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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027659

RESUMO

We develop a dynamic matched sample estimation algorithm to distinguish peer influence and homophily effects on item adoption decisions in dynamic networks, with numerous items diffusing simultaneously. We infer preferences using a machine learning algorithm applied to previous adoption decisions, and we match agents using those inferred preferences. We show that ignoring previous adoption decisions leads to significantly overestimating the role of peer influence in the diffusion of information, mistakenly confounding influence-based contagion with diffusion driven by common preferences. Our matching-on-preferences algorithm with machine learning reduces the relative effect of peer influence on item adoption decisions in this network significantly more than matching on earlier adoption decisions, as well other observable characteristics. We also show significant and intuitive heterogeneity in the relative effect of peer influence.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Disseminação de Informação , Redes Sociais Online , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Comunicação , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 31, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH) is increasing. Effective biomedical prevention methods (treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis) are being widely implemented in high-income nations. Therefore, research into quality of life, including sexual adjustment, is of increasing importance to HIV care. Yet, sexual adjustment of PLWH has been neglected in past research. We propose a new model of sexual adjustment to HIV which explores the dynamic process, facilitators and barriers characterising sexual life of PLWH overtime. METHOD: Thirty PLWH (19 male, 11 female) recruited from two HIV treatment centres as well as community groups, completed semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis using grounded theory. RESULTS: The model of sexual adjustment to HIV is the first to establish how undue fears of transmission of HIV during sex and/or fear of rejection by sexual partners determine initial sexual behaviour after diagnosis and also sexual adjustment over time. Within the model, sexual adjustment to HIV is facilitated by factors which assist PLWH to overcome such fears, including: partner acceptance, peer, community and health professional support, and accurate knowledge of risk of transmission including of undetectable viral load and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Adjustment is inhibited when undue fears of transmission and of rejection persist long term, resulting in maladaptive behaviours to cope with such fears including avoidance of sex and problematic drug and alcohol use. CONCLUSION: This model offers clear directions for promoting sexual adjustment to HIV. Health professionals should: (a) assess and intervene for sexual quality of life (not just risk) among PLWH; (b) be aware that serosorting facilitates adjustment in the short to medium term, but may interfere with adjustment long-term, (c) promote opportunities for positive connection between PLWH, and (d) intervene directly with PLWH and HIV negative sexual partners to promote accurate risk of transmission knowledge, including how this applies to their own sexual practices, and whether they are experiencing undue fear of transmission over time.


Assuntos
Teoria Fundamentada , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Seleção por Sorologia para HIV/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Infuência dos Pares , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Qualidade de Vida , Carga Viral
3.
J Safety Res ; 70: 13-17, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND METHOD: We explored the relationship between nighttime seat belt use of right-front passengers and their drivers using observational data from 33,310 vehicles in east Tennessee during March 2015 - May 2017. RESULTS: Overall, nighttime passenger seat belt use varied by 50 percentage points from 92% when drivers were belted to 42% when drivers were not belted, suggesting that part-time seat belt users can be heavily influenced by the seat belt status of their traveling companions. When stratified by vehicle type and sex, passenger seat belt use by driver seat belt status varied as much as 74 percentage points from 96% to 22%. Passenger seat belt use was typically lower when riding with unbelted same-sex drivers than when riding with unbelted drivers of the opposite sex. Conclusions and Practical Applications: This finding suggests that the role of peer influence in decision-making about seat belt use may differ depending on the sex of a vehicle driver and his or her passengers. Further research is warranted to explore this finding as well as other social and cultural influences that have not been fully examined in seat belt research.


Assuntos
Infuência dos Pares , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Tennessee
4.
J Safety Res ; 70: 25-31, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While seat belt use among front seat occupants has significantly increased overtime a substantial usage gap still exists between front and back seat occupants. This study aims to identify factors that predict rear seat belt use among adult back seat passengers. METHODS: We examined data from the 2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, to determine the influence of front seat belt use, support of and belief of rear seat belt use laws, peer perception of seat belt use, nighttime belt use, and demographic factors on self-reported rear seat belt use. Rao-Scott chi-squared tests were used to determine significant associations between self-reported rear belt use and each predictor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and determine the influence of significant predictors on rear seat belt use. Sampling weights were applied to produce nationally representative estimates; all statistical significance tests accounted for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Among adults who reported riding in the back seat, 63% reported always using a rear seat belt. Front seat belt use, support and belief of state seat belt laws, nighttime seat belt use, age, and education were significantly associated with rear seat belt use. Multivariate regression results showed that adults who supported rear seat belt laws, reported front seat belt use and believed their state has a rear seat belt law were significantly more likely to report full-time use in the back seat. CONCLUSIONS: Seat belt laws and front seat belt use had the strongest association with reporting full-time use in the back seat. Practical Applications: Increasing familiarity with existing laws directed towards rear seat belt use as well as increasing awareness about the benefits of seat belts in all seating positions may help improve rear seat belt use.


Assuntos
Infuência dos Pares , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cintos de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 242-249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engaging in trauma-informed approaches in nonforensic mental health settings improves therapeutic relationships, promotes healing, promotes posttraumatic growth, improves staff well-being, and fosters hope and empowerment, yet little is known of its influences in forensic settings. This literature review explores trauma-informed education and its training implications for nurses working in forensic mental health. METHOD: Using a range of electronic databases, a systematic search of literature was carried out focusing on trauma-informed practice in adult forensic mental health settings. Before searching, predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were agreed. FINDINGS: After duplication removal, abstract review, and full screening, nine articles met review criteria for inclusion. A thematic analysis of the literature identified two key themes: "education for trauma-informed practice" and "applying theory into practice." Each had several subordinate themes. IMPLICATIONS FOR FORENSIC PRACTICE: Organizations and their staff must recognize that operational change and ongoing training will be required. By adopting a trauma-informed approach, forensic mental health nurses can better understand their patients' traumatic experiences, improve their therapeutic relationships, and engage patients in collaborative care. Training in trauma-informed care should start with nurses who will change their personal practice and can support and train their colleagues.


Assuntos
Capacitação em Serviço , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/educação , Trauma Psicológico/enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Política Organizacional , Infuência dos Pares
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2165-2178, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625069

RESUMO

As American school districts become increasingly diverse, understanding the processes that promote positive intergroup relations is a critical task. The role of cross-ethnic friendships is one important factor, given the significance of these reciprocated peer relationships for social development. The current study examines the short-term longitudinal impact of cross-ethnic friendships on peer group attitudes and emotional adjustment. 524 student participants (54.8% female; Mage = 15.06 years, SD = 0.75; 47% Latino, 53% Asian-American) were followed for one year with two spring data collections. Students completed a self-report inventory assessing depressive symptoms and a peer nomination inventory assessed friendship, liking, disliking, popularity, and unpopularity. Cross-ethnic friendships were predictive of positive attitudes toward peers from other ethnic/racial groups and were also linked to declines in depressive symptoms for boys. Moreover, these positive effects did not come at a social cost, as cross-ethnic friendships were not associated with rejection by same-ethnic peers. Cross-ethnic friendships provide a unique environment that contributes to positive intergroup attitudes and beneficial socioemotional development for some youth.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Distância Social , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Amigos/etnologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614585

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSWs) represent a high-risk population for HIV infection and transmission. In general, their fellow FSWs (peers) also play a role in their level of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS. This paper draws from interview data of 93 FSWs to construct a multi-layer FSW social network model based on their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Statistical analyses of the correlation among the three dimensions of KAP as well as their social interactions indicated that FSWs had basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention but demonstrated little enthusiasm in acquiring relevant information. Their knowledge, attitude, and practice were highly positively correlated. Their attitude was more likely to be negatively influenced by their companions, while their practice was more likely to be positively affected. Besides, FSWs exhibited high homophily in KAP with their neighbors. Thus, during HIV/AIDS interventions, FSWs should receive individualized education based on their specific KAP. Considering the high level of homophily among FSWs, their propensity to be positive or negative in their KAP are significantly influenced by their companions. Making full use of peer education and social interaction-based interventions may help prevent and control the spread of HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infuência dos Pares , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Rede Social , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565127

RESUMO

With its number of employees ranging from 45,310 to 46,000, the textile and apparel industry is the main private sector employer of labour in Lesotho. It has been reported that a third (an estimated 34%) of these workers are living with HIV. There is perception that textile factory workers living with HIV (TFWLWH) in Lesotho indulge in HIV risk-taking behaviours. However, no study has yet investigated or documented factors that influence risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers. Transmitting the disease to others, treatment complications and death consequent to HIV reinfection are complications associated with HIV risk-taking behaviours by seropositive individuals. Using an in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interview, this study obtained the perspectives of ten factory workers from three randomly selected textile factories in Maseru, Lesotho on factors that influence HIV-risk taking behaviour amongst TFWLWH in Lesotho. Analysis of the comments given by workers revealed four core themes, namely, peer pressure, communication, cultural norms and societal norms. Determining the predictors of HIV risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers will inform both present and future interventions aimed at supporting textile factory workers living with HIV in Lesotho. This supports the need for continued research to identify HIV risk-taking behaviours by people living with HIV countrywide, to decrease the incidence of new infections and complications arising from reinfection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Indústria Têxtil , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Setor Privado , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2152-2164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620972

RESUMO

During adolescence, interpersonal stressors such as peer rejection pose challenges to emotion regulation. Yet, very little is known about how these transactional processes unfold in adolescents' daily lives. This study investigated adolescents' (a) emotional reactivity to daily perceptions of peer rejection, which concerns concurrent changes in negative and positive emotions, and (b) emotional recovery from daily perceptions of peer rejection, which concerns subsequent changes in negative and positive emotions. Because depressive symptoms can compromise effectiveness of emotion regulation, it was investigated as a moderator for emotional reactivity and recovery to daily perceptions of peer rejection. The sample consisted of 303 adolescents (59% girls; Mage = 14.20, SD = 0.54; range 13-16 years) who reported depressive symptoms at baseline and completed ecological momentary assessments of emotions and perceived peer rejection at nine random time-points per day for six consecutive days. Results from multi-level modeling analyses showed that perceived peer rejection was related to emotional reactivity (i.e., higher levels of negative emotions and lower levels of positive emotions). This effect was stronger for those with higher depressive symptoms. For emotional recovery, perceived peer rejection had lasting effects on adolescents' negative emotions, but was not related to positive emotions. Depressive symptoms did not moderate effects of perceived peer rejection on emotional recovery. This study provides a more nuanced understanding of how depressive symptoms amplify the emotional impact of perceived peer rejection in adolescents' day-to-day lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Desejabilidade Social , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1390, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shisha smoking has re-emerged in the Middle East in the last two decades and has spread rapidly in these communities. Information about shisha smoking in adolescents in Sudan is deficient. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of shisha smoking among adolescents and determine the associated factors. METHODS: This study is a school based cross sectional study among secondary school students in Khartoum State - Sudan that targets both male and female students aged 14-17 years. A total of 3387 students from 29 public and private schools were selected by multi stage random sampling. The participants completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was based on Arabic version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). RESULTS: The response rate was 100% in schools and among participants, 57.3% were females and 51.6% were from public schools. The overall prevalence of those who had ever smoked shisha was 13.4%, and among male students the prevalence was 16.8%, while it was 10.9% in females. The associated factors were poor academic performance OR 2.90 CI 95% (1.21-6.94), friends smoking shisha OR 2.39 CI 95% (1.65-3.45), friends smoking cigarettes OR 2.76 CI 95% (1.90-4.01), peer pressure to smoke shisha OR 13.76 CI 95% (7.86-24.07) and unexpectedly restriction of selling shisha to minors OR 2.21 CI 95% (1.28-3.82). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of those who had ever smoked shisha is among the lowest in Middle East region; therefore, regular surveillance system is needed. A well-structured peer based comprehensive tobacco control programmes that are supported by strict and rigorous anti-tobacco regulations which control both commercial and social resources of tobacco are needed to contain this issue among adolescents.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1342, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of consuming fast foods and non-nutritious snacks is progressively increasing among adolescents. This study aimed to explore factors behind snack consumption at school among Iranian high-school students. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study was conducted in 2017 in four boys' and four girls' high-schools located in Isfahan, Khorramabad, and Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews and four focus groups with male and female students, their parents, and their school teachers and administrators. The conventional content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Trustworthiness was applied to the study through prolonged engagement, maximum variation sampling, and member checking techniques. RESULTS: Factors behind students' snack consumption came into two main groups, namely influential behaviors, and influential emotions and perceptions. Influential behaviors included the behaviors of students, their family members, peers, school administrators, and snack sellers. Moreover, influential emotions and perceptions included positive and negative feelings towards healthy snacks, fear over the consequences of unhealthy snacks, and perceived positive outcomes of healthy snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Students' snack consumption at school is affected not only by their own behaviors, emotions, and perceptions, but also by significant others' behaviors and environmental factors. School administrators need to make environmental modifications to turn school environment into a pleasant place for healthy snack consumption and make healthy snack consumption a pleasurable experience for students.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Lanches/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e11, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Medical male circumcision (MMC) and traditional male circumcision (TMC) are reportedly having negative and positive outcomes in the Eastern Cape province. Researchers show contradictory remedies; some advocate for abolishment of TMC and others call for the integration of both methods. AIM:  This study aimed to explore factors influencing the integration of TMC and MMC at different socio-ecological levels. SETTING:  The study was conducted at Ingquza Hill Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape province. METHODS:  An explorative qualitative study design, using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs), was employed in this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. A framework analysis approach was used to analyse the data, and the themes were developed in line with the socio-ecological model. RESULTS:  Four main themes emerged from the data as important in influencing the integration of TMC and MMC methods. These included: (1) individual factors, related to circumcision age eligibility and post-circumcision behaviour; (2) microsystem factors, related to alcohol and drug abuse, peer pressure, abuse of initiates, and family influence; (3) exosystem factors, related to financial gains associated with circumcision and the role of community forums; and (4) macrosystem factors, related to stigma and discrimination, and male youth dominance in circumcision practices. CONCLUSION:  Male circumcision in this area is influenced by complex factors at multiple social levels. Interventions directed at all of these levels are urgently needed to facilitate integration of the TMC and MMC methods.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Circuncisão Masculina/métodos , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infuência dos Pares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1912-1923, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520234

RESUMO

Most empirical research examining youth's gender development measures felt pressure to conform to gender norms using a composite value of felt pressure from multiple sources; however, because of the different socialization processes at work from parents, peers, and the self, analyzing these sources separately may elucidate different effects on gender development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) differentiate the effects of perceived gender socialization pressure from parents, peers, and the self on early adolescents' own- and other-gender typicality, and (b) to examine whether a bi-directional relation between gender typicality and felt pressure is evident when distinguished across sources. With a sample of 212 early adolescents (54% girls; Mage = 11.11 years), felt pressure was found to be distinguishable by socialization source: adolescents' perceptions of parents, peers, and their own pressures were distinct, and each contributed differently to gender development. Pressure from self and peers were both found to relate concurrently to typicality (i.e., positively to own-gender typicality, negatively to other-gender typicality); only pressure from the self was found to have a longitudinal effect on adolescents' developing gender identity (i.e., an increase in own-gender typicality). Interestingly, other-gender typicality did not elicit higher felt pressure; in fact, it was negatively related to later felt pressure from the self, suggesting that adolescents may be developing self-acceptance of their levels of gender typicality. The findings suggest that the development of gender identity may involve a complex interplay with various sources of socialization pressures (e.g., parent, peers, self), and may further shift in relation to the adolescent's own levels of gender typicality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Socialização
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2241-2254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520236

RESUMO

The relationship between schizophrenia and violence has been well-established. Yet very little prior research exists on the factors that might explain the nature of this relationship and even fewer studies seek to clarify the etiology of aggressive behavior in adolescents with specific features of schizotypal personality that might help improve the specificity of intervention. The current study tested whether one dimension of schizotypy alone (i.e., the 'suspicious' feature) or the other 8 dimensions (i.e., the 'non-suspicious' features) were particularly associated with aggressive behaviors (reactive and proactive aggression), and if peer problems and low self-esteem mediated these relationships. A serial multiple mediation model testing the hypothesized flow from suspicious and non-suspicious schizotypy to peer problems to low self-esteem and to increased aggression was tested in Hong Kong schoolchildren aged 8- to 14-years (N = 1412; Mage = 11.47, SD = 1.67 years, female = 47.6%). Increased suspicious and non-suspicious schizotypal features were found to be independently associated with increased reactive aggression, but not proactive aggression. Children with high levels of suspicious schizotypy and non-suspicious schizotypy were more likely to have poor peer problems and low self-esteem concurrently, which in turn was associated with reactive aggression only. This explanatory model suggests that future longitudinal intervention studies that enhance self-esteem in schizotypal adolescents may potentially reduce co-morbid reactive aggressive behaviors too.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Personalidade , Autorrelato
16.
Saudi Med J ; 40(9): 867-878, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systemically review the evidence concerning the prevalence and reported risk factors of smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, studies that examined the prevalence and risk factors of smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia were identified through a computerized literature search using the following databases up to March 2018: PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and BIOSIS. The following search terms were used: smoking OR smok* OR tobacco OR cigar* OR shisha OR shesha OR sheesha AND Saudi Arabia OR KSA. Peer-reviewed articles published within the period from 2007 to 2018 were selected. Studies that reported prevalence data, patterns, and risk factors of smoking among adolescents were included. Extracted data from each study were tabulated, and data were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies that reported the prevalence of smoking in the adolescent age group were included in the narrative evidence synthesis. These studies were conducted on secondary school students (n=11), college students (n=14), and an adolescent age group without educational specifications (n=7). According to published reports between 2007 and 2018, the prevalence of tobacco smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia ranged from 2.4% to 39.6%. Influence of friends, and family negligence were the most commonly reported risk factors for smoking. Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking is relatively high among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The social influence of friends, teachers or parents, low academic performance, having spare time, living away from home, and the desire to relieve stress were the most commonly reported risk factors for smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Humanos , Motivação , Infuência dos Pares , Prevalência , Religião , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Science ; 365(6457): 986-987, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488676
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1203, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few adolescent girls engage in enough physical activity (PA) to meet recommendations and there is a need for new interventions to increase girls PA. We have previously published the results of the PLAN-A cluster randomised feasibility trial which was a peer-led school-based PA intervention, showing that the intervention was feasible and held promise to increase the PA of girls aged 12-13 years. In PLAN-A, pupils nominated by their peers as influential attend training to teach them how to influence, promote and normalise physical activity amongst their peer-group. This paper reports the results of the process evaluation of the PLAN-A feasibility study, specifically focussing on acceptability to key stakeholders, intervention fidelity, receipt/experiences and perceived effect and suggested intervention refinements before proceeding to a definitive RCT. METHODS: A mixed-methods process evaluation triangulated data from qualitative focus groups and interviews with peer-supporter and non peer-supporter pupils (N = 52), parents (N = 12), teachers (N = 6) and intervention training deliverers (N = 5), quantitative questionnaires, and observations of intervention delivery. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, and qualitative data were analysed with the Framework Method. RESULTS: The duration, timings, content and delivery of the peer-supporter training were acceptable. There was good fidelity to the intervention manual and its underpinning theory including high fulfilment of session objectives and use of an autonomy-supportive motivational style. Peer-supporters engaged with and enjoyed the training and retained key peer-supporter messages (what counts as PA, encouragement, empathy and subtlety). Parents and teachers were supportive of the intervention and reported perceived effects including increased PA and awareness of it, improved peer relationships, and confidence. Suggested intervention refinements included increasing participatory learning, reducing technical jargon, and providing more support to overcome challenges to giving peer support. CONCLUSIONS: PLAN-A can be delivered as planned, is well-received, and appears to be effective in empowering adolescent girls to support their peer group to become more active. The refinements identified can be made within the original intervention structure, before proceeding to a definitive trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISCTRN, ISRCTN12543546 , Registered on 28/7/2015.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398815

RESUMO

In both developing and underdeveloped countries there has been a worrying increase in the number of young people drinking alcohol; this public health problem warrants more research. This multilevel study analyzed the influence of drinking refusal self-efficacy, peers' motivation, and protective behavioral strategies as predictors of alcohol consumption in a sample of 261 young people arranged into 52 social groups (peers who regularly shared leisure activities). A series of questionnaires were administered individually to evaluate beliefs and behaviors related to alcohol consumption at both individual level (drinking refusal self-efficacy) and peer level (enhancement motivation and protective behavioral strategies). The results showed that the individual variable (drinking refusal self-efficacy) predicted alcohol consumption behaviors. The multilevel design allowed us to evaluate the direct and moderated effects of peers' enhancement motivation and protective behavioral strategies on the relationship between self-efficacy and drinking behavior. These results show the importance of developing cognitive, behavioral, and educational intervention programs to increase young people and university students' confidence and ability to use protective strategies, in order to reduce alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Infuência dos Pares , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398854

RESUMO

The current study investigated whether quit success among employees who participated in a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace was associated with social support from, and the smoking behavior of, people in their environment. Tobacco-smoking employees (n = 604) from 61 companies participated in a workplace group smoking cessation program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing social support from, and the smoking behavior of, people in their social environment. They were also tested for biochemically validated continuous abstinence directly after finishing the training and after 12 months. The data were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. Social support from colleagues was positively associated with 12-month quit success (odds ratio (OR) = 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.00, p = 0.013). Support from a partner was positively associated with short-term quit success (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.23-3.30, p = 0.006). Having a higher proportion of smokers in the social environment was negatively associated with long-term abstinence (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.71-0.92, p = 0.002). Compared to having a non-smoking partner, long-term quit success was negatively associated with having no partner (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.26-0.88, p < 0.019), with having a partner who smokes (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24-0.66, p < 0.001), and with having a partner who used to smoke (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26-0.86, p = 0.014). In conclusion, people in a smoker's social environment, particularly colleagues, were strongly associated with quit success. The workplace may, therefore, be a favorable setting for smoking cessation interventions.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Infuência dos Pares , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
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