected at the Teaching Hospital Kegalle Sri Lanka From May 2016 to June 2018, NPAs were tested for influenza A (Inf-A) and B (Inf-B) viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human parainfluenza virus (hPIV) 1-3 using an immunofluorescence assay. The Inf-V were then subtyped using a multiplex RT-PCR. Inf-V were detected in 10.75% (54/502) of the hospitalized children with ARI and in that 5.57% (28/502) were positive for Inf-A and 5.17% (26/502) were positive for Inf-B. Of the 54 Inf-V positive children, 33 were aged between 6 and 20 months. Of the 28 children infected with Inf-A, 15 had uncharacterized lower respiratory infection, 7 had bronchopneumonia and 6 had bronchiolitis. Of the 26 children infected with Inf-B, 11 had uncharacterized lower respiratory infection, 10 had bronchiolitis, and 4 had bronchopneumonia. Inf-B circulated throughout the year with a few peaks, one in June and then in August followed by November to December in 2016 and one in April 2017 and January 2018. Inf-A circulated throughout the year with a major peak in March to April 2017 and July 2018. ARI was more common in boys compared to girls. Majority of the children infected with Inf-V were diagnosed with uncharacterized lower respiratory infection and mild to moderate bronchiolitis. Inf-V infections were prevalent throughout the year in the study area of Sri Lanka with variations in the type of the circulating virus.


Assuntos
Broncopneumonia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2203019119, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074818

RESUMO

The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emphasized the need for evidence-based strategies for the safe operation of schools during pandemics that balance infection risk with the society's responsibility of allowing children to attend school. Due to limited empirical data, existing analyses assessing school-based interventions in pandemic situations often impose strong assumptions, for example, on the relationship between class size and transmission risk, which could bias the estimated effect of interventions, such as split classes and staggered attendance. To fill this gap in school outbreak studies, we parameterized an individual-based model that accounts for heterogeneous contact rates within and between classes and grades to a multischool outbreak data of influenza. We then simulated school outbreaks of respiratory infectious diseases of ongoing threat (i.e., COVID-19) and potential threat (i.e., pandemic influenza) under a variety of interventions (changing class structures, symptom screening, regular testing, cohorting, and responsive class closures). Our results suggest that interventions changing class structures (e.g., reduced class sizes) may not be effective in reducing the risk of major school outbreaks upon introduction of a case and that other precautionary measures (e.g., screening and isolation) need to be employed. Class-level closures in response to detection of a case were also suggested to be effective in reducing the size of an outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0267769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore barriers and facilitators to COVID-19, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in immunosuppressed adults with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). METHODS: Recruiting through national patient charities and a local hospital, participants were invited to take part in an in-depth, one-to-one, semi-structured interview with a trained qualitative researcher between November 2021 and January 2022. Data were analysed thematically in NVivo, cross-validated by a second coder and mapped to the SAGE vaccine hesitancy matrix. RESULTS: Twenty participants (75% female, 20% non-white) were recruited. Barriers and facilitators spanned contextual, individual/group and vaccine/vaccination-specific factors. Key facilitators to all vaccines were higher perceived infection risk and belief that vaccination is beneficial. Key barriers to all vaccines were belief that vaccination could trigger IMID flare, and active IMID. Key facilitators specific to COVID-19 vaccines included media focus, high incidence, mass-vaccination programme with visible impact, social responsibility, and healthcare professionals' (HCP) confirmation of the new vaccines' suitability for their IMID. Novel vaccine technology was a concern, not a barrier. Key facilitators of influenza/pneumococcal vaccines were awareness of eligibility, direct invitation, and, clear recommendation from trusted HCP. Key barriers of influenza/pneumococcal vaccines were unaware of eligibility, no direct invitation or recommendation from HCP, low perceived infection risk, and no perceived benefit from vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers and facilitators to vaccination, varying by vaccine-type, exist for immunosuppressed-IMID patients. Addressing vaccine benefits and safety for IMID-patients in clinical practice, direct invitation, and public-health messaging highlighting immunosuppression as key vaccination-eligibility criteria may optimise uptake, although further research should assess this.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Pneumocócica , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pandemias , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vacinação
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1370-1375, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117341

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the transmission characteristics and risk factors of household COVID-19 clusters caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant in Tianjin and provide evidence for COVID-19 prevention and control. Methods: Field epidemiological method was used to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases, and descriptive analysis was used to describe the epidemiological information. Results: A total of 430 cases were reported in this epidemic in Tianjin, in which 409 cases were included in this study. Among these cases, 70.90% (290/409) occurred in families. The family secondary attack rate was 33.64% The family secondary attack rate in age group 12-17 years (13.79%) was significantly lower than that in age group 18-49 years (36.48%), the OR was 0.378 (95%CI: 0.170-0.840). The logistic regression analysis showed that compared with centralized quarantine, the OR of the index cases found in closed-off/controlled areas and in home quarantine were 2.951 (95%CI:1.322-6.586) and 2.287 (95%CI:1.164-4.495), respectively, compared with the cases without sore throat, the OR of the index cases with sore throat was 3.003 (95%CI: 1.576-5.720), and compared with cases in families without completed COVID-19 vaccinations in all members, the OR of the cases in families with completed COVID-19 vaccinations in all members was 0.268 (95%CI: 0.132-0.552). Conclusions: The risk of household transmission of infection with Omicron variant was high. Detecting the index case in closed-off/controlled areas or in home quarantine and sore throat in index cases were the risk factors of the household transmission, completed COVID-19 vaccination was the protective factor.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Faringite , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 959319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117597

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, viral profile, and clinical features of coinfections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses. Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples and clinical data of 221 hospitalized patients and 21 outpatients were collected and analyzed. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1,2,3, rhinovirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), bocaviruses (BoV), and seasonal coronaviruses (OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1). Viral load was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Results: From November 2020 to mid-March 2022, 242 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were tested for seasonal respiratory viruses, and 24 (9.9%) cases of coinfections were detected. The distribution of viruses involved in cases of coinfections were as follows: HMPV (n = 6; 25%), RSV (n = 4;16.7%), AdV (n = 4; 16.7%), BoV (n = 4; 16.7%), PIV3 (n = 2; 8.3%), influenza A (H3N2; n = 2; 8.3%), RV (n = 1; 4.62%), and RV+BoV (n = 1; 4.62%). The proportion of detected coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 was highest in children aged 0-5 years (59%), followed by those >65 years (33%). In specimens with detected coinfection, the viral load of influenza was higher than that of SARS-CoV-2, and the mean viral load of SARS-CoV-2 was higher than that of the other respiratory viruses. C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocytes count in co-infected patients >65 years of age were on average higher than in children <16 years of age (mean CRP of 161.8 ± 133.1 mg/L; 19.7 ± 3.09% vs. mean 6.9 ± 8.9 mg/L, 0.9 ± 3.1%; p < 0.01). Patients >65 years of age co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses had longer hospital stays than those <16 years of age (mean 9 ± 3.96 days vs. 5.44 ± 1.89 days; p = 0.025). The combination of AdV and SARS-CoV-2 is fatal for patients aged >65 years. Conclusion: In patients aged >65 years, coinfection with SARS CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, together with concomitant diseases, causes worsening of the clinical picture and complications, and can be fatal. Screening of patients with SARS CoV-2 for other respiratory viruses is needed to select appropriate treatments and prevent a fatal outcome of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Influenza Humana , Adolescente , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078588

RESUMO

The main purposes of this study were to explore the spatial distribution characteristics of H7N9 human infections during 2013-2017, and to construct a neural network risk simulation model of H7N9 outbreaks in China and evaluate their effects. First, ArcGIS 10.6 was used for spatial autocorrelation analysis, and cluster patterns ofH7N9 outbreaks were analyzed in China during 2013-2017 to detect outbreaks' hotspots. During the study period, the incidence of H7N9 outbreaks in China was high in the eastern and southeastern coastal areas of China, with a tendency to spread to the central region. Moran's I values of global spatial autocorrelation of H7N9 outbreaks in China from 2013 to 2017 were 0.080128, 0.073792, 0.138015, 0.139221 and 0.050739, respectively (p < 0.05) indicating a statistically significant positive correlation of the epidemic. Then, SPSS 20.0 was used to analyze the correlation between H7N9 outbreaks in China and population, livestock production, the distance between the case and rivers, poultry farming, poultry market, vegetation index, etc. Statistically significant influencing factors screened out by correlation analysis were population of the city, average vegetation of the city, and the distance between the case and rivers (p < 0.05), which were included in the neural network risk simulation model of H7N9 outbreaks in China. The simulation accuracy of the neural network risk simulation model of H7N9 outbreaks in China from 2013 to 2017 were 85.71%, 91.25%, 91.54%, 90.49% and 92.74%, and the AUC were 0.903, 0.976, 0.967, 0.963 and 0.970, respectively, showing a good simulation effect of H7N9 epidemics in China. The innovation of this study lies in the epidemiological study of H7N9 outbreaks by using a variety of technical means, and the construction of a neural network risk simulation model of H7N9 outbreaks in China. This study could provide valuable references for the prevention and control of H7N9 outbreaks in China.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , Aves , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aves Domésticas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078854

RESUMO

In Spain, the 2021/22 influenza season overlapped with the sixth wave of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Influenza is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, perceptions and practices of influenza vaccination in the Spanish population, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention paid to people over 65 years of age. A cross-sectional study was carried out by conducting 2211 telephone interviews. It was observed that 81.6% of people ≥ 65 years were vaccinated annually or with some frequency compared to 35.5% of those under 65 years (p < 0.001). Fifty percent of Spaniards showed an intention to be vaccinated in the 2021/22 campaign, during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. In the case of people ≥ 65 years old, this figure was 83% compared to 42% of those under 65 years old (p < 0.001). Significant predictors of intention to be vaccinated were age of 65 years or older (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), female sex (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4), belonging to risk groups (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.1) and having been previously vaccinated (OR 29.7, 95% CI 22.5-39.2). The main reasons for deciding to be vaccinated were the need to be protected against the virus and to be vaccinated annually. On the other hand, lack of recommendation and considering the influenza vaccine as not necessary were the main reasons for not getting vaccinated. In addition, health personnel stood out as the main source of information (32.9%) compared to traditional media (26.9%) and public administration (12.3%). This study aimed to assess and analyse the factors influencing willingness to receive influenza vaccines in the COVID-19 era among Spanish adults, as well as the main information channels and strategies to encourage vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
18.
Virol J ; 19(1): 145, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence reports that agitation and encephalopathy are frequent in critically ill Covid-19 patients. We aimed to assess agitation's incidence and risk factors in critically ill ARDS patients with Covid-19. For that purpose, we compared SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with a population of influenza ARDS patients, given that the influenza virus is also known for its neurotropism and ability to induce encephalopathy. METHODS: We included all the patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 infection and ARDS admitted to our medical intensive care unit (ICU) between March 10th, 2020 and April 16th, 2021, and all the patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and ARDS admitted to our ICU between April 10th, 2006 and February 8th, 2020. Clinical and biological data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. We also recorded previously known factors associated with agitation (ICU length of stay, length of invasive ventilation, SOFA score and SAPS II at admission, sedative and opioids consumption, time to defecation). Agitation was defined as a day with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale greater than 0 after exclusion of other causes of delirium and pain. We compared the prevalence of agitation among Covid-19 patients during their ICU stay and in those with influenza patients. RESULTS: We included 241 patients (median age 62 years [53-70], 158 males (65.5%)), including 146 patients with Covid-19 and 95 patients with Influenza. One hundred eleven (46.1%) patients had agitation during their ICU stay. Patients with Covid-19 had significantly more agitation than patients with influenza (respectively 80 patients (54.8%) and 31 patients (32.6%), p < 0.01). After matching with a propensity score, Covid-19 patients remained more agitated than influenza patients (49 (51.6% vs 32 (33.7%), p = 0.006). Agitation remained independently associated with mortality after adjustment for other factors (HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.37-2.49, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Agitation in ARDS Covid-19 patients was more frequent than in ARDS influenza patients and was not associated with common risk factors, such as severity of illness or sedation. Systemic hyperinflammation might be responsible for these neurological manifestations, but there is no specific management to our knowledge.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , COVID-19/complicações , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 921704, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106169

RESUMO

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization officially declared SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, and governments and health institutions enacted various public health measures to decrease its transmission rate. The COVID-19 pandemic made occupational health disparities for small businesses more visible and created an unprecedented financial burden, particularly for those located in communities of color. In part, communities of color experienced disproportionate mortality and morbidity rates from COVID-19 due to their increased exposure. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the public to reflect on risks daily. Risk perception is a critical factor influencing how risk gets communicated and perceived by individuals, groups, and communities. This study explores competing risk perceptions regarding COVID-19, economic impacts, vaccination, and disinfectant exposures of workers at beauty salons and auto shops in Tucson, Arizona, using a perceived risk score measured on a scale of 1-10, with higher scores indicating more perceived risk. The primary differences between respondents at beauty salons and auto shops regarding their perceived risks of COVID-19 vaccination were between the vaccinated and unvaccinated. For every group except the unvaccinated, the perceived risk score of getting the COVID-19 vaccine was low, and the score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was high. Study participants in different demographic groups ranked economic risk the highest compared to the other five categories: getting the COVID-19 vaccine, not getting the COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19, disinfection, and general. A meaningful increase of four points in the perceived risk score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a 227% (95% CI: 27%, 740%) increase in the odds of being vaccinated. Analyzing these data collected during the coronavirus pandemic may provide insight into how to promote the health-protective behavior of high-risk workers and employers in the service sector during times of new novel threats (such as a future pandemic or crisis) and how they process competing risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Empresa de Pequeno Porte
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