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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2718, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976160

RESUMO

A key function of morality is to regulate social behavior. Research suggests moral values may be divided into two types: binding values, which govern behavior in groups, and individualizing values, which promote personal rights and freedoms. Because people tend to mentally activate concepts in situations in which they may prove useful, the importance they afford moral values may vary according to whom they are with in the moment. In particular, because binding values help regulate communal behavior, people may afford these values more importance when in the presence of close (versus distant) others. Five studies test and support this hypothesis. First, we use a custom smartphone application to repeatedly record participants' (n = 1166) current social context and the importance they afforded moral values. Results show people rate moral values as more important when in the presence of close others, and this effect is stronger for binding than individualizing values-an effect that replicates in a large preregistered online sample (n = 2016). A lab study (n = 390) and two preregistered online experiments (n = 580 and n = 752) provide convergent evidence that people afford binding, but not individualizing, values more importance when in the real or imagined presence of close others. Our results suggest people selectively activate different moral values according to the demands of the situation, and show how the mere presence of others can affect moral thinking.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Infuência dos Pares , Ajustamento Social , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916663

RESUMO

Social media is increasingly becoming a significant source of information for parents, including about feeding young children. However, little attention has been given to the characteristics of recipes for infants and young children and how they interact with parental perceptions regarding food decisions shared by users on social media. Building on findings related to shared recipe components and parental food choices, between December 2019 and July 2020, this study retrospectively collected 80 shared recipes each from five Thai Facebook groups. This extraction created 379 shared recipes with 1751 peers' commentaries on the shared recipes' posts. The shared recipes were classified and components quantified across child age groups, then the textual contents around the reasons behind the food choices were described qualitatively. The results showed that there were differences in meal types, food ingredients, and seasoning used across child age groups. Further analysis found that food allergy awareness was one driving concern behind parental perceptions on food choices in children's diets. These concerns resulted in delays in the introduction of animal-source foods. Moreover, peers' commentaries on shared recipes offered a venue for exchanging experiences with food products. Because of the potential influence on parental beliefs and perceptions, further studies are required to understand the impact of existing online communities on actual feeding practices.


Assuntos
Livros de Culinária como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pais/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia
3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 191-191, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Most studies have evaluated victimization at a single time point, making it difficult to determine the impact of the time during which an individual is victimized. This longitudinal study aims to examine the differences in the levels of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and friendship in peer victimization trajectories, and to analyse if there were changes over time in the levels of social status and friendship in each trajectory. METHOD: The final sample was composed of 1,239 students (49% girls) with ages between 9 and 18 (M = 12.23, SD = 1.73), from 22 schools in southern Spain. Peer nominations were collected. RESULTS: The General Linear Model results associated the highest levels of social preference, perceived popularity and friendship with the sporadic victimization profile and the lowest levels of these dimensions with the stable profile. CONCLUSIONS: The results are discussed based on important personal aspects of stable victimization that confirms social rejection, unpopularity, and the low social support that victimization causes. This contribution is discussed in terms of health and social welfare in adolescence


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: La mayoría de los estudios han evaluado la victimización en un único momento temporal, lo que impide determinar el impacto del tiempo durante el que un individuo es victimizado. Este estudio longitudinal pretende examinar las diferencias en los niveles de estatus social (preferencia social y popularidad percibida) y amistad entre las diferentes trayectorias de las víctimas de iguales en función de su trayectoria de victimización, y explorar si existen cambios con el paso del tiempo en los niveles de estatus social y amistad de cada trayectoria. MÉTODO: La muestra se compuso por 1.239 estudiantes (49% chicas) entre 9 y 18 años (M = 12,23, DT = 1,73), pertenecientes a 22 centros educativos del sur de España. Se utilizaron las hetero-nominaciones de sus iguales dentro del grupo de clase. RESULTADOS: Los resultados del Modelo Lineal General asociaron los niveles más altos de preferencia social, popularidad percibida y amistad a la victimización esporádica, y los niveles más bajos de estas dimensiones a la trayectoria estable. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados se discuten en base al rechazo social, la impopularidad y los escasos apoyos sociales que provoca la victimización. Se valora esta aportación a nivel de salud y bienestar social adolescente


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Classe Social , Amigos/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Modelos Lineares
4.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 1-9, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies have used cross-sectional designs, very few of which have examined the bidirectional relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms. This study examined bidirectional relationships among adolescents' cybervictimization, peer pressure, and depressive symptoms, and the mediating effect of peer pressure. As a further expansion of the present study, we examined whether these relationships would vary as the roles of gender and economic stress. METHODS: Participants were 2,407 adolescents (Mage = 12.75, SD = 0.58; nmale = 1191). They provided data in two waves (12 months apart). RESULTS: Results showed that there were significant bidirectional relationships between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms and peer pressure. Peer pressure significantly mediated the relationship between cybervictimization at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time2. For males, the relationship between cybervictimization at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time2 became stronger. For females, there was no significant bidirectional relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms. In addition, family socioeconomic status and adolescents perceived economic stress did not moderate the longitudinal relationships among cybervictimization, peer pressure, and depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Different types of victimization needed to be included. In addition, more waves data served to explore the mediating effects. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of cybervictimization predicts higher levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms, but only for males and not for females. Peer pressure mediates the relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares
5.
Addict Behav ; 117: 106853, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent peers' influence on tobacco smoking is a dynamic process affected by close friends and other network peers. Although research has examined the influence of immediate friends on smoking behavior (i.e., by cohesion exposure), the influence of all peers according to closeness (i.e., proximity exposure) remains unknown. This study introduces proximity exposure as a potential driver of peer influence. METHODS: Using the Teenage Friends and Lifestyle Study dataset, we examined 160 adolescents followed for 3 years and assessed their friendship ties and health behavior. Proximity exposure was calculated as the proportion of an individual's network peers who smoked, considering their distance from the individual. Path analysis was conducted with cross-lagged models testing the effect of proximity exposure on smoking frequency over time. RESULTS: Among nonsmokers without cohesion exposure (n = 80), proximity exposure at year 1 was significantly associated with smoking initiation by year 3. Path analysis (n = 160) indicated that smoking at year 1 predicted cohesion exposure by year 3. When proximity exposure was included, the effect of smoking on cohesion exposure was lost. Early smoking predicted future proximity exposure. However, the predictive value of early proximity toward future smoking was stronger. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that proximity exposure can predict smoking even among nonsmokers without direct ties to friends who smoke. In support of a peer selection hypothesis, early smoking predicted friendship formation with smokers through cohesion. Conversely, in support of a peer influence hypothesis, proximity exposure predicted smoking. Researchers may consider developing interventions that decrease proximity exposure among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar , Adolescente , Amigos , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Fumar Tabaco
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434226

RESUMO

Allowing students to voluntarily ask and answer questions in front of the whole class are common teaching practices used in college science courses. However, few studies have examined college science students' perceptions of these practices, the extent to which students choose to engage in these practices, and what discourages students from participating. In this study, we surveyed 417 undergraduates at a research-intensive institution about their experiences asking and answering questions in large-enrollment college science courses. Specifically, students answered questions about to what extent they perceive voluntarily asking and answering questions in large-enrollment science courses is helpful to them and why. They also answered questions about to what extent they engage in asking and answering questions in large-enrollment college science courses and what factors could discourage them from participating. Using binary logistic regression, we examined whether there were differences among students of different demographic groups regarding their opinions about asking and answering questions. We found that overwhelmingly students reported that other students voluntarily asking and answering instructor questions is helpful to them. Notably, compared to continuing generation students, first-generation students were more likely to perceive other students asking questions to be helpful. Despite perceiving asking and answering questions to be helpful, over half of students reported that they never ask or answer questions in large-enrollment college science courses during a semester, and women were more likely than men to report never asking questions. We identified fear of negative evaluation, or students' sense of dread associated with being unfavorably evaluated, as a primary factor influencing their decision to answer instructor questions. This work adds to a growing body of literature on student participation in large-enrollment college science courses and begins to uncover underlying factors influencing student participation.


Assuntos
Ciência/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Percepção , Opinião Pública , Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 202, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to develop and improve interventions promoting healthy drinking behaviors among children. A promising method could be to stimulate peer influence within children's social networks. In the Share H2O social network intervention (SNI), peer influence was utilized by selecting a subset of influential children and training them as 'influence agents' to promote water consumption-as an alternative to SSBs. Previous research has mainly focused on the process of selecting influence agents. However, the process of motivating influence agents to promote the behavior has hardly received any research attention. Therefore, in the SNI Share H2O SNI, this motivation process was emphasized and grounded in the self-determination theory (SDT). This study evaluated the implementation of the Share H2O SNI, focusing on whether and how applying SDT-based techniques can motivate the influence agents and, indirectly, their peers. METHODS: This study included data collected in the Netherlands from both the influence agents (n = 37) and the peers (n = 112) in the classroom networks of the influence agents. Self-reported measurements assessed the influence agents' enjoyment of the training, duration and perceived autonomy support during the training, and changes in their intrinsic motivation and water consumption before and after the start of the intervention. Changes in the peers' intrinsic motivation, perceived social support, and social norms were measured before and after the start of the intervention. RESULTS: The influence agents enjoyed the training, the duration was adequate, and perceived it as autonomy supportive. There was an increase in the influence agents' intrinsic motivation to drink water and their actual water consumption. Providing personal meaningful rationales seemed to have motivated the influence agents. The intrinsic motivation and perceived descriptive norm of the peers remained stable. The peers reported an increase in their perceived social support and injunctive norm concerning water drinking after the intervention. Influence agents appeared to mainly use face-to-face strategies, such as modeling, talking to peers, and providing social support to promote the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provided preliminary evidence of the promising effects of using SDT-based techniques in an SNI to motivate the influence agents and, indirectly, their peers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR, NL6905, Registered 9 January 2018, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6905.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Infuência dos Pares , Criança , Humanos , Países Baixos , Grupo Associado , Rede Social , Normas Sociais
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419923

RESUMO

Does college change students' political preferences? While existing research has documented associations between college education and political views, it remains unclear whether these associations reflect a causal relationship. We address this gap in previous research by analyzing a quasi-experiment in which university students are assigned to live together as roommates. While we find little evidence that college students as a whole become more liberal over time, we do find strong evidence of peer effects, in which students' political views become more in line with the views of their roommates over time. This effect is strongest for conservative students. These findings shed light on the role of higher education in an era of political polarization.


Assuntos
Habitação/ética , Infuência dos Pares , Estudantes/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Política , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106693, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069108

RESUMO

Using social networks to inform prevention efforts is promising but has not been applied to vaping. To address this gap, we pilot tested the peer-led Above the Influence of Vaping (ATI-V) and examined diffusion through 8th grade networks in three schools. Fifty students, nominated and trained as Peer Leaders, implemented prevention campaigns informed by communication science, including gain-loss messaging and social norming. Across schools, 86-91% of students (N = 377) completed measures (pre-post) of electronic vaping product (EVP) use and attitudes, and named close friends and adults to construct social networks. Using baseline reports, we classified students as Recent EVP Users (10%), Vulnerable Nonusers (24%), or Resolute Nonusers (66%). Peer Leaders had reach through friendship connections to students at varying risk of vaping; 12-16 weeks after Peer Leaders were trained and began implementing campaigns, 79% of Resolute Nonusers and 74% of Recent Users/Vulnerable Nonusers reported exposure to a vaping prevention message. Students with more Peer Leader friends were less likely to report recent EVP use (OR = 0.41) or intention to use an EVP (B = 0.12) on post-surveys, supporting the intervention conceptual model positing diffusion through friendship networks. Use of student-nominated peer leaders was supported by network analyses showing EVP Users integrated within the friendship network, having more high-risk friends, and fewer adult connections. This evidence is the first to show that adolescent Peer Leaders with ongoing mentoring and science-informed campaigns can potentially reduce EVP acceptability and use. Areas for refining ATI-V include increasing consistency of campaign exposure across schools.


Assuntos
Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Amigos , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Estudantes
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the frequency with which kid influencers promote branded and unbranded food and drinks during their YouTube videos and assess the nutritional quality of food and drinks shown. METHODS: Researchers used Socialbakers data to identify the 5 most-watched kid influencers (ages 3 to 14 years) on YouTube in 2019. We searched for 50 of their most-watched videos and 50 of their videos that featured food and/or drinks on the thumbnail image of the video. We coded whether kid influencers consumed or played with food or toys, quantified the number of minutes food and/or drinks appeared, and recorded names of branded food and/or drinks. We assessed the nutritional quality of foods using the Nutrient Profile Model and identified the number of drinks with added sugar. RESULTS: A sample of 418 YouTube videos met the search criteria, and 179 of those videos featured food and/or drinks. Food and/or drinks were featured in those videos 291 times. Kid influencers' YouTube videos were collectively viewed >48 billion times, and videos featuring food and/or drinks were viewed 1 billion times. Most food and/or drinks were unhealthy branded items (n = 263; 90.34%; eg, McDonald's), followed by unhealthy unbranded items (n = 12; 4.1%; eg, hot dogs), healthy unbranded items (n = 9; 3.1%; eg, fruit), and healthy branded items (n = 7; 2.4%; eg, Yoplait yogurt). CONCLUSIONS: Kid influencers generate millions of impressions for unhealthy food and drink brands through product placement. The Federal Trade Commission should strengthen regulations regarding product placement on YouTube videos featuring young children.


Assuntos
Bebidas/normas , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/métodos , Fast Foods/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Infuência dos Pares , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Saudável/normas , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(3): 273-285, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200322

RESUMO

Previous research on mock-jury trials has shown an explicit attractiveness bias in participant attributes of innocence. This study used the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to measure attractiveness-bias in implicit evaluations of innocence or guilt with a sample of 46 college students. Alternate IRAP trial-blocks required participants to affirm relations consistent and inconsistent with attractiveness bias (attractive-innocent/unattractive guilty versus unattractive-innocent/ attractive-guilty). Faster responding across consistent trial-blocks was interpreted in terms of implicit stereotype. Participants' beliefs about the importance of their own appearances were examined using the Beliefs about Appearances Scale (BAAS) and explicit attractiveness ratings for the IRAP photographic stimuli were measured using Likert scales; analysis examined relationships between these beliefs and IRAP scores. Results revealed statistically significant attractiveness bias for both male and female participants; specifically, both a pro-attractiveness and anti-unattractive bias. Findings are discussed regarding research in implicit evaluations of innocence or guilt and effects of attractiveness bias


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Beleza , Culpa , Criminosos/psicologia , Julgamento/classificação , Psicologia Criminal , Infuência dos Pares , Distribuição por Sexo , Privilégio Social
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871583

RESUMO

Inspired by the increasing attention of the scientific community towards the understanding of human relationships and actions in social sciences, in this paper we address the problem of inferring from voting data the hidden influence on individuals from competing ideology groups. As a case study, we present an analysis of the closeness of members of the Italian Senate to political parties during the XVII Legislature. The proposed approach is aimed at automatic extraction of the relevant information by disentangling the actual influences from noise, via a two step procedure. First, a sparse principal component projection is performed on the standardized voting data. Then, the projected data is combined with a generative mixture model, and an information theoretic measure, which we refer to as Political Data-aNalytic Affinity (Political DNA), is finally derived. We show that the definition of this new affinity measure, together with suitable visualization tools for displaying the results of analysis, allows a better understanding and interpretability of the relationships among political groups.


Assuntos
Infuência dos Pares , Política , Previsões , Humanos , Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesos e Medidas/normas
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(11): 2229-2245, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789721

RESUMO

Homophobic attitudes and behavior are a widespread problem among adolescents, but what the role of peer relationships such as friendships and antipathies is in shaping these attitudes remains unclear. Therefore, this study examined to what extent homophobic attitudes are influenced by friends' and foes' homophobic attitudes, and whether homophobic attitudes serve as a selection criterion for the formation of friendships and antipathies. Participants came from three Dutch high schools across two waves (wave 1 November 2014, wave 2 March/April 2015, ages 11-20, N = 1935, 51.5% girls). Stochastic actor-oriented models were estimated for testing hypotheses. The results showed that adolescents adjusted their homophobic attitudes to their friends' homophobic attitudes, but homophobic attitudes were not consistently related to friendship selection. Further, findings indicated that being dissimilar in homophobic attitudes increased the likelihood to dislike cross-sex peers. Together, the findings suggest that adolescents' homophobic attitudes were to some extent subject to peer influence, but homophobic attitudes did not steer who adolescents befriended or disliked.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Amigos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel interventions are needed to reach young people and adult men with HIV services given the low HIV testing rates in these population sub-groups. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led oral HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention in Kasensero, a hyperendemic fishing community (HIV prevalence: 37-41%) in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: This study was conducted among young people (15-24 years) and adult men (25+ years) between May and August 2019. The study entailed distribution of HIVST kits by trained "peer-leaders," who were selected from existing social networks and trained in HIVST distribution processes. Peer-leaders received up to 10 kits to distribute to eligible social network members (i.e. aged 15-24 years if young people or 25+ years if adult man, not tested in the past 3 months, and HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status at enrolment). The intervention was evaluated against the feasibility benchmark of 70% of peer-leaders distributing up to 70% of the kits that they received; and the acceptability benchmark of >80% of the respondents self-testing for HIV. RESULTS: Of 298 enrolled into the study at baseline, 56.4% (n = 168) were young people (15-24 years) and 43.6% (n = 130) were adult males (25+ years). Peer-leaders received 298 kits and distributed 296 (99.3%) kits to their social network members. Of the 282 interviewed at follow-up, 98.2% (n = 277) reported that they used the HIVST kits. HIV prevalence was 7.4% (n = 21). Of the 57.1% (n = 12) first-time HIV-positives, 100% sought confirmatory HIV testing and nine of the ten (90%) respondents who were confirmed as HIV-positive were linked to HIV care within 1 week of HIV diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that a social network-based, peer-led HIVST intervention in a hyperendemic fishing community is highly feasible and acceptable, and achieves high linkage to HIV care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Masculinidade , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Autocuidado/métodos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105678, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study had three aims: 1) describe distracted driving beliefs among adolescents by various distraction types (i.e., talking on a hands-free/hands-held cell phone, texting or emailing, taking "selfies," and updating/checking social media); 2) examine the factor structure of distracted driving beliefs; and 3) test whether individual difference factors, shown in prior work to be related to distracted driving behavior, significantly predicted factors of distracted driving beliefs. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-nine high school students enrolled in non-mandatory Driver's Education courses completed surveys of distracted driving beliefs, sensation seeking, and demographics. RESULTS: A factor analysis revealed four factors of distracted driving beliefs: 1) self-acceptance of interacting with a cell phone while driving; 2) perceived peer acceptance of interacting with a cell phone while driving; 3) perceived threat of distracted driving to personal safety; and 4) self- and peer- acceptance of talking on a cell phone while driving. Adolescents perceived a greater threat to safety and less self- and peer-acceptance of interacting with cell phones while driving (i.e., texting/emailing, updating/posting to social media, taking selfies) than talking on a cell phone while driving. In general, men, those with more driving experience, higher in sensation seeking, and those placing more importance on checking notifications on a phone had riskier beliefs about distracted driving. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest adolescent distracted driving beliefs are influenced by individual difference factors, providing some knowledge about the motivations for distracted driving. Future work should consider novel strategies for intervening to reduce this common yet extremely dangerous behavior among adolescents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1014, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer pressure to drink alcohol may influence excessive alcohol consumption, which can have adverse impacts on health and wellbeing. While peer pressure to drink alcohol is extensively studied among youth, less examination exists among adults. This systematic review examined qualitative research studies which explored the role and concept of peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption in adults living in the UK. METHODS: Qualitative studies which explored peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption or alcohol related behaviours and views in adults (age range approximately 18-52 years) living in the UK were included. Systematic searches conducted in Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 1462 references, of which 13 studies met inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Five overarching themes were identified. Four of these themes directly address aspects of peer pressure, including: experiences of peer pressure; consequences of peer pressure; strategies to deal with peer pressure; and conditions perceived to affect peer pressure. The fifth overarching theme explains the wider social context influencing peer pressure. Pressure to drink alcohol affects individuals across the life span and can be experienced as overt and aggressive, or subtle and friendly. Those consuming little or no alcohol are more likely to feel overt forms of peer pressure. Some developed strategies to cope with pressure from drinkers. Peer pressure can result in feelings of social isolation, or giving in by consuming alcohol against ones wishes. CONCLUSION: Peer pressure to drink alcohol is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon experienced across adulthood requiring better understanding to support initiatives to decrease the impact of pressure-inducing environments and develop strategies to deal with perceived pressure conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this review is registered with PROSPERO ( CRD42019122201 ). Registered 11 February 2019.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infuência dos Pares , Meio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645069

RESUMO

It is widely believed that one's peers influence product adoption behaviors. This relationship has been linked to the number of signals a decision-maker receives in a social network. But it is unclear if these same principles hold when the "pattern" by which it receives these signals vary and when peer influence is directed towards choices which are not optimal. To investigate that, we manipulate social signal exposure in an online controlled experiment using a game with human participants. Each participant in the game decides among choices with differing utilities. We observe the following: (1) even in the presence of monetary risks and previously acquired knowledge of the choices, decision-makers tend to deviate from the obvious optimal decision when their peers make a similar decision which we call the influence decision, (2) when the quantity of social signals vary over time, the forwarding probability of the influence decision and therefore being responsive to social influence does not necessarily correlate proportionally to the absolute quantity of signals. To better understand how these rules of peer influence could be used in modeling applications of real world diffusion and in networked environments, we use our behavioral findings to simulate spreading dynamics in real world case studies. We specifically try to see how cumulative influence plays out in the presence of user uncertainty and measure its outcome on rumor diffusion, which we model as an example of sub-optimal choice diffusion. Together, our simulation results indicate that sequential peer effects from the influence decision overcomes individual uncertainty to guide faster rumor diffusion over time. However, when the rate of diffusion is slow in the beginning, user uncertainty can have a substantial role compared to peer influence in deciding the adoption trajectory of a piece of questionable information.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Infuência dos Pares , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Probabilidade , Incerteza , Jogos de Vídeo
18.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 827-833, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the addition of the "with limited prosocial emotions" specifier within the diagnosis of conduct disorder (DSM-5) and of conduct-dissocial disorder (ICD-11) to designate those with elevated callous-unemotional traits, the authors examined the role that callous-unemotional traits play in the risk for gun carrying and gun use during a crime in a sample at high risk for gun violence. METHODS: Male juvenile offenders (N=1,215) from three regions of the United States were assessed after their first arrest and then reassessed every 6 months for 36 months and again at 48 months. Callous-unemotional traits and peer gun carrying and ownership were measured via self-report after the first arrest (i.e., baseline). Gun carrying and use of a gun during a crime were self-reported at all follow-up points. RESULTS: Callous-unemotional traits at baseline increased the frequency of gun carrying and the likelihood of using a gun during a crime across the subsequent 4 years after accounting for other risk factors. Furthermore, callous-unemotional traits moderated the relationship between peer gun carrying and ownership and participant gun carrying, such that only participants low on callous-unemotional traits demonstrated increased gun carrying as a function of their peers' gun carrying and ownership. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of considering callous-unemotional traits in gun violence research both because callous-unemotional traits increase gun carrying and use in adolescents and because the traits may moderate other key risk factors. Notably, the influence of peer gun carrying and ownership may have been underestimated in past research for the majority of adolescents by not considering the moderating influence of callous-unemotional traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno da Conduta , Emoções , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Inventário de Personalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 641, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support refers to a process whereby individuals with lived experience of a particular phenomenon provide support to others by explicitly drawing on their personal experience. It has been adopted in a variety of service contexts including homelessness, substance use, mental and physical health. Those who experience homelessness have some of the most complex intersecting health and social challenges. This 'state of the art' review provides a systematic search and synthesis of literature examining use of peer support models within services for people impacted by homelessness and problem substance use. METHODS: A systematic search using six databases (CINAHL, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Knowledge) was conducted in August 2019 and identified 2248 papers published in English after the year 2000. After de-duplication and scanning titles/abstracts, 61 papers were deemed relevant. Three more papers (including one grey literature report) were identified via references, but two papers were later excluded due to relevance. The final 62 papers included studies conducted in five countries. A thematic analysis approach was used to compare and contrast the study findings and provide a synthesis of the main learning points. RESULTS: In recent years there has been a substantial increase in research examining the utility of peer support yet there is significant variation across this field. Alongside profiling the range of settings, aims, populations, and main outcomes of these studies, this paper also provides an overview of overarching themes: the overall effectiveness and impact of peer-staffed or peer-led interventions; and challenges commonly faced in these roles. Five themes relating to the challenges faced by peers were identified: vulnerability, authenticity, boundaries, stigma, and lack of recognition. CONCLUSIONS: While our findings provide support for current efforts to involve individuals with lived experience in providing peer support to those experiencing concurrent problem substance use and homelessness, they also urge caution because of common pitfalls that can leave those providing the support vulnerable. We conclude that peers should be respected, valued, supported, and compensated for their work which is often profoundly challenging. Suggested guidelines for the implementation of peer involvement in research studies and service delivery are presented.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Problemas Sociais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
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