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3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(4): 612-620, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of online information regarding orthodontic temporary anchorage devices (TADs) is lacking despite the increase in their use by orthodontists. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the quality of information regarding TADs available on the Internet to the general public. METHODS: Two search terms ("orthodontic temporary anchorage device" and "orthodontic miniscrew") were entered separately into a total of 5 search engines. The DISCERN instrument, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, and Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct were used to evaluate the quality of information contained within Web sites that satisfied the inclusion and/or exclusion criteria. Web site readability was assessed via the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook and Flesch Reading Ease Score tools. Descriptive statistical analyses and Cohen's kappa intrarater reliability tests were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-one Web sites were evaluated. Most were authored by orthodontists (77.4%) and originated from the U.S. (38.7%). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) DISCERN score was 41.87 (8.45) out of 80, with a range of 27-57. Intrarater reliability testing for DISCERN scores was excellent (0.84). Four Web sites achieved all 4 JAMA benchmarks, and 2 achieved none. Referencing of content sources throughout the Web sites scored least via DISCERN (mean 1.49 out of 5 per Web site [SD, 0.77]) and JAMA (19.35% of Web sites). One Web site contained the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct seal. The mean (SD) Simple Measure of Gobbledygook score was 8.75 (1.25), with a range of 6.5-11.3. The mean (SD) Flesch Reading Ease Score was 59.81 (7.17), with a range of 47.6-73.8. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of information related to TADs on the Internet is moderate. The usefulness of the information may be further reduced because it was beyond the readability of the average member of the general public. Web site authors should consider the use of additional expertise, quality of information tools, and readability formulas to ensure high-quality and easily readable content.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ferramenta de Busca , Estados Unidos
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040328, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the public's knowledge, attitudes and practices about the novel coronavirus in Sierra Leone to inform an evidence-based communication strategy around COVID-19. DESIGN: Nationwide, cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey. SETTING: 56 randomly selected communities in all 14 districts in Sierra Leone. PARTICIPANTS: 1253 adults aged 18 years and older of which 52% were men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated proportions of core indicators (awareness, knowledge, risk perception, practices). A composite variable for knowledge (based on seven variables) was created, and categorised into low (0-2 correct), medium (3-4) and high (5-7). Predictors of knowledge were analysed with multilevel ordinal regression models. Associations between information sources, knowledge and two practices (washing hands with soap and avoiding crowds) were analysed using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found that 75% of the respondents felt at moderate or great risk of contracting coronavirus. A majority (70%) of women did not know you can survive COVID-19, compared with 61% of men. 60% of men and 54% of women had already taken action to avoid infection with the coronavirus, mostly washing hands with soap and water (87%). Radio (73%) was the most used source for COVID-19 information, followed by social media (39%). Having a medium or high level of knowledge was associated with higher odds of washing hands with soap (medium knowledge: adjusted OR (AOR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.4; high knowledge: AOR 4.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 10.2) and avoiding crowds (medium knowledge: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6; high knowledge: AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in the context of COVID-19 in Sierra Leone, there is a strong association between knowledge and practices. Because the knowledge gap differs between genders, regions, educational levels and age, it is important that messages are specifically targeted to these core audiences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Rádio , Serra Leoa , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040487, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of information regarding the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 available to the general public from all countries. DESIGN: Systematic analysis using the 'Ensuring Quality Information for Patients' (EQIP) Tool (score 0-36), Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark (score 0-4) and the DISCERN Tool (score 16-80) to analyse websites containing information targeted at the general public. DATA SOURCES: Twelve popular search terms, including 'Coronavirus', 'COVID-19 19', 'Wuhan virus', 'How to treat coronavirus' and 'COVID-19 19 Prevention' were identified by 'Google AdWords' and 'Google Trends'. Unique links from the first 10 pages for each search term were identified and evaluated on its quality of information. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: All websites written in the English language, and provides information on prevention or treatment of COVID-19 intended for the general public were considered eligible. Any websites intended for professionals, or specific isolated populations, such as students from one particular school, were excluded, as well as websites with only video content, marketing content, daily caseload update or news dashboard pages with no health information. RESULTS: Of the 1275 identified websites, 321 (25%) were eligible for analysis. The overall EQIP, JAMA and DISCERN scores were 17.8, 2.7 and 38.0, respectively. Websites originated from 34 countries, with the majority from the USA (55%). News Services (50%) and Government/Health Departments (27%) were the most common sources of information and their information quality varied significantly. Majority of websites discuss prevention alone despite popular search trends of COVID-19 treatment. Websites discussing both prevention and treatment (n=73, 23%) score significantly higher across all tools (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive assessment of online COVID-19 information using EQIP, JAMA and DISCERN Tools indicate that most websites were inadequate. This necessitates improvements in online resources to facilitate public health measures during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Internet/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Informática em Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Informática em Saúde Pública/métodos , Informática em Saúde Pública/normas , Informática em Saúde Pública/tendências
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22072, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence has consistently shown the high efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in preventing cervical cancers. However, the HPV vaccine uptake rate in Hong Kong is very low. We will develop and evaluate an innovative, theory-based multidisciplinary team-led school-based HPV vaccination health-promotion program (MDL-SHPVP), engaging female adolescents, parents/guardians, and secondary school personnel in multicomponent educational strategies and interactive discussions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomized controlled trial is proposed. We will recruit 2520 female adolescents and their parents/guardians from 18 secondary day schools. The MDL-SHPVP is underpinned by the Health Belief Model and Precaution Adoption Process Model. Multicomponent interventions will be offered, including education sessions with small group dialogues with a registered nurse and trained healthcare and lay volunteers, and educational computer games. A team of volunteers will be established to raise HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine awareness. Outcomes include adolescents' uptake of the HPV vaccine, adolescents' intention to receive HPV vaccination, vaccine acceptance among parents/guardians, and parents'/guardians' and adolescents' HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Data will be collected at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year after intervention. The generalized estimating equations analysis will be used for comparing the outcomes between the 2 groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong-New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Ref. no.: 2019.055). We will disseminate the study findings via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at relevant events and international and local conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04438291.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e21071, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a heightened need to understand health information seeking behaviors to address disparities in knowledge and beliefs about the crisis. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed sociodemographic predictors of the use and trust of different COVID-19 information sources, as well as the association between information sources and knowledge and beliefs about the pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among US adults in two rounds during March and April 2020 using advertisement-based recruitment on social media. Participants were asked about their use of 11 different COVID-19 information sources as well as their most trusted source of information. The selection of COVID-related knowledge and belief questions was based on past empirical literature and salient concerns at the time of survey implementation. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 11,242 participants. When combined, traditional media sources (television, radio, podcasts, or newspapers) were the largest sources of COVID-19 information (91.2%). Among those using mainstream media sources for COVID-19 information (n=7811, 69.5%), popular outlets included CNN (24.0%), Fox News (19.3%), and other local or national networks (35.2%). The largest individual information source was government websites (87.6%). They were also the most trusted source of information (43.3%), although the odds of trusting government websites were lower among males (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.53-0.63) and those aged 40-59 years and ≥60 years compared to those aged 18-39 years (AOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92; AOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71). Participants used an average of 6.1 sources (SD 2.3). Participants who were male, aged 40-59 years or ≥60 years; not working, unemployed, or retired; or Republican were likely to use fewer sources while those with children and higher educational attainment were likely to use more sources. Participants surveyed in April were markedly less likely to use (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.35-0.46) and trust (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.47-0.56) government sources. The association between information source and COVID-19 knowledge was mixed, while many COVID-19 beliefs were significantly predicted by information source; similar trends were observed with reliance on different types of mainstream media outlets. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 information source was significantly determined by participant sociodemographic characteristics and was also associated with both knowledge and beliefs about the pandemic. Study findings can help inform COVID-19 health communication campaigns and highlight the impact of using a variety of different and trusted information sources.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760095

RESUMO

While the internet has democratized and accelerated content creation and sharing, it has also made people more vulnerable to manipulation and misinformation. Also, the received information can be distorted by psychological biases. This is problematic especially in health-related communications which can greatly affect the quality of life of individuals. We assembled and analyzed 364 texts related to nutrition and health from Finnish online sources, such as news, columns and blogs, and asked non-experts to subjectively evaluate the texts. Texts were rated for their trustworthiness, sentiment, logic, information, clarity, and neutrality properties. We then estimated individual biases and consensus ratings that were used in training regression models. Firstly, we found that trustworthiness was significantly correlated to the information, neutrality and logic of the texts. Secondly, individual ratings for information and logic were significantly biased by the age and diet of the raters. Our best regression models explained up to 70% of the total variance of consensus ratings based on the low-level properties of texts, such as semantic embeddings, presence of key-terms and part-of-speech tags, references, quotes and paragraphs. With a novel combination of crowdsourcing, behavioral analysis, natural language processing and predictive modeling, our study contributes to the automated identification of reliable and high-quality online information. While critical evaluation of truthfulness cannot be surrendered to the machine only, our findings provide new insights into automated evaluation of subjective text properties and analysis of morphologically-rich languages in regards to trustworthiness.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores/normas , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Dieta , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Confiança , Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Estatísticos
13.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(5): 960-979, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611226

RESUMO

As the Covid 19 crisis has revealed, the internet is a first-line tool for learning critical health-related information. However, internet searches are a complex and dynamic process that can be fraught with subtleties and potential error. The mechanics of searching for and using electronic health (eHealth) information is ostensibly cognitively demanding; yet we know little about the role of neurocognitive abilities in this regard. Fifty-six young adults completed two naturalistic eHealth search tasks: fact-finding (eHealth Fact) and symptom-diagnosis (eHealth Search). Participants also completed neurocognitive tests of attention, psychomotor speed, learning/memory, and executive functions. Shorter eHealth symptom-diagnosis search time was related to better executive functions, while better eHealth symptom-diagnosis search accuracy was related to better episodic and prospective memory. In contrast, neither eHealth Fact search time nor its accuracy were related to any of the neurocognitive measures. Our findings suggest a differential relationship between neurocognitive abilities and eHealth search behaviors among young adults such that higher-order abilities may be implicated in eHealth searches requiring greater synthesis of information. Future work should examine the cognitive architecture of eHealth search in persons with neurocognitive disorders, as well as that of other aspects of eHealth search behaviors (e.g., search term generation, website reliability, and decision-making).


Assuntos
Aptidão , Atenção , Cognição , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Função Executiva , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet , Memória , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Desempenho Psicomotor , Telemedicina , Adulto Jovem
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609441

RESUMO

The expanding role of social media in medical care has resulted in dermatology patients seeking support online regarding personal experience with diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer. Owing to increased privacy settings in closed Facebook groups, the current study analyzed themes of keratinocyte carcinoma patients' posts within a relatively private social media network. Although the majority of messages included sharing personal experience and provided psychosocial support (50%), there were a significant number of posts offering medical advice (35%), with the majority of such replies being unsupported by evidence-based medicine (87%). The level of medical misinformation and potential harm to patients seeking advice online is important for medical practitioners treating skin cancer and provides impetus for possible further research into online support and education groups that are moderated for misinformation.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Mídias Sociais , Comunicação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Apoio Social
18.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(4)2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621678

RESUMO

Because there are important distinctions between ablative and non-ablative laser resurfacing, accurate and effective patient education is paramount. However, as more patients use the internet as a resource for medical information, little is known about the content and readability of these sources. Thus, we sought to evaluate the readability of major online resources about laser resurfacing while recognizing the recommendations by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. An internet search for the term "Laser Resurfacing" was performed. The first 9 results were identified, patient information from each of these 9 sites were downloaded, and a total of 25 articles were examined. Readability was analyzed using 7 different established tests. Analysis demonstrated an average grade level of at least 9th grade, with all articles exceeding the recommended 6th grade reading level, emphasizing that these resources are too challenging for many patients to read and comprehend. Such materials may hamper appropriate decision-making in patients considering the use of a laser for their dermatologic conditions. The potential detrimental effect on the opinion, participation, and satisfaction of laser resurfacing should spur dermatologists to be more critical of online patient materials and motivated to produce more appropriate resources.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Internet , Terapia a Laser , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Cirurgia Plástica
20.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 301-309, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the readability and the quality of toothache-related information found in Brazilian websites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five websites retrieved from Google Search, Baidu, Yahoo! and Bing were evaluated by two independent examiners using the DISCERN questionnaire, the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria and the Flesch Reading Ease adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (FRE-BP). Additionally, the websites were categorised according to their information, adopting four criteria related to: (i) endodontic pain, (ii) toothache relief or treatment, (iii) the self-resolution of pain, and (iv) the promotion of home remedies usage. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U test, hierarchical clustering analysis by Ward's minimum variance method, Kruskal-Wallis test, post-hoc Dunn's test and Chisquare test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall means (± SD) of DISCERN and FRE-BP were, respectively, 31.02 (± 5.56) and 61.20 (± 11.79), without quality-based differences between the websites with health- and non-health-related authors, and distinct clusters. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the quality of toothache-related information found in this sample of Brazilian websites was classified as simple, accessible and of poor quality, which can hamper the personal decision-making process of seeking dental treatment, leading to damages caused by the non-effective self-management of toothache.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Odontalgia , Brasil , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
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