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1.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(4): 217-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470996

RESUMO

It is well known that dietary fiber stimulates the release of satiety hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which in turn suppresses appetite. In order to evaluate appetite regulating role of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG, one of the resistant starch), we examined the effects of dietary supplementation of ESG on food intake and cecal proglucagon gene expression in normal and high fat diet-fed mice. Twenty four male ICR mice were weighed and assigned to four groups: normal diet group; normal diet containing 25% ESG group; high-fat diet (HFD) group; HFD containing 25% ESG group. Each group was fed the relevant diets for 3 wk. All data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA with the main effects of HFD and ESG. ESG significantly decreased food intake and increased the weight of the cecum and cecal content. Plasma total short chain fatty acids concentration was significantly elevated by ESG. The mRNA levels of proglucagon in the cecum and plasma total GLP-1 concentration were significantly increased by ESG. The mRNA levels of appetite regulating neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, and cocain- and amphetamine-regulating transcript in the hypothalamus were not influenced by ESG. There is no significant interaction between diet and ESG in any parameters. These results suggest that ESG-induced upregulation of GLP-1 production in the cecum suppresses food intake in mice and that fecal fermentation may be involved in the anorexigenic effect.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glicogênio , Animais , Ceco , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00025321, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495086

RESUMO

The study's objectives were to adapt the Salzburg Stress Eating Scale (SSES) to Brazilian Portuguese, estimate its psychometric properties in a sample of young adults, and verify (separately for each sex) the relationship between age and BMI and dietary intake during stress. Adaptation of the SSES to Portuguese was performed according to the consolidated protocol. The psychometric properties were estimated for each sex based on factor and convergent validities and reliability. Invariance was tested in independent subsamples for each sex. The relationship between age and bod mass index (BMI) and dietary intake during stress was investigated for each sex using structural equation modeling. Prevalence of individuals in categories that represented maintenance, reduction, or increases in dietary intake in the face of stress was calculated. Participation in the study included 1,030 individuals (61.8% women) with a mean age of 25.5 (SD = 5.3) years. The original model of the SSES presented good fit for the female sample, but for the male sample one item was excluded and a residual correlation was inserted. These models were invariant in independent subsamples. High BMI influenced dietary intake in the face of stress. Men maintained their habitual diet, while women increased their dietary intake during stress. The Portuguese version of the SSES will be useful for investigating dietary intake during stress in Brazil. Different models of SESS were adjusted for each sex. BMI was a significant variable for assessing dietary intake in the face of stress.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501583

RESUMO

Developing countries have reported lower molecular diagnostic testing levels due to a lack of resources. Therefore, antibody tests represent an alternative to detect exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and analyze possible risk factors. We aimed to describe and compare the clinical-epidemiological characteristics and the quality of food intake in Mexican individuals with a positive or negative test to antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We carried out antibody tests and applied a survey to 1799 individuals; 42% were positive, and diabetes was more prevalent in these cases (p < 0.01). No differences were identified in the blood type nor influenza vaccination between groups. Coughing, respiratory distress, muscle pain, joint pain, and anosmia were the most prevalent symptoms among seropositive cases (p < 0.0001). Food intake quality was similar in both groups, except for the most consumed type of fat (p = 0.006). In conclusion, this study supports the association of diabetes as a principal risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Mexican population. The results do not support previous associations between blood group or influenza vaccination as protective factors against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, frequent consumption of polyunsaturated fats is highlighted as a new possible associated factor with COVID-19, which more studies should corroborate as with all novel findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Comorbidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 452, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535849

RESUMO

Forage allowance impacts dry matter (DM) intake and the use of nutrients by ruminants. The efficient use of protein and energy from pasture is related to better livestock performance and lower environmental impacts. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of forage allowance levels on intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and methane (CH4) emissions by lambs fed fresh pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. An indoor trial was performed using lambs in a completely randomized design with four treatments [forage allowance at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg DM/100 kg of live weight (LW), and ad libitum allowing 20% of refusals] and four replicates (lambs). Forage intake, digestibility, total urine and feces excretion, and CH4 emission were measured to calculate N and energy balances. An increase in forage allowance resulted in a linear increase in lamb forage intake, N retention, and metabolizable energy intake. Moreover, lamb CH4 emission (g/day) also increased with greater forage allowance, while CH4 yield decreased linearly as forage allowance increased. Our results indicate that maximizing forage intake improves N and energy use efficiency and mitigates CH4 yield and decreases CH4 conversion factor (Ym) by lambs fed pearl millet forage. Thus, management strategies that optimize intake of tropical forages by ruminants improve the use of nutrients ingested and mitigates negative impacts to the environment.


Assuntos
Metano , Pennisetum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lactação , Nitrogênio , Rúmen , Ovinos , Zea mays
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00301420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495101

RESUMO

This manuscript aims to describe the methodological, operational, and quality control aspects of the assessment of dietary intake in children under five years of age participating in the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019), a household survey in a probability sample of Brazilian households. Two instruments were developed to assess child feeding practices - a structured, current status-type questionnaire and a 24-hour dietary recall (24HR), both installed in a mobile data collection device used by previously trained interviewers. A Photographic Manual for Quantification of Children's Dietary Intake was specifically developed for and used in the survey as a support aid to identify and quantify foods reported in the 24HR. During the fieldwork, continuous quality control of the records was performed. Data errors or incomplete data in the system were corrected, and the fieldwork team was systematically contacted and informed on their performance, with reiterated orientation on data collection. All children in the sample were evaluated with the two instruments, but data were obtained from the structured questionnaire on all children in the sample (n = 14,558) and 24HR on 14,541 children. ENANI-2019 developed innovative methods and materials based on the Brazilian and international literature to address knowledge gaps on under-five children's dietary intake. Unprecedented results will be produced, which will allow updating food and nutrition guidelines for children under five years of age in Brazil.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 229-236, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective procedure in the management of obesity, achieving a significant decrease in energy intake. AIM: To measure calorie and macronutrient intake in patients subjected to gastric bypass (GBP) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 53 patients subjected to SG and 27 subjected to GBP, who were in the first, second or sixth postoperative month. A food frequency consumption survey was applied by specialized nutritionists and their nutritional status was assessed. RESULTS: Mean calorie intake in months 1, 2 and 6 were 505, 600 and 829.8 kcal, respectively. A significantly higher intake was observed at month 1 in patients with those subjected to SG, compared with GBP patients. Protein consumption was <60 g/d, except at 6 months in patients with GBP. At months 1, 2 and 6, mean consumption of lipids were 17, 28 and 30 g/day, respectively. The figures for carbohydrates were 42, 31 and 77 g/day, respectively. At month 1, patients with GBP had a higher BMI, equalizing at 6 months with those of SG. At 6 months 37% of patients had a normal body mass index and 17% remained obese. A negative correlation was observed between weight loss and energy intake during the first month (rho: -0.40; p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Patients subjected to BS had a low calorie and macronutrient intake in the first six postoperative months. Their calorie intake is negatively associated with weight loss, mainly during the first postoperative month.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 242-247, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479269

RESUMO

Creatinine excretion is widely used as a method to evaluate the adequacy of urine collection in different clinical settings. Many factors influence its elimination, such as protein intake, exercise, muscle mass, age, and sex, among many others. As 24-hour urine collections can be cumbersome, several equations have been developed to aid clinicians to correctly interpret results derived from them. In this review article, we report the factors that can modify creatinine excretion and we evaluate the accuracy of different published equations to estimate 24-hour urine creatinine excretion.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Coleta de Urina , Creatinina , Humanos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371852

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies have investigated the association of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. However, the results were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to quantitatively evaluate the association between marine n-3 PUFA, fish and CVD mortality risk with prospective cohort studies. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and MEDLINE databases from the establishment of the database to May 2021. A total of 25 cohort studies were included with 2,027,512 participants and 103,734 CVD deaths. The results indicated that the fish consumption was inversely associated with the CVD mortality risk [relevant risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.85-0.98]. The higher marine n-3 PUFA intake was associated with the reduced risk of CVD mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.89). Dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of CVD mortality was decreased by 4% with an increase of 20 g of fish intake (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) or 80 milligrams of marine n-3 PUFA intake (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98) per day. The current work provides evidence that the intake of fish and marine n-3 PUFA are inversely associated with the risk of CVD mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Marinhos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Peixes , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371856

RESUMO

The identification of sodium and potassium intake in youths is an important step to preventing the increase of blood pressure in childhood. We examined food intake and estimated mineral intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to test its validity as a comparison with urinary excretion in Japanese youths. The subjects were 5th and 8th graders (n = 2377), who completed the BDHQ and permitted the use of their overnight urine specimens. Sodium intake was poorly associated with sodium excretion (Rho = 0.048), and the coefficients of dietary potassium and a sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were 0.091-0.130. Higher soybean paste (miso) intake and pickles were significantly associated with higher sodium excretion (p ≤ 0.005). However, these foods were positively associated with potassium excretion (p = 0.002-0.012), and not associated with an excreted sodium-to-potassium ratio. Fruits and dairy products were positively associated (p ≤ 0.048), whereas beverages were negatively associated with potassium excretion (p ≤ 0.004). The association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio was opposite to that of potassium (p ≤ 0.001). The choice of foods, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio assessed using the BDHQ are available as part of health education for youths, but the assessment of sodium intake in population levels should be carefully conducted.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Potássio/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sódio/urina
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371864

RESUMO

This study determined the intakes of complementary foods (CFs) and milk-based formulas (MFs) by a total of 119 subjects aged 6-23.9 months from urban day care centers. Dietary intakes were assessed using two-day weighed food records. Intake adequacy of energy and nutrients was compared to the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for Malaysia. The most commonly consumed CFs were cereals (rice, noodles, bread). The subjects derived approximately half of their energy requirements (kcals) from CFs (57 ± 35%) and MFs (56 ± 31%). Protein intake was in excess of their RNI requirements, from both CFs (145 ± 72%) and MFs (133 ± 88%). Main sources of protein included meat, dairy products, and western fast food. Intake of CFs provided less than the RNI requirements for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc. Neither CF nor MF intake met the Adequate Intake (AI) requirements for essential fatty acids. These findings indicate imbalances in the dietary intake of the subjects that may have adverse health implications, including increased risk of rapid weight gain from excess protein intake, and linear growth faltering and intellectual impairment from multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Interventions are needed to improve child feeding knowledge and practices among parents and child care providers.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Micronutrientes/análise , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Creches , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Leite , Necessidades Nutricionais
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371818

RESUMO

The association between immunity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been studied, but its interaction with lifestyles remains unclear. We studied their association and interactions with lifestyles in 40,768 adults aged over 40 years from a large-scale, hospital-based cohort study collected during 2010-2013. White blood cell counts (WBC) and serum C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP) were used as indexes of immune status. The participants were categorized into four groups by the cutoff points of 6.2 × 109/L WBC(L-WBC) and <0.5 mg/dL CRP(L-CRP): L-WBC+L-CRP(n = 25,604), H-WBC+L-CRP(n = 13,880), L-WBC+H-CRP(n = 464), and H-WBC+H-CRP(n = 820). The participants in the H-WBC+L-CRP were younger and had higher numbers of males than the L-WBC+L-CRP. MetS risk was higher by 1.75- and 1.86-fold in the H-WBC+L-CRP and H-WBC+H-CRP, respectively, than the L-WBC+L-CRP. MetS components, including plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and SBP were elevated in H-WBC+L-CRP and H-WBC+H-CRP compared with L-WBC+L-CR+P. The risk of hyperglycemia and high HbA1c was the highest in the H-WBC+H-CRP among all groups. Areas of WBC counts and serum CRP concentrations were 0.637 and 0.672, respectively, in the receiver operating characteristic curve. Daily intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat was not significantly different in the groups based on WBC counts and CRP. However, a plant-based diet (PBD), physical activity, and non-smoking were related to lowering WBC counts and CRP, but a Western-style diet was linked to elevating CRP. A high PBD intake and smoking status interacted with immunity to influence MetS risk: a low PBD and current smoking were associated with a higher MetS risk in the H-WBC+H-CRP. In conclusion, overactivated immunity determined by CRP and WBC was associated with MetS risk. Behavior modification with PBD and physical activity might be related to immunity regulation.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371819

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer, but causal relationships can only be established by experimental trials. Thus, we aimed to provide a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of an isoflavone intake on risk factors of breast cancer in healthy subjects. After a systematic literature search in PubMed, 18 different RCTs with pre- and/or postmenopausal women were included and investigated for details according to the PRISMA guideline. In these studies, isoflavones were provided by soy food or supplements in amounts between 36.5-235 mg/d for a period of 1-36 months. Breast density, estrogens including precursors, metabolites, estrogen response such as length of menstrual cycle, and markers of proliferation and inflammation were considered. However, in most studies, differences were not detectable between isoflavone and control/placebo treatment despite a good adherence to isoflavone treatment, irrespective of the kind of intervention, the dose of isoflavones used, and the duration of isoflavone treatment. However, the lack of significant changes in most studies does not prove the lack of effects as a sample size calculation was often missing. Taking into account the risk of bias and methodological limitations, there is little evidence that isoflavone treatment modulates risk factors of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. Future studies should calculate the sample size to detect possible effects and consider methodological details to improve the study quality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371828

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that early introduction of allergenic foods may decrease the risk of developing IgE-mediated food allergy. Patterns of food introduction before the 2015 publication of the Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) trial are not well-studied, but are important as a baseline for evaluating subsequent changes in infant feeding practices and potentially food allergy. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study using data from a multicenter cohort of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis between 2011-2014. The primary outcomes were IgE-mediated egg or peanut allergy by age 3 years. Of 770 participants included in the analysis, 635 (82%) introduced egg, and 221 (27%) introduced peanut by age 12 months per parent report. Four participants had likely egg allergy, and eight participants had likely peanut allergy by age 3 years. Regular infant egg consumption was associated with less egg allergy. The association was suggestive for infant peanut consumption with zero peanut allergy cases. Overall, our results suggest that early introduction of peanut was uncommon before 2015. Although limited by the small number of allergy cases, our results suggest that early introduction of egg and peanut are associated with a decreased risk of developing food allergy, and support recent changes in practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Ovos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371980

RESUMO

Food manufacturers are increasingly substituting potassium chloride (KCl) in food products so as to reduce the sodium chloride content. Bread and bread products are common staple foods in many Western households and are a target for recipe reformulation using KCl. Given that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a medical condition of global importance that requires dietary potassium restriction in the later stages, we sought to evaluate the impact and safety of varying levels of KCl substitution in bread products. We undertook a secondary analysis of dietary data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 for 12,152 participants (154 participants with CKD). The sodium chloride content in bread and bread-based products was substituted with 20%, 30%, and 40% of KCl. The contribution of these alterations in the dietary potassium intake to the total daily potassium intake were then examined. The replacement of sodium in bread with varying amounts of KCl (20%, 30%, and 40%) resulted in one third of people with CKD exceeding the safe limits for dietary potassium consumption (31.8%, 32.6%, and 33%, respectively). KCl substitution in staple foods such as bread and bread products have serious and potentially fatal consequences for people who need to restrict dietary potassium. Improved food labelling is required for consumers to avoid excessive consumption.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Potássio/análise , Potássio na Dieta/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Austrália , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the available literature on the introduction of allergenic foods and gluten among preterm infants. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies concerning the introduction of gluten and allergenic foods in preterm infants was performed on PubMed and on the Cochrane Library. RESULTS: Of the 174 PubMed results, 15 papers were considered suitable for the review. A total of 83 records were identified through the Cochrane Library search; eight papers were included in the review. Additional papers were identified from the reference lists of included studies. A secondary search was conducted on the same databases to find recommendations and advice regarding healthy full-term infants that could be translated to preterm infants. Therefore, 59 additional papers were included in the review. CONCLUSIONS: Current guidelines for the introduction of solid food cannot be directly transposed to preterm infants. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding weaning in preterm infants. To date, we can suggest that in preterm infants allergenic foods and gluten may be introduced when complementary feeding is started, any time after 4 months of corrected age, avoiding delayed introduction and irrespective of infants' relative risk of developing allergy. Avoiding large amounts of gluten during the first few weeks after gluten introduction and during infancy is advised, despite limited evidence to support this recommendation.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Dieta/métodos , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/imunologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Política Nutricional
18.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the role of eating quickly, physical inactivity, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in assessing the onset of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in Korean young adults. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between the three risk factors and Mets in 1891 Korean university students (30% female) aged 18-29 years. METHODS: Eating speed (slow vs. fast) and physical activity (active vs. inactive) were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake as an indicator of CRF was assessed with graded exercise testing. Components of Mets were waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). RESULTS: All the three exposures were positively associated with abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated FBG, elevated TG, and decreased HDLC. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of Mets was incremental in the order of physical inactivity (odds ratio, OR = 1.666; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.024-2.708; p = 0.040), fast eating (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.094-2.601; p = 0.018), and poor CRF (OR = 5.378; 95% CI = 3.475-8.325; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that a multifaceted intervention targeting at promotion of physical activity and CRF in concert with healthy eating behaviors should be implemented as a preventive strategy against Mets in Korean university students.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(4): 406-414, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337963

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: 4 alpacas and 2 llamas (11 months to 11 years old) from 2 properties were examined for lethargy (6/6), salivation and regurgitation (4/6), and recumbency (3/6). Signs developed approximately 48 to 72 hours after accidental access to black oil sunflower seeds. CLINICAL FINDINGS: 3 alpacas died suddenly prior to treatment and were necropsied. One llama survived, and 1 alpaca and 1 llama died after days of medical treatment. All 3 treated animals had systemic inflammatory signs including tachycardia, fever, and hematologic changes. Biochemical anomalies included azotemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypoalbuminemia. Necropsy identified numerous sunflower seeds in the gastrointestinal tract of all 5 animals that died, with pulmonary congestion (5/5 animals), mild centrilobular vacuolar hepatic degeneration (4/5), and erosions of the esophagus (3/5) and first (3/5) and third (1/5) compartments of the forestomach. Renal tubular necrosis was found in the 2 animals that died on day 4 of treatment. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: One llama responded successfully to intensive medical management including supplemented IV fluid therapy, oral and partial parenteral nutrition, and administration of antimicrobials, furosemide, and insulin and was clinically normal with plasma biochemical analysis values within reference range 12 weeks later. Vitamin D, oxalates, heavy metals, and mycotoxins were excluded as the cause of clinical signs on the basis of screening of uneaten seeds and tissue samples and gastric content from the treated llama that died. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Inadvertent large volume black oil sunflower seed ingestion resulted in a high mortality rate in camelids. A specific toxic principle was not identified. Feeding this product to camelids is not recommended to avoid the risk of accidental overingestion and subsequent disease.


Assuntos
Azotemia , Camelídeos Americanos , Helianthus , Animais , Azotemia/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos
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