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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(4): 514-526, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440748

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression is shared by both intestinal cells and neurons of brainstem, which plays anorexigenic role on food intake. However, the exact source of physiological GLP-1 influencing food intake and pertinent mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) remain unelucidated. In this study, the immediate early gene product c-Fos was chosen as the specific antigen for immunohistochemistry to show the certain areas of central nervous system (CNS) activation by the GLP-1RA. Thirty normal SD rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups, which were single intraperitoneally injected with Liraglutide (200 µg/kg), Exenatide (10 µg/kg) and saline, respectively. After injection, the amount of food intake and acute glycemic variation were assessed for comparison. The results showed that acute pharmacological dosage of GLP-1RA (Liraglutide or Exenatide) could significantly influence food intake. However, glycemic change indicated that the anorexic effect was dissociated with change in blood glucose in normal rats. Moreover, c-Fos was expressed significantly higher in major critical nuclei related to food intake in GLP-1RA groups when compared with the control group, and its expression was also found in spinal cord. The results suggested that acute administration of pharmacological doses of GLP-1 influences CNS via circulation and vagal pathways, especially on the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS), and GLP-1 modulates autonomic nervous activities.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exenatida/farmacologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Animais , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 34, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that consuming a food bar (FB) containing whey protein and the plant fiber isomalto-oligosaccharides [IMO] had a lower glycemic (GI) but similar insulinemic response as a high GI carbohydrate. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingestion of this FB before, during, and following intense exercise would better maintain glucose homeostasis and performance while hastening recovery in comparison to the common practice of ingesting carbohydrate alone. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained males participated in an open label, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial with a 7-d washout period. Participants consumed a carbohydrate matched dextrose comparitor (CHO) or a FB containing 20 g of whey, 25 g of IMO, and 7 g of fat 30-min before, mid-way, and following intense exercise. Participants performed 11 resistance-exercises (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) followed by agility and sprint conditioning drills for time. Participants donated blood to assess catabolic and inflammatory markers, performed isokinetic strength tests, and rated perceptions of muscle soreness, hypoglycemia before, and following exercise and after 48 h of recovery. Data were analyzed using general linear models (GLM) for repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with a one-way analysis of variance. Data are reported as mean change from baseline with 95% CI. RESULTS: GLM analysis demonstrated that blood glucose was significantly higher 30-min post-ingestion for CHO (3.1 [2.0, 4.3 mmol/L,] and FB (0.8 [0.2, 1.5, mmol/L, p = 0.001) while the post-exercise ratio of insulin to glucose was greater with FB (CHO 0.04 [0.00, 0.08], FB 0.11 [0.07, 0.15], p = 0.013, η2 = 0.25). GLM analysis revealed no significant interaction effects between treatments in lifting volume of each resistance-exercise or total lifting volume. However, analysis of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed that leg press lifting volume (CHO -130.79 [- 235.02, - 26.55]; FB -7.94 [- 112.17, 96.30] kg, p = 0.09, η2 = 0.12) and total lifting volume (CHO -198.26 [- 320.1, - 76.4], FB -81.7 [- 203.6, 40.1] kg, p = 0.175, η2 = 0.08) from set 1 to 3 was significantly reduced for CHO, but not for the FB. No significant interaction effects were observed in ratings of muscle soreness. However, mean change analysis revealed that ratings of soreness of the distal vastus medialis significantly increased from baseline with CHO while being unchanged with FB (CHO 1.88 [0.60, 3.17]; FB 0.29 [- 0.99, 1.57] cm, p = 0.083, η2 = 0.13). No significant GLM interaction or mean change analysis effects were seen between treatments in sprint performance, isokinetic strength, markers of catabolism, stress and sex hormones, or inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Pilot study results provide some evidence that ingestion of this FB can positively affect glucose homeostasis, help maintain workout performance, and lessen perceptions of muscle soreness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, # NCT03704337 . Retrospectively registered 12, July 2018.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Treinamento de Resistência , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Mialgia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(5): 461-465, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444314

RESUMO

The urinary excretion of hydroxyproline (Hyp), abundant in collagen protein, may serve as a biomarker of habitual collagen intake, assisting with investigations of current interest in the role of dietary collagen intake in supporting the synthesis of collagenous body tissues. This study investigated the time course of urinary Hyp excretion in "free-living," healthy, active males following the ingestion of a standardized bolus (20 g) of collagenous (gelatin and a hydrolyzed collagen powder) and dairy (calcium caseinate and hydrolyzed casein) proteins. The excretion of Hyp was assessed over a 24-hr period, separated into three collection periods: 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 hr. Hyp was elevated for 0-6 hr after the consumption of collagen-containing supplements (gelatin 31.3 ± 8.8 mmol/mol and hydrolyzed collagen 33.7 ± 22.0 mmol/mol vs. baseline: gelatin 2.4 ± 1.7 mmol/mol and hydrolyzed collagen 2.8 ± 1.5 mmol/mol; p < .05), but not for the dairy protein supplements (calcium caseinate 3.4 ± 1.7 mmol/mol and hydrolyzed casein 4.0 ± 3.7 mmol/mol; p > .05). Therefore, urinary Hyp reflects an acute intake of collagenous protein, but is not suitable as a biomarker for quantifying habitual collagen intake, provided through regular dietary practices in "free-living," healthy, active males.


Assuntos
Colágeno/administração & dosagem , Hidroxiprolina/urina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Caseínas , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 17-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395200

RESUMO

In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation and lamb performance. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ±â€¯1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: Infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and Uninfected (U, n = 9). The I lambs received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week for three weeks). Daily feed intake was assessed using the I lambs as a reference for their respective pairs on the U group (pair-fed). Weight, body condition score and faeces (stool) samples were obtained every 15 days for 75 days. In both treatments, faecal egg count (FEC), digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa count and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were evaluated. The lambs presented moderate infection (FEC = 620). The retention time of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum segment was lower (P < 0.05) in I lambs. The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.05). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection decreased the retention time (solid and liquid content) of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum, as well as negatively affected lamb growth.


Assuntos
Digestão , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/veterinária , Animais , Apetite , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 73, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455333

RESUMO

The potential effects of dishware size on energy intake are unclear, as many previous studies have been of low methodological quality. A newly published paper by Kosite et al. (IJBNPA 10.1186/s12966-019-0826-1, 2019) reports findings from a rigorous, pre-registered investigation of the effects of manipulating plate size on total energy intake within a single eating occasion. This Editorial considers the implications of these new findings in light of previous evidence pertaining to the efficacy of behavioral nudges in particular, and in relation to contextual drivers of food consumption more generally. We conclude that the potential impact of behavioral nudges may have been exaggerated in the past, and call for future high-quality randomized controlled trials to establish whether reducing dishware size and other behavioral nudges might offer an effective complement to more comprehensive, multi-level interventions to reduce overconsumption of foods and beverages at a population-level.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Humanos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4555-4560, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Treatments for controlling delayed nausea after chemotherapy are inadequate, potentially inciting malnutrition. We sought to determine the incidence of nausea, anorexia, and food intake after chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were females with gynecological cancers who underwent chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013. Nausea, anorexia, and food intake in the acute (day 1) and delayed phases (days 2 and 3) were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Subjects included 156 females. Chemotherapies were highly (HEC; n=24) and moderately emetogenic (MEC; n=132). There were no significant between-group differences for anorexia control during either the acute or the delayed phase and both groups demonstrated significantly worse control of nausea during the delayed phase. In the HEC group, food intake was significantly reduced on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1. CONCLUSION: Rates of nausea, anorexia, and food intake significantly worsened over time, particularly in the MEC group. Current supportive therapies appear inadequate and should be improved.


Assuntos
Anorexia/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anorexia/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/patologia , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/patologia
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116672, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336120

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is not only associated with metabolic diseases but is also a symptom of menopause in women. To date, there are no effective drugs for the management of obesity, and it is important to find new agents with fewer side effects, for the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effect of 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, and its underlying mechanism in rats with ovariectomy-induced obesity. MAIN METHODS: Ovariectomy (Ovx) rats were treated with 17-DMAG (1 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) for eight weeks from one week after surgery. The body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, adipogenic- and autophagy-related protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in sham and Ovx rats. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with sham rats, Ovx rats showed increased weight gain, food intake, WAT mass, TG levels, adipogenic protein expression, and decreased locomotor activity. Furthermore, autophagy-related proteins and Foxo3a of WAT were significantly increased in Ovx rats. However, with the exclusion of increased food intake, the changes induced by Ovx were all reversed in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. In addition, the expression of Hsp70 and phosphorylation of Akt increased in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 17-DMAG significantly ameliorated obesity induced by Ovx, and this phenomenon is accompanied by the downregulation of adipogenic-related and autophagy-related proteins as well as the upregulation of Akt-phosphorylation and Hsp70 expression. Therefore, 17-DMAG may be a potential agent for preventing or treating obesity in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104694, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311645

RESUMO

In dairy cattle, reproductive diseases and infertility are some of the most important reasons for culling, where postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) reduces reproductive performance. This single cohort observational study reports the association between eating time and the interval between calving and first service in 2036 dairy cows on 17 commercial farms in The Netherlands. Cows were equipped with a commercially available neck sensor (Nedap, Groenlo, The Netherlands), that measured the time cows spent eating, from 28 days (d) before until 28 d after parturition. Primiparous cows spent a mean of +45 minutes (min) eating time per day ante partum and +15 min eating time post partum more than multiparous cows. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze eating time variables in relation to the interval between calving and first service. From 4 weeks before until 4 weeks after calving eating time variables per week were used. Weeks -4, -3 + 3 and +4 were used as weeks with stable eating time patterns and therefore the mean eating time per week and the standard deviation of the mean eating time per week were used. Weeks -2, -1, +1 and +2 were addressed as periods with unstable eating patterns and therefore the slope in eating time per week and the residual variance of the slope per week were modeled. Significant results were the mean eating time in week -4 and +3 where in both weeks higher eating time lead to a higher hazard for first service. Difference between primiparous and multiparous cows were also significant with a higher hazard for first service for primiparous cows. Week 4 post partum presented a significant difference between eating time of primiparous cows and multiparous cows. These results display how eating time variables in the transition period could be related to the interval between calving and first service, and that there is a relation between mean eating time in week -4, +3, +4 and the interval between calving and first insemination.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Paridade , Parto , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Países Baixos , Paridade/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tempo
9.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180080, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the self-perception of the food conditions of elderly users of dental prosthesis, in order to verify the interference that dental prosthesis has in their feeding. METHODS: The present study counted with 60 elderly, participants of the Centro de Convivência Nair Ventorin Gurgacz (Community Center), aged between 60 and 88 years old. All participants answered to a questionnaire elaborated by the researchers and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). RESULTS: The elderly who participated in this study, mostly women, used a bimaxillary removable prosthesis for over 30 years; although they classified their nutrition as "good" and did not present preference for specific food consistency, they frequently felt pain while chewing. The average score of the GOHAI was 29.73, considered "low", the index dimension with worst score was physical function, that includes eating, speaking and swallowing. No relation was observed between time of use of dental prosthesis, age and the GOHAI scores. CONCLUSION: The elderly rarely complaint about discomfort or embarrassment on feeding, however, they present an average lower than expected in the GOHAI index, which indicates that, although they do not report it, many deteriorations, that seem to be natural may be happening and may be the cause of worst quality of life.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição/fisiologia , Prótese Dentária/efeitos adversos , Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 241, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge in modern medicine and animal husbandry is the issue of antimicrobial resistance. One approach to solving this potential medical hazard is the selection of farm animals with less susceptibility to infectious diseases. Recent advances in functional genome analysis and quantitative genetics have opened the horizon to apply genetic marker information for efficiently identifying animals with preferential predisposition regarding health traits. The current study characterizes functional traits with a focus on udder health in dairy heifers. The animals were selected for having inherited alternative paternal haplotypes for a genomic region on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA) 18 genetically associated with divergent susceptibility to longevity and animal health, particularly mastitis. RESULTS: In the first weeks of lactation, the q heifers which had inherited the unfavorable (q) paternal haplotype displayed a significantly higher number of udder quarters with very low somatic cell count (< 10,000 cells / ml) compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. This might result in impaired mammary gland sentinel function towards invading pathogens. Furthermore, across the course of the first lactation, there was indication that q half-sib heifers showed higher somatic cell counts, a surrogate trait for udder health, in whole milkings compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. Moreover, heifers with the haplotype Q had a higher feed intake and higher milk yield compared to those with the q haplotype. Results of this study indicate that differences in milk production and calculated energy balance per se are not the main drivers of the genetically determined differences between the BTA18 Q and q groups of heifers. CONCLUSIONS: The paternally inherited haplotype from a targeted BTA18 genomic region affect somatic cell count in udder quarters during the early postpartum period and might also contribute to further aspects of animal's health and performance traits due to indirect effects on feed intake and metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Herança Paterna , Animais , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Lactação/genética , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/genética , Período Pós-Parto
11.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(1): 72-87, Ene-Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006792

RESUMO

Diversos organismos internacionales reconocen a los problemas de desórdenes nutricionales como una problemática de salud que afecta a todo el mundo. La forma en que los seres humanos asumen su alimentación repercute en su disposición intrínseca ante las enfermedades, siendo particularmente impactante durante las etapas tempranas de la vida, sobre todo en edades prees-colares por su incidencia en el desarrollo del individuo. Alrededor de esta situación, los autores del manuscrito que se presenta realizaron un análisis epidemiológico y salubrista desde diferentes posicionamientos establecidos en la bibliografía que fue consultada.


Several international organizations recognize the problems of nutritional disorders as a health problem that affects the entire world. The way how human beings assume their food has an impact on their intrinsic disposition towards diseases, being particularly striking in the early stages of life, especially in pre-school age because of its impact on the development of the individual. About this situation, the authors of the manuscript carried out an epidemiological and salubrious analysis from different positions established in the reviewed literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório , Ingestão de Alimentos , Nutrição em Saúde Pública , Estado Nutricional , Fome , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Orais e do Sistema Digestório
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6766-6780, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229285

RESUMO

This study describes the effects on glycemic response and the underlying mechanisms of action of increasing the protein concentration and decreasing the casein-to-whey ratio in milk when consumed with a high glycemic breakfast cereal. Twelve healthy men and women, aged 18 to 30 yr and with a body mass index of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2, consumed (in random order) milk beverages (250 mL) containing either 3.1 or 9.3% protein and casein-to-whey ratios of either 80:20 or 40:60. We measured postprandial appetite, glucose, regulatory hormones, and stomach emptying rate over 200 min, as well as food intake at an ad libitum meal at 120 min. Although pre-meal appetite was suppressed to a greater extent with milk beverages that had high (9.3%) compared with regular (3.1%) protein content, food intake was similar among all 4 treatments. Pre-meal mean blood glucose was lower with beverages that had high rather than regular milk protein content, with the lowest glucose peaks after the high milk protein treatment with the 40:60 casein-to-whey ratio. Pre-meal insulin and C-peptide levels were not affected by milk protein content or casein-to-whey ratio, but pre-meal glucagon-like peptide 1 was higher after the treatment containing high milk protein and the 40:60 casein-to-whey ratio, and pre-meal cholecystokinin was higher after the treatments containing high milk protein content. Plasma paracetamol response was also lower after the treatments containing high compared with regular milk protein content. When consumed with carbohydrate, milk beverages with high protein content and (to a lesser extent) a decreased casein-to-whey ratio lowered postprandial glycemia through insulin-independent mechanisms, primarily associated with delayed stomach emptying.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Desjejum , Caseínas/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Período Pós-Prandial , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/análise , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7204-7216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202643

RESUMO

A good health status of high-performing dairy cows is essential for successful production. Feed intake affects the metabolic stability of dairy cows and can be used as a measurement for energy balance. By implementing feed intake and energy balance into the breeding goal, these traits provide great potential for an improvement in the health of dairy cows by breeders. In this study, fixed and random regression models were tested to establish appropriate models for a further analysis of this approach. A total of 1,374 Holstein-Friesian cows and 327 Simmental cows (SI) from 12 German research farms participating in a collaboration called optiKuh were phenotyped. Feed intake data recording was standardized across farms, and energy balance was calculated using phenotypic information on milk yield, milk ingredients, live weight, gestation stage, and feed intake. The phenotypic data set consisted of a total of 40,012 Holstein-Friesian and 16,996 SI with average weekly dry matter intakes of 21.8 ± 4.3 and 20.2 ± 3.6 kg/d, respectively. Observations of days in milk 1 to 350 were used to evaluate the best-fitting models and to estimate the repeatability and correlations between cow effects at different stages for feed intake and energy balance. Four parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer and Legendre polynomials of second, third, and fourth degree) were compared to model the lactation curves. Based on the corrected Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion, the goodness of fit was evaluated to choose the best-fitting model for the finest description of lactation curves for the traits energy balance and feed intake. Legendre polynomial fourth degree was the best-fitting model for random regression models. In contrast, Ali and Schaeffer was the best choice for fixed regression models. Feed intake and energy balance acted as expected: the feed intake increased slowly at the beginning of lactation and the negative energy balance switched to a positive range around 40 to 80 d of lactation. The repeatabilities of both traits were quite similar and the repeatabilities for SI were the highest for both traits. Additionally, correlations between cow effects were closest between early days in milk. These results emphasize the possibility that the unique optiKuh data set can be used for further genetic analyses to enable genomic selection for feed intake or energy balance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2769, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235690

RESUMO

Loss of appetite or anorexia associated with inflammation impairs quality of life and increases morbidity in many diseases. However, the exact neural mechanism that mediates inflammation-associated anorexia is still poorly understood. Here we identified a population of neurons, marked by the expression of protein kinase C-delta, in the oval region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), which are activated by various inflammatory signals. Silencing of these neurons attenuates the anorexia caused by these inflammatory signals. Our results demonstrate that these neurons mediate bidirectional control of general feeding behaviors. These neurons inhibit the lateral hypothalamus-projecting neurons in the ventrolateral part of BNST to regulate feeding, receive inputs from the canonical feeding regions of arcuate nucleus and parabrachial nucleus. Our data therefore define a BNST microcircuit that might coordinate canonical feeding centers to regulate food intake, which could offer therapeutic targets for feeding-related diseases such as anorexia and obesity.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia/etiologia , Anorexia/prevenção & controle , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
15.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(7-8): 36, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203436

RESUMO

Availability of food resources affects animal survival and reproduction. Thus, coping with changes in food availability is one of the most crucial behavioural and physiological processes in wildlife. Food intake is a key concept in animal ecology that is directly conditioned by food quality and abundance or diet choice, but may also vary according to individual-related factors (e.g. foraging behaviours, social rank or energy-demanding periods) and the influence of the endocrine system on energy metabolism. Here, we studied food intake in relation to individual characteristics (sex, breeding condition and age) and whether steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone metabolites) mediate food intake in wild wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Field work was carried out in February-March 2014 in Monte de Valdelatas (Madrid, Spain). Wood mice were live-trapped for 10 consecutive days in four independent plots. Traps were baited with 4 g of toasted corn and food intake was calculated by subtracting the remaining bait found inside traps. Fresh faecal samples from 130 different wood mice were collected and faecal testosterone and corticosterone metabolites (FTM and FCM, respectively) were analysed by enzyme immunoassays. Food intake was higher in females than males, probably due to greater energy requirements. Non-breeders and young individuals also showed a higher food intake. These individuals usually hold a lower social rank which is associated to limited food resources because of dominants; thus, increased food intake may be a result of freely exploit food bait inside traps while avoiding risky competition. In addition, food intake negatively correlated with FTM levels and positively with FCM levels indicating that both hormones have an active role mediating food intake in the wood mouse. Our data suggest that food intake is a function of both individual traits and the endocrine system that accordingly respond throughout different energy-demanding periods.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Murinae/fisiologia , Animais , Corticosterona/análise , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Espanha , Testosterona/análise
16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 461, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The improvement of feed efficiency is a key economic goal within the pig production industry. The objective of this study was to examine transcriptomic differences in both the liver and muscle of pigs divergent for feed efficiency, thus improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms influencing feed efficiency and enabling the identification of candidate biomarkers. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for two populations of pigs from two different farms of origin/genotype. The 6 most efficient (LRFI) and 6 least efficient (HRFI) animals from each population were selected for further analysis of Longissimus Dorsi muscle (n = 22) and liver (n = 23). Transcriptomic data were generated from liver and muscle collected post-slaughter. RESULTS: The transcriptomic data segregated based on the RFI value of the pig rather than genotype/farm of origin. A total of 6463 genes were identified as being differentially expressed (DE) in muscle, while 964 genes were identified as being DE in liver. Genes that were commonly DE between muscle and liver (n = 526) were used for the multi-tissue analysis. These 526 genes were associated with protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and immune function. In the muscle-only analysis, genes associated with RNA processing, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were down regulated in the LRFI animals while in the liver-only analysis, genes associated with cell signalling and lipid homeostasis were up regulated in the LRFI animals. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the transcriptome segregated on pig RFI value rather than the genotype/farm of origin. Multi-tissue analysis identified that genes associated with GO terms protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and a range of terms relating to immune function were over represented in the differentially expressed genes of both liver and muscle.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Suínos/metabolismo
17.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(Suppl 1): 36-38, 2019 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189848

RESUMO

To improve the quality ofmeals in communities, "Keiji study group on dysphagia" was founded in 2010. With the "Project for Self-Help Tableware involving Traditional Arts and Crafts," we will introduce an innovative community collaboration of cultural specialists,. The existing self-help tableware are not suitable for traditional feasts. Therefore, to produce new self-help tableware, we collaborated with cooks, designers, potters, and a lacquer ware company. To ensure a comfortable traditional feast, the backgrounds and cultural manners ofeach ofthese specialists were integrated. Finally, traditional Japanese style tableware was produced through repeated trial manufacturing. We offered patients with eating disorders a Japanese style feast that ameliorates swallowing and we had them use the produced tableware. The observers, the patients, and patients' families approved of the tableware because it increased their appetite and they developed a positive attitude toward eating. In the future, the need for food that ameliorates swallowing will increase. This new eating culture is not only concerned with the production off ood, but also with the presentation ofits tableware. We are planning to support the development ofsuch a cuisine through a sponsored project, which will encourage collaboration between local manufacturing of traditional culture and occupational therapy.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão
18.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(5): 334-344, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible long-term health effects of the defoamer used in seawater desalination by sub-chronic toxicity testing. METHODS: Blood analysis, internal organ assessment, and histopathological examination were carried out in rats exposed to low, medium, and high (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg BW, respectively) doses of defoamer for 90 days through oral administration. RESULTS: The high dose group showed decreased blood alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05). All doses resulted in a significant increase in albumin and decrease in globulin (P < 0.05). The direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were decreased in the medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05). All dose groups showed significant induction of alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed a case of liver mononuclear cell infiltration in the medium dose group and three cases of liver congestion, steatosis of hepatic cells around the central vein, and punctate necrosis with multiple focal mononuclear cell infiltration in male rats administered the high dose. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level was 0.5 g/kg BW in rats, with albumin and total bilirubin as health effect indices. CONCLUSION: Long-term defoamer exposure may cause liver injury but has no significant impact on renal function in rats. The effect on blood cells in female rats was more prominent than that in male rats.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 701, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental support is an important element in overweight prevention programs for children. The purpose of this study was to examine everyday life situations in which mothers encounter difficulties encouraging healthy energy balance-related behavior in their school-age children. METHODS: We formed four focus groups containing 6-9 participants each. The participants were mothers of Dutch, Turkish, or Moroccan descent with a child 8-13 years of age. All focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Content was analyzed conventionally using ATLAS.ti 6. RESULTS: Twenty-seven difficult everyday life situations were identified in 14 settings. The five most frequently reported situations were a daily struggle regarding eating vegetables, eating breakfast on time before going to school, eating candy and snacks between meals, and spending excessive time watching television and using the computer. A perceived loss of parental control, the inability to establish rules and the failure to consistently enforce those rules were the most commonly cited reasons for why the mothers experience these situations as being difficult. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five difficult everyday life situations related to healthy energy balance-related behavior. These five difficult situations were used as the input for developing a web-based parenting program designed to prevent children from becoming overweight. We reasoned that if we use these situations and the underlying reasons, many parents would recognize these situations and are willing to learn how to deal with them and complete the e-learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Percepção , Turquia/etnologia
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7248-7262, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155258

RESUMO

Currently, routine recordings of dry matter intake (DMI) in commercial herds are practically nonexistent. Recording DMI from commercial herds is a prerequisite for the inclusion of feed efficiency (FE) traits in dairy cattle breeding goals. To develop future on-farm phenotyping strategies, recording strategies that are low cost and less demanding logistically and that give relatively accurate estimates of the animal's genetic merit are therefore needed. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate genetic parameters for daily DMI and FE traits and use the estimated parameters to simulate daily DMI phenotypes under different DMI recording scenarios (SCN) and (2) to use the simulated data to estimate for different scenarios the associated reliability of estimated breeding value and accuracies of genomic prediction for varying sizes of reference populations. Five on-farm daily DMI recording scenarios were simulated: once weekly (SCN1), once monthly (SCN2), every 2 mo (SCN3), every 3 mo (SCN4), and every 4 mo (SCN5). To estimate reliability of estimated breeding values, DMI and FE observations and true breeding values were simulated based on variance components estimated for daily observations of Nordic Red cows. To emulate realistic on-farm recording, 5 data set replicates, each with 36,037 DMI and FE records, were simulated for real pedigree and data structure of 789 Holstein cows. Observations for the 5 DMI recording scenarios were generated by discarding data in a step-wise manner from the full simulated data per the scenario's definitions. For each of these scenarios, reliabilities were calculated as correlation between the true and estimated breeding values. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated for daily DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) fitting the random regression model. Data for variance components were from 227 primiparous Nordic Red dairy cows covering 8 to 280 d in milk. Lactation-wise heritability for DMI, RFI, and ECE was 0.33, 0.12, and 0.32, respectively, and daily heritability estimates during lactation ranged from 0.18 to 0.45, 0.08 to 0.32, and 0.08 to 0.45 for DMI, RFI, and ECE, respectively. Genetic correlations for DMI between different stages of lactation ranged from -0.50 to 0.99. The comparison of different on-farm DMI recording scenarios indicated that adopting a less-frequent recording scenario (SCN3) gave a similar level of accuracy as SCN1 when 17 more daughters are recorded per sire over the 46 needed for SCN1. Such a strategy is less demanding logistically and is low cost because fewer observations need to be collected per animal. The accuracy of genomic predictions associated with the 5 recording scenarios indicated that setting up a relatively larger reference population and adopting a less-frequent DMI sampling scenario (e.g., SCN3) is promising. When the same reference population size was considered, the genomic prediction accuracy of SCN3 was only 5.0 to 7.0 percentage points lower than that for the most expensive DMI recording strategy (SCN1). We concluded that DMI recording strategies that are sparse in terms of records per cow but with slightly more cows recorded per sire are advantageous both in genomic selection and in traditional progeny testing schemes when accuracy, logistics, and cost implications are considered.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Genômica , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Registros/veterinária , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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