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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3949-3952, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018864

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to elucidate the dynamic mechanism of infant tongue movement during sucking. We developed an integrated device with sensors for three-dimensional force measurements applied by the tongue to an artificial nipple. Three mini-size built-in cantilever sensors were installed in each of three sides of the regular hexagonal prism (nine sensors in total) inside the artificial nipple. Signals from the force sensors were amplified and displayed on a PC monitor via USB in real time. We conducted measurements using the system and confirmed that signals were outputted from all nine sensors. The output waveforms and force distributions showed that the force applied was larger at the nipple tip than at the nipple root and moved from the nipple root to the nipple tip.


Assuntos
Mamilos , Comportamento de Sucção , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Monitorização Fisiológica , Língua
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4191-4195, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018921

RESUMO

With technological advancement, wearable egocentric camera systems have extensively been studied to develop food intake monitoring devices for the assessment of eating behavior. This paper provides a detailed description of the implementation of CNN based image classifier in the Cortex-M7 microcontroller. The proposed network classifies the captured images by the wearable egocentric camera as food and no food images in real-time. This real-time food image detection can potentially lead the monitoring devices to consume less power, less storage, and more user-friendly in terms of privacy by saving only images that are detected as food images. A derivative of pre-trained MobileNet is trained to detect food images from camera captured images. The proposed network needs 761.99KB of flash and 501.76KB of RAM to implement which is built for an optimal trade-off between accuracy, computational cost, and memory footprint considering implementation on a Cortex-M7 microcontroller. The image classifier achieved an average precision of 82%±3% and an average F-score of 74%±2% while testing on 15343 (2127 food images and 13216 no food images) images of five full days collected from five participants.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Coleta de Dados , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Humanos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22534, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019459

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Foreign bodies are frequently ingested, but only approximately 1% of them cause perforation. Perforations in the lesser curvature of the stomach are exceedingly rare. Here, we report a case of gastric perforation in the lesser curvature caused by a foreign body. The patient presented to the clinic complaining of abdominal skin swelling and reddening with upper abdominal discomfort as the initial symptoms. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 83-year-old female presented with a mass in the middle of the epigastrium for 10 days. Physical examination found an apparent local tenderness and inflammatory mass in the upper abdominal wall. Her body temperature was normal (37.5°C) and the white blood cell count was elevated (8.12 × 10/L [reference value 3.5-9.5 × 10/L]). DIAGNOSES: The ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed a 4 cm strip-like hyperechoic object entangled in the muscles of the abdominal wall. The computed tomography scan revealed a thin strip of bone-like hyperdense shadow. Intraoperative findings showed a sharp fishbone protruding from the lesser curvature of the stomach into the abdominal cavity, part of which remained in the gastric cavity. The postoperative pathological report revealed chronic suppurative inflammation with abscess and sinus canal formation. INTERVENTIONS & OUTCOMES: The patient underwent a gastric foreign body removal with partial gastrectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatment post-surgery rapidly relieved the patient's symptoms of discomfort in the upper abdomen. At the 1-month follow-up, the patient showed no discomfort in the upper abdomen and the inflammatory mass was no longer present. LESSONS: A foreign body had penetrated through the lesser curvature of the stomach, an area with a flat gastric wall, which occurs infrequently. In such cases, computed tomography is the gold standard for diagnosis of foreign bodies in the digestive tract. Ultrasound can also be used as a supplemental diagnostic technique. It is recommended that people who wear dentures should exercise caution while eating, especially when the food contains bones.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/patologia , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Inflamação/etiologia , Pele/patologia , Estômago/cirurgia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Perfuração Espontânea , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/métodos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5445-5456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Dietary interventions like time-restricted feeding (TRF) show promising anti-cancer properties. We examined whether therapeutic TRF alone or combined with immunotherapy would diminish renal tumor growth in mice of varying body weights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young (7 week) chow-fed or older (27 week) high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice were orthotopically injected with renal tumor cells expressing luciferase. After tumor establishment, mice were randomized to ad libitum feeding or TRF +/- anti-CTLA-4. Body composition, tumor viability and growth, and immune responses were quantified. RESULTS: TRF alone reduced renal tumor bioluminescence in older HFD-fed, but not young chow-fed mice. In the latter, TRF mitigated tumor-induced loss of lean- and fat-mass. However, TRF did not alter excised renal tumor weights or intratumoral immune responses and failed to improve anti-CTLA-4 outcomes in any mice. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic TRF exhibits modest anti-cancer properties but fails to improve anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade in murine renal cancer.


Assuntos
Jejum , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although assessing nutrient intake through dietary surveys is desirable, it can be effort- and time-intensive. We aimed to develop a brief screening method for determining sodium intake in order to raise public awareness regarding the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRI-J) 2020. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey, we compared dietary behaviours obtained from a self-administered questionnaire according to sodium intake, which was assessed from one-day dietary records by a semi-weighed method. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the reference values of sodium (salt equivalent) shown in the DRI-J. We also randomly divided the participants into development and validation groups, and used logistic regression analysis to identify predictive factors for sex-specific DRI-J (<7.5 g/day in men and <6.5 g/day in women) and above-average intakes (≥10 g/day in men and women). RESULTS: Among the 6,172 Japanese individuals aged ≥20 years old, participants with lower sodium intake were found to use nutrition labels and had a lower frequency of eating out than those with higher intakes (P for difference < .001). Our final model for predicting sodium intake included adjusted sex, age, dietary behaviours, and consumption of mainly processed foods. In the development group, areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.747 and 0.741 for adherence to sex-specific DRI-J and above-average intake, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation group were 0.734 and 0.730, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This method could easily identify sodium intake using dietary behaviours and specific food consumption, and is expected to be widely useful for health and nutrition education in Japan.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 152-155, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation can be categorized into three groups: acute, habitual or recurrent, and long-standing. Long-standing TMJ dislocation refers to a condition that persists for more than one month without reduction. Long-standing dislocation of the TMJ is rare and the most challenging and difficult to treat of the three. CASE REPORT: The present case study relates to a 53-year-old woman with long-standing TMJ dislocation of a year's duration who presented for treatment. Due to this condition, she was unable to take food orally, and nutrition was managed by gastrostomy tube feeding. She also suffered from schizophrenia and had been admitted to a closed hospital. Bilateral mandibular condylectomy was performed, restoring oral function. However, post-reduction, an open bite remained, restricting the types of food that she could eat. Additional intermaxillary fixation and intermaxillary traction would have been required for an optimal outcome, but they were not possible for this patient. CONCLUSION: Despite an inability to provide comprehensive treatment, due to patient-related factors, occlusal and masticatory functions were restored to adequate levels following bilateral condylectomy alone. This enabled oral feeding and improved her quality of life.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Côndilo Mandibular/cirurgia , Mastigação , Boca/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915803

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower ß-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/classificação , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1070-1073, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790662

RESUMO

Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam that contains ethanol or isopropanol used to disinfect hands. Hand hygiene is an important component of the U.S. response to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If soap and water are not readily available, CDC recommends the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products that contain at least 60% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) in community settings (1); in health care settings, CDC recommendations specify that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should contain 60%-95% alcohol (≥60% ethanol or ≥70% isopropanol) (2). According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates alcohol-based hand sanitizers as an over-the-counter drug, methanol (methyl alcohol) is not an acceptable ingredient. Cases of ethanol toxicity following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products have been reported in persons with alcohol use disorder (3,4). On June 30, 2020, CDC received notification from public health partners in Arizona and New Mexico of cases of methanol poisoning associated with ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The case reports followed an FDA consumer alert issued on June 19, 2020, warning about specific hand sanitizers that contain methanol. Whereas early clinical effects of methanol and ethanol poisoning are similar (e.g., headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness), persons with methanol poisoning might develop severe anion-gap metabolic acidosis, seizures, and blindness. If left untreated methanol poisoning can be fatal (5). Survivors of methanol poisoning might have permanent visual impairment, including complete vision loss; data suggest that vision loss results from the direct toxic effect of formate, a toxic anion metabolite of methanol, on the optic nerve (6). CDC and state partners established a case definition of alcohol-based hand sanitizer-associated methanol poisoning and reviewed 62 poison center call records from May 1 through June 30, 2020, to characterize reported cases. Medical records were reviewed to abstract details missing from poison center call records. During this period, 15 adult patients met the case definition, including persons who were American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN). All had ingested an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and were subsequently admitted to a hospital. Four patients died and three were discharged with vision impairment. Persons should never ingest alcohol-based hand sanitizer, avoid use of specific imported products found to contain methanol, and continue to monitor FDA guidance (7). Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for methanol poisoning when evaluating adult or pediatric patients with reported swallowing of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer product or with symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings (e.g., elevated anion-gap metabolic acidosis) compatible with methanol poisoning. Treatment of methanol poisoning includes supportive care, correction of acidosis, administration of an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor (e.g., fomepizole), and frequently, hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Higienizadores de Mão/envenenamento , Metanol/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Higienizadores de Mão/química , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140666, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758824

RESUMO

Studies documenting plastic ingestion in animals have increased in recent years. Many do not describe the less conspicuous, sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion, such as reduced body condition or physiological changes. This means the severity of this global problem may have been underestimated. We conducted a critical review on the sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion on marine vertebrates (excluding fish). We found 34 papers which tried to measure plastics' impact using a variety of tools, and less than half of these detected any impact. The most common tools used were visual observations and body condition indices. Tools that explore animal physiology, such as histopathology, are a promising future approach to uncover the sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion in vertebrates. We encourage exploring impacts on species beyond the marine environment, using multiple tools or approaches, and continued research to discern the hidden impacts of plastic on global wildlife.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Vertebrados
12.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 409-415, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia is related to health issues among children and adolescents, once the uric acid concentration is associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. However, few studies are addressing uric acid levels and food uptake in this age group. AIM: To verify the association between food consumption and uric acid in children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study developed with 2335 children and adolescents of both genders aged 6-17 years old. Blood collection was performed after 12 h of fasting. Uric acid values were classified according to tertiles, in which the highest tertile was considered as hyperuricemia. Food consumption was evaluated by weekly consumption frequency questionnaire. Pearson correlation and logistic binary regressions were used for statistical analysis. Models were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and skin color/ethnicity. RESULTS: It was found an association between red meat consumption and hyperuricemia only in boys in the crude model (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.12; 2.18). Also, there was an association between pasta (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.11; 2.10) with hyperuricemia in boys, when adjusted age, systolic blood pressure, BMI, and skin color/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of food patterns which are predisposing factors for the increase in serum uric acid levels is important for the implementation of strategies and public health policies for health promotion among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Regulação para Cima
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817619

RESUMO

Diet is believed to play a major role in maternal recovery, postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is one of the challenges for Chinese women. However, the association between puerperal women's diet and PPWR remained unclear and complicated in China. The study assessed the dietary quality of puerperal women using adjusted Chinese Dietary Balance Index-16 (DBI-16) and explored its associations with PPWR. Participants were enrolled in the Mother-Infant Cohort Study of China. Dietary intake and demographic characteristics were obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and a self-designed questionnaire at 0-3 months postpartum. PPWR was calculated by the weight difference at 0-3months and 6-8months postpartum minus pre-pregnancy weight. Dietary quality was assessed using adjusted DBI-16. 316 puerperal women were enrolled. According to adjusted DBI-16, 84.8% of participants had an insufficient dietary intake (vegetables 84.8%, fruits 91.8%, dairy 87.3%, soybean 61.4% and aquatic foods 79.4%, respectively), 67.1% had an excessive intake (cereals 60%, meat 57.3% and eggs 64.9%, respectively), 98.4% had an imbalanced diet consumption. PPWR at 0-3, and 6-8 months were 6.0 (±5.1) kg and 5.2 (±7.7) kg, and the percentage of PPWR (≥5kg) were 63.0% and 52.8% respectively. Multivariable linear regression showed the intake of fish and shrimp at 0-3 months postpartum was negatively associated with PPWR at 6-8 months (ß = -0.114, SE = 0.279, p < 0.05). The diet quality of Chinese puerperal women was unreasonable and imbalanced. Fish intake tended to be a favorable factor for postpartum weight loss.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Adulto , China , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1284: 23-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852737

RESUMO

Food intake and energy homeostasis determine survival of the organism and species. Information on total energy levels and metabolic state are sensed in the periphery and transmitted to the brain, where it is integrated and triggers the animal to forage, prey, and consume food. Investigating circuitry and cellular mechanisms coordinating energy balance and feeding behaviors has drawn on many state-of-the-art techniques, including gene manipulation, optogenetics, virus tracing, and single-cell sequencing. These new findings provide novel insights into how the central nervous system regulates food intake, and shed the light on potential therapeutic interventions for eating-related disorders such as obesity and anorexia.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Homeostase , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21055, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629732

RESUMO

Food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization are common allergic diseases worldwide, with widely varying estimates of prevalence in children. Our study investigated the characteristics of ingestion and inhalation allergy among children from Sichuan province in Southwest China, so as to get public awareness of these disorders.A total of 1722 children between 0 and 14 years' old were enrolled in this study. They were outpatients in the West China Second University Hospital during June 2019 to September 2019. Serum specific IgE specific to 10 types of food allergen and 10 types of aeroallergen were estimated. Nutrition indicators were tested by electrochemical luminescence.59.70% children were allergic to at least 1 allergen, comprising 24.90% to aeroallergen and 38.81% to food allergen, respectively, whereas 36.28% children were allergic to both aeroallergen and food allergen. Milk was the most common food allergen, and egg came in second place. With regard to aeroallergen, house dust mite held the maximum proportion (65.02%), whereas dust mite followed behind. Inhalation allergy was more commonly seen in boys than girls. Bronchitis was the most common symptom of both allergies. In addition, the highest incidence age for children to be sensitive to food allergen and aeroallergen were 0∼2 years' old and 3∼5 years' old, respectively. It is worth mentioning that there was no significant difference in nutritional status between children with or without allergic diseases.Our findings reveal that milk, egg, house dust mite, and dust mite are the most common allergens among children in Sichuan province. Boys are more susceptible to aeroallergen than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of ingestion and inhalation allergy varies from different age groups, and has no correlation with nutritional status. In brief, the analysis of the pattern of food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization is invaluable to effective diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conscientização , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
18.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 192-201, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693020

RESUMO

Fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is an environmental endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicant. An early report found that pubertal exposure to high-dose fenvalerate impaired cognitive and behavioral development. Here, we aimed to further investigate the effect of pubertal exposure to low-dose fenvalerate on cognitive and behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with fenvalerate (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) daily from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze. Anxiety-related activities were detected by open-field and elevated plus-maze. Increased anxiety activities were observed only in females exposed to fenvalerate. Spatial learning and memory were damaged only in females exposed to fenvalerate. Histopathology observed numerous scattered shrinking neurons and nuclear pyknosis in hippocampal CA1 region. Neuronal density was reduced in hippocampal CA1 region of fenvalerate-exposed mice. Mechanistically, hippocampal thyroid hormone receptor (TR)ß1 was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in females. In addition, TRα1 was declined only in females exposed to 5.0 mg/kg fenvalerate. Taken together, these suggests that pubertal exposure to low-dose fenvalerate impairs cognitive and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. Hippocampal TR signaling may be, at least partially, involved in fenvalerate-induced impairment of cognitive and behavioral development.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurônios/patologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 144-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate fiber intake is associated with digestive health and reduced risk of several noncommunicable diseases and is recognized as essential for human health (World Health Organization, 2003). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily fiber consumption of ≥25 g, but previous studies observed a fiber intake in Brazil lower than recommended. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe fiber intake among adults in Brazil and also respondents' knowledge and perceptions about their fiber intake. METHODS: National online survey with community-dwelling Brazilian individuals. The survey was conducted during September 2018, using an online platform with closed-ended questions. A representative sample of Brazilian internet users stratified by sex, age, socioeconomic status and geographic region was adopted. Sample size was calculated using a 2% error margin and 95% confidence interval (n=2,000). Data was descriptively analyzed using measures of frequency, central tendency and dispersion. RESULTS: Sample included 2,000 individuals who were well-balanced in terms of sex (51.2% female), with mean age of 35.9 years (most represented age group was 35-54 years, 39.6%) and from all country geographic regions (49.4% from Southeast). A total of 69.7% of them consider their usual diet as healthy and 78.4% reported consuming fibers regularly. Fibers from natural sources are consumed at least once a day by 69.5% of the sample, while daily fiber supplements were reported by 29.9%. Absence of regular fiber intake was reported by 21.7% of respondents and the most common reason was "lack of knowledge about fiber sources" (39.3%). When informed about the food sources of each type of fiber (soluble and insoluble) and asked about the regular intake, only 2.5% answered that they do not consume any of them regularly (as opposed to 21.7% before receiving information about specific fiber sources). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that fiber intake in Brazil is probably insufficient with a high proportion of individuals reporting irregular or absent ingestion of fiber sources in their daily lives. Lack of knowledge about fiber sources and fiber types seems to play a role in this inadequate intake, highlighting the need for nutritional education to achieve healthy dietary patterns in the country.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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