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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05007, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791096

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are prevalent seasonal community viruses. Although not completely understood, SARS-CoV-2 may have the same means of transmission. Preventive social measures aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread could impact transmission of other respiratory viruses as well. The aim of this study is to report the detection of RSV and influenza during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 pandemic in a heavily affected community. Methods: Prospective study with pediatric and adult populations seeking care for COVID-19-like symptoms during the fall and winter of 2020 at two hospitals in Southern Brazil. RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was performed for all participants. Results: 1435 suspected COVID-19 participants (1137 adults, and 298 children). were included between May and August. Median age was 37.7 years (IQR = 29.6-47.7), and 4.92 years (IQR = 1.96-9.53), for the adult and child cohorts, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 469 (32.7%) while influenza and RSV were not detected at all. Conclusions: Measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely exerted a huge impact in the spread of alternate respiratory pathogens. These findings contribute to the knowledge about the dynamics of virus spread. Further, it may be considered for guiding therapeutic choices for these other viruses.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
Elife ; 102021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620317

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to contain because many transmissions occur during pre-symptomatic infection. Unlike influenza, most SARS-CoV-2-infected people do not transmit while a small percentage infect large numbers of people. We designed mathematical models which link observed viral loads with epidemiologic features of each virus, including distribution of transmissions attributed to each infected person and duration between symptom onset in the transmitter and secondarily infected person. We identify that people infected with SARS-CoV-2 or influenza can be highly contagious for less than 1 day, congruent with peak viral load. SARS-CoV-2 super-spreader events occur when an infected person is shedding at a very high viral load and has a high number of exposed contacts. The higher predisposition of SARS-CoV-2 toward super-spreading events cannot be attributed to additional weeks of shedding relative to influenza. Rather, a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 exposes more people within equivalent physical contact networks, likely due to aerosolization.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Portador Sadio , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Aerossóis , Número Básico de Reprodução , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Probabilidade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 164, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although vaccination is one of the main countermeasures against influenza epidemic, it is highly essential to make informed prevention decisions to guarantee that limited vaccination resources are allocated to the places where they are most needed. Hence, one of the fundamental steps for decision making in influenza prevention is to characterize its spatio-temporal trend, especially on the key problem about how influenza transmits among adjacent places and how much impact the influenza of one place could have on its neighbors. To solve this problem while avoiding too much additional time-consuming work on data collection, this study proposed a new concept of spatio-temporal route as well as its estimation methods to construct the influenza transmission network. METHODS: The influenza-like illness (ILI) data of Sichuan province in 21 cities was collected from 2010 to 2016. A joint pattern based on the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model and the vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model was utilized to estimate the spatio-temporal routes, which were applied to the two stages of learning process respectively, namely structure learning and parameter learning. In structure learning, the first-order conditional dependencies approximation algorithm was used to generate the DBN, which could visualize the spatio-temporal routes of influenza among adjacent cities and infer which cities have impacts on others in influenza transmission. In parameter learning, the VARMA model was adopted to estimate the strength of these impacts. Finally, all the estimated spatio-temporal routes were put together to form the final influenza transmission network. RESULTS: The results showed that the period of influenza transmission cycle was longer in Western Sichuan and Chengdu Plain than that in Northeastern Sichuan, and there would be potential spatio-temporal routes of influenza from bordering provinces or municipalities into Sichuan province. Furthermore, this study also pointed out several estimated spatio-temporal routes with relatively high strength of associations, which could serve as clues of hot spot areas detection for influenza surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposed a new framework for exploring the potentially stable spatio-temporal routes between different places and measuring specific the sizes of transmission effects. It could help making timely and reliable prediction of the spatio-temporal trend of infectious diseases, and further determining the possible key areas of the next epidemic by considering their neighbors' incidence and the transmission relationships.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/transmissão , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Influenza Humana/patologia , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 726, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563980

RESUMO

Human mobility is a primary driver of infectious disease spread. However, existing data is limited in availability, coverage, granularity, and timeliness. Data-driven forecasts of disease dynamics are crucial for decision-making by health officials and private citizens alike. In this work, we focus on a machine-learned anonymized mobility map (hereon referred to as AMM) aggregated over hundreds of millions of smartphones and evaluate its utility in forecasting epidemics. We factor AMM into a metapopulation model to retrospectively forecast influenza in the USA and Australia. We show that the AMM model performs on-par with those based on commuter surveys, which are sparsely available and expensive. We also compare it with gravity and radiation based models of mobility, and find that the radiation model's performance is quite similar to AMM and commuter flows. Additionally, we demonstrate our model's ability to predict disease spread even across state boundaries. Our work contributes towards developing timely infectious disease forecasting at a global scale using human mobility datasets expanding their applications in the area of infectious disease epidemiology.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 323, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436609

RESUMO

Mathematical and computational modeling approaches are increasingly used as quantitative tools in the analysis and forecasting of infectious disease epidemics. The growing need for realism in addressing complex public health questions is, however, calling for accurate models of the human contact patterns that govern the disease transmission processes. Here we present a data-driven approach to generate effective population-level contact matrices by using highly detailed macro (census) and micro (survey) data on key socio-demographic features. We produce age-stratified contact matrices for 35 countries, including 277 sub-national administratvie regions of 8 of those countries, covering approximately 3.5 billion people and reflecting the high degree of cultural and societal diversity of the focus countries. We use the derived contact matrices to model the spread of airborne infectious diseases and show that sub-national heterogeneities in human mixing patterns have a marked impact on epidemic indicators such as the reproduction number and overall attack rate of epidemics of the same etiology. The contact patterns derived here are made publicly available as a modeling tool to study the impact of socio-economic differences and demographic heterogeneities across populations on the epidemiology of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477472

RESUMO

Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in domestic swine (IAV-S) are associated with sporadic zoonotic transmission at the human-animal interface. Previous pandemic IAVs originated from animals, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing human immunity against the increasingly diverse IAV-S. We analyzed serum samples from healthy human donors (n = 153) using hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay to assess existing serologic protection against a panel of contemporary IAV-S isolated from swine in the United States (n = 11). Age-specific seroprotection rates (SPR), which are the proportion of individuals with HAI ≥ 1:40, corresponded with lower or moderate pandemic risk classifications for the multiple IAV-S examined (one H1-δ1, one H1-δ2, three H3-IVA, one H3-IVB, one H3-IVF). Individuals born between 2004 and 2013 had SPRs of 0% for the five classified H3 subtype IAV-S, indicating youth may be particularly predisposed to infection with these viruses. Expansion of existing immunologic gaps over time could increase likelihood of future IAV-S spillover to humans and facilitate subsequent sustained human-to-human transmission resulting in disease outbreaks with pandemic potential.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Testes Sorológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443183

RESUMO

Vaccination yields the direct individual benefit of protecting recipients from infectious diseases and also the indirect social benefit of reducing the transmission of infections to others, often referred to as herd immunity This research examines how prosocial concern for vaccination, defined as people's preoccupation with infecting others if they do not vaccinate themselves, motivates vaccination in more and less populated regions of the United States. A nationally representative, longitudinal survey of 2,490 Americans showed that prosocial concern had a larger positive influence on vaccination against influenza in sparser regions, as judged by a region's nonmetropolitan status, lesser population density, and lower proportion of urban land area. Two experiments (total n = 800), one preregistered, provide causal evidence that drawing attention to prosocial (vs. individual) concerns interacted with social density to affect vaccination intentions. Specifically, prosocial concern led to stronger intentions to vaccinate against influenza and COVID-19 but only when social density was low (vs. high). Moderated mediation analyses show that, in low-density conditions, the benefits of inducing prosocial concern were due to greater perceived impact of one's vaccination on others. In this light, public health communications may reap more benefits from emphasizing the prosocial aspects of vaccination in sparser environments.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , /transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Densidade Demográfica , Probabilidade , Saúde Pública , /imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(2): e2171, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350025

RESUMO

From 2002 to 2019, three deadly human coronaviruses (hCoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged to produce outbreaks of SARS, MERS and coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), respectively. All three hCoVs are members of the Betacoronavirus genus in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae and share many similarities in virology and epidemiology. However, the pattern and scale of Covid-19 global spread is similar to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09), rather than SARS or MERS. Covid-19 exhibits high viral shedding in the upper respiratory tract at an early stage of infection, and has a high proportion of transmission competent individuals that are pre-symptomatic, asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic, characteristics seen in H1N1pdm09 but not in SARS or MERS. These two traits of Covid-19 and H1N1pdm09 result in reduced efficiency in identification of transmission sources by symptomatic screening and play important roles in their ability to spread unchecked to cause pandemics. To overcome these attributes of Covid-19 in community transmission, identifying the transmission source by testing for virus shedding and interrupting chains of transmission by social distancing and public masking are required.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351835

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic infecting millions of people, large-scale isolation policies have been enacted across the globe. To assess the impact of isolation measures on deaths, hospitalizations, and economic output, we create a mathematical model to simulate the spread of COVID-19, incorporating effects of restrictive measures and segmenting the population based on health risk and economic vulnerability. Policymakers make isolation policy decisions based on current levels of disease spread and economic damage. For 76 weeks in a population of 330 million, we simulate a baseline scenario leaving strong isolation restrictions in place, rapidly reducing isolation restrictions for non-seniors shortly after outbreak containment, and gradually relaxing isolation restrictions for non-seniors. We use 76 weeks as an approximation of the time at which a vaccine will be available. In the baseline scenario, there are 235,724 deaths and the economy shrinks by 34.0%. With a rapid relaxation, a second outbreak takes place, with 525,558 deaths, and the economy shrinks by 32.3%. With a gradual relaxation, there are 262,917 deaths, and the economy shrinks by 29.8%. We also show that hospitalizations, deaths, and economic output are quite sensitive to disease spread by asymptomatic people. Strict restrictions on seniors with very gradual lifting of isolation for non-seniors results in a limited number of deaths and lesser economic damage. Therefore, we recommend this strategy and measures that reduce non-isolated disease spread to control the pandemic while making isolation economically viable.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , /transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Política Pública , /patogenicidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370781

RESUMO

Spread of pathogens on contaminated surfaces plays a key role in disease transmission. Surface technologies that control pathogen transfer can help control fomite transmission and are of great interest to public health. Here, we report a novel bead transfer method for evaluating fomite transmission in common laboratory settings. We show that this method meets several important criteria for quantitative test methods, including reasonableness, relevancy, resemblance, responsiveness, and repeatability, and therefore may be adaptable for standardization. In addition, this method can be applied to a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, phage, and human viruses. Using the bead transfer method, we demonstrate that an engineered micropattern limits transfer of Staphylococcus aureus by 97.8% and T4 bacteriophage by 93.0% on silicone surfaces. Furthermore, the micropattern significantly reduces transfer of influenza B virus and human coronavirus on silicone and polypropylene surfaces. Our results highlight the potential of using surface texture as a valuable new strategy in combating infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T4/patogenicidade , Bacteriófagos/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fômites/microbiologia , Fômites/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Silicones
12.
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S132-S138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308659

RESUMO

The article is about the 1918 H1N1 flu pandemic also called the "Spanish flu" which killed 50 million plus people worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) which has spread in the world at an alarming pace. As of now there are 11,327,790 cases and 532,340 deaths globally. Aim of this article is to draw conclusions and share knowledge from both the pandemics and apply these lessons in other health programmes.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão
13.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138262

RESUMO

There is a current pandemic of a new type of coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The number of confirmed infected cases has been rapidly increasing. This paper analyzes the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza. COVID-19 is similar to the diseases caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV virologically and etiologically, but closer to influenza in epidemiology and virulence. The comparison provides a new perspective for the future of the disease control, and offers some ideas in the prevention and control management strategy. The large number of infectious people from the origin, and the highly infectious and occult nature have been two major problems, making the virus difficult to eradicate. We thus need to contemplate the possibility of long-term co-existence with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5511, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139731

RESUMO

Parallel molecular evolution and adaptation are important phenomena commonly observed in viruses. Here, we exploit parallel molecular evolution to understand virulence evolution in avian influenza viruses (AIV). Highly-pathogenic AIVs evolve independently from low-pathogenic ancestors via acquisition of polybasic cleavage sites. Why some AIV lineages but not others evolve in this way is unknown. We hypothesise that the parallel emergence of highly-pathogenic AIV may be facilitated by permissive or compensatory mutations occurring across the viral genome. We combine phylogenetic, statistical and structural approaches to discover parallel mutations in AIV genomes associated with the highly-pathogenic phenotype. Parallel mutations were screened using a statistical test of mutation-phenotype association and further evaluated in the contexts of positive selection and protein structure. Our resulting mutational panel may help to reveal new links between virulence evolution and other traits, and raises the possibility of predicting aspects of AIV evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Virulência/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Aves/virologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Mutação , Filogenia , Estabilidade Proteica , Seleção Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/genética
15.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 538-548, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009087

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a historic perspective of the impact that major pandemics have had on human and their relationship with ophthalmology. The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease. RESULTS: Smallpox is suspected to be present for more than 12 000 years. However, trachoma seems to be the first recorded ophthalmological infectious disease. The deadliest pandemics include the bubonic plague, smallpox, and Spanish flu. The CoVID-19 epidemic is still developing and measures need to be implemented to prevent further escalation of the crisis. SUMMARY: Understanding the current facts in light of earlier historical evidence may help us prepare better to minimize the spread of infections in the future.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013925

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused a global health emergency. The outbreak of this virus has raised a number of questions: What is SARS-CoV-2? How transmissible is SARS-CoV-2? How severely affected are patients infected with SARS-CoV-2? What are the risk factors for viral infection? What are the differences between this novel coronavirus and other coronaviruses? To answer these questions, we performed a comparative study of four pathogenic viruses that primarily attack the respiratory system and may cause death, namely, SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and influenza A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 strains). This comparative study provides a critical evaluation of the origin, genomic features, transmission, and pathogenicity of these viruses. Because the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is ongoing, this evaluation may inform public health administrators and medical experts to aid in curbing the pandemic's progression.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Virulência/imunologia
17.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 716-719, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026314

RESUMO

The possibility of a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic coexisting with a simultaneous epidemic of influenza and the co-circulation of other seasonal respiratory viruses sets the stage for a perfect storm. Preparing for the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 is complex, requiring centralized guidance but local and regional solutions, with strong leadership and a high level of coordination. It is essential to act upstream of hospitals in order to reduce demand on emergency departments, minimizing the risk of transmission that occurs there and the team overload, as well as downstream to ensure capacity for hospitalization and in the hospital itself to optimize resources and organization. The failure of this plan will create unbearable pressure on hospital care. The authors describe the challenges lying ahead for hospitals and the most important measures that should be included in this plan to prepare the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 in Portugal.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Hospitalar , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Portugal/epidemiologia
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115176, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069048

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 disease, a severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Its main transmission pathway is through large respiratory droplets, as well as direct and indirect contact. Copper in different formats has been used in research and clinical settings to reduce the risk of bacterial and viral contamination. Therefore, this review aims to search for evidence about the biocidal properties of copper over the Coronaviridae family. A literature review was performed using PubMed and Ovid servers without date or language restrictions. The search was carried out on March 7, 2020, using the following search terms: [Copper] Coronavirus OR CoV OR SARS OR MERS OR Influenza. Copper destroys the replication and propagation abilities of SARS-CoV, influenza, and other respiratory viruses, having high potential disinfection in hospitals, communities, and households. Copper can eliminate pathogenic organisms such as coronavirus bacterial strains, influenza virus, HIV, and fungi after a short period of exposure. Copper seems to be an effective and low-cost complementary strategy to help reduce the transmission of several infectious diseases by limiting nosocomial infectious transmission. Copper oxide or nanocompounds may be used as filters, face masks, clothing, and hospital common surfaces to reduce viruses and bacterial incubation.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
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