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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 775, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment alongside individual and nursing care variables on eating dependence among residents who are cognitively impaired and living in a nursing home. METHOD: A multicentre observational study was carried out in 2017: 13 Italian nursing homes were involved in data collection. Included residents were aged > 65 at baseline, living in the considered facility for the last 6 months and during the entire study period and having received at least one comprehensive assessment. Data were collected (a) at the individual level: eating dependence using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Scale and other clinical variables; (b) at the nursing care level with daily interventions to maintain eating independence assessed with a checklist; and (c) at the nursing home level, using the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-seven residents were included with an average age of 85.32 years old (95% CI: 84.74-85.89), mainly female (781; 76%). The path analysis explained the 57.7% variance in eating dependence. Factors preventing eating dependence were: (a) at the individual level, increased functional dependence measured with the Barthel Index (ß - 2.374); eating in the dining room surrounded by residents (ß - 1.802) as compared to eating alone in bed; and having a close relationship with family relatives (ß - 0.854), (b) at the nursing care level, the increased number of interventions aimed at promoting independence (ß - 0.524); and (c) at the NH level, high scores in 'Space setting' (ß - 4.446), 'Safety' (ß - 3.053), 'Lighting' (ß - 2.848) and 'Outdoor access' (ß - 1.225). However, environmental factors at the unit level were found to have also indirect effects by influencing the degree of functional dependence, the occurrence of night restlessness and the number of daily interventions performed by the nursing staff. CONCLUSION: Eating dependence is a complex phenomenon requiring interventions targeting individual, nursing care, and environmental levels. The NH environment had the largest direct and indirect effect on residents' eating dependence, thus suggesting that at this level appropriate interventions should be designed and implemented.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ambiente de Instituições de Saúde , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 993-1003, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755019

RESUMO

Terpenes, volatile plant secondary compounds produced by woody plants, have historically been thought to act as feeding deterrents for mammalian herbivores. However, three species of woodrats, Neotoma stephensi, N. lepida, and N. albigula, regularly consume juniper, which is high in terpenes, and N. stephensi and N. lepida are considered juniper specialists. By investigating the terpene profiles in Juniperus monosperma and J. osteosperma, which are browsed or avoided by woodrats in the field, and recording the caching and consumption of juniper foliage by woodrats in the lab, we have evidence that terpenes may serve as feeding and/or foraging cues. The obligate specialist N. stephensi chose to forage on trees higher in p-cymene and preferred to consume juniper rather than caching it in a laboratory setting. These observations provide evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding cue and that the obligate specialist's physiological mechanism for metabolizing the terpenes present in juniper may negate the need for caching. The facultative specialist N. lepida chose to forage on trees lower in four terpenes and cached more juniper than the obligate specialist N. stephensi, providing evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding deterrent for N. lepida and that this woodrat species relies on behavioral mechanisms to minimize terpene intake. The generalist N. albigula foraged on trees with higher terpenes levels but consumed the least amount of juniper in the lab and preferred to cache juniper rather than consume it, evidence that terpenes act as foraging but not feeding cues in the generalist. Our findings suggest that volatile plant secondary compounds can act as feeding and/or foraging cues and not just feeding deterrents in mammalian herbivores.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Coelhos , Roedores/metabolismo , Sigmodontinae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 90, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation: people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. A high eating rate contributes to overeating and potentially to weight gain. Previous studies showed that an augmented fork that delivers real-time feedback on eating rate is a potentially effective intervention to decrease eating rate in naturalistic settings. This study assessed the impact of using the augmented fork during a 15-week period on eating rate and body weight. METHODS: In a parallel randomized controlled trial, 141 participants with overweight (age: 49.2 ± 12.3 y; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.48 kg/m2) were randomized to intervention groups (VFC, n = 51 or VFC+, n = 44) or control group (NFC, n = 46). First, we measured bite rate and success ratio on five consecutive days with the augmented fork without feedback (T1). The intervention groups (VFC, VFC+) then used the same fork, but now received vibrotactile feedback when they ate more than one bite per 10 s. Participants in VFC+ had additional access to a web portal with visual feedback. In the control group (NFC), participants ate with the fork without either feedback. The intervention period lasted four weeks, followed by a week of measurements only (T2) and another measurement week after eight weeks (T3). Body weight was assessed at T1, T2, and T3. RESULTS: Participants in VFC and VFC+ had a lower bite rate (p < .01) and higher success ratio (p < .0001) than those in NFC at T2. This effect persisted at T3. In both intervention groups participants lost more weight than those in the control group at T2 (p < .02), with no rebound at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback is a viable tool to reduce eating rate in naturalistic settings. Further investigation may confirm that the augmented fork could support long-term weight loss strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The research reported in this manuscript was registered on 4 November 2015 in the Netherlands Trial Register with number NL5432 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/5432 ).


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/instrumentação , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Retroalimentação , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614418

RESUMO

Reports surrounding the role of resistant starch (RS) on postprandial lipemia in humans are scarce. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of resistant starch on the postprandial lipemic response, subjective measures of appetite, and energy intake in overweight and obese subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 14 overweight/obese participants ate a high-fat breakfast (679 kcal, 58% from fat) and a supplement with native banana starch (NBS), high-amylose maize starch (HMS), or digestible maize starch (DMS) on three separate occasions. All supplements provided were matched by the available carbohydrate content, and the RS quantity in NBS and HMS supplements was identical. Appetite was estimated using visual analogue scale (VAS) and an ad libitum test meal. Postprandial glycemia, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and insulin excursions did not differ between treatments. Subjective appetite measures of satiety were significantly increased after HMS; however, no effects on energy intake were observed during the ad libitum test meal. These findings suggest that a single acute dose of RS cannot be expected to improve postprandial lipemia in subjects with overweight or obesity on a high-fat meal. However, the potential benefits of long-term supplementation should not be ruled out based on these results.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Período Pós-Prandial , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623092

RESUMO

Sensor technologies that measure grazing and ruminating behaviour as well as physical activities of individual cows are intended to be included in precision pasture management. One of the advantages of sensor data is they can be analysed to support farmers in many decision-making processes. This article thus considers the performance of a set of RumiWatchSystem recorded variables in the prediction of insufficient herbage allowance for spring calving dairy cows. Several commonly used models in machine learning (ML) were applied to the binary classification problem, i.e., sufficient or insufficient herbage allowance, and the predictive performance was compared based on the classification evaluation metrics. Most of the ML models and generalised linear model (GLM) performed similarly in leave-out-one-animal (LOOA) approach to validation studies. However, cross validation (CV) studies, where a portion of features in the test and training data resulted from the same cows, revealed that support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) performed relatively better than other candidate models. In general, these ML models attained 88% AUC (area under receiver operating characteristic curve) and around 80% sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision and F-score. This study further identified that number of rumination chews per day and grazing bites per minute were the most important predictors and examined the marginal effects of the variables on model prediction towards a decision support system.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Leite
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(3): 259-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515985

RESUMO

Background: It has been established that in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), regardless of the insulin therapy model used, diet and proper eating habits are still important in the treatment of the disease. The dietary intervention in these patients is aimed at maintaining proper body weight, obtaining target fasting and post meal blood glucose levels, optimizing lipid profiles. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess dietary habits in a homogeneous group of adults with T1DM treated with personal insulin pumps. Material and methods: The study included 141 adult patients (57% women) with type 1 diabetes treated with personal insulin pumps. The surveyed population was characterized by an average age of 25.8 ± 6.2 years, an average duration of diabetes 13.9 ± 6.9 years, and treatment with a personal pump for 8.2 ± 4.1 years and mean BMI 23.0 ± 2.8 g/m2. All were dwellers of south-eastern Poland. The validated KomPAN questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of individual food products. Results: The mean percentage of HbA1c in the study group was 7.3% [56 mmol/mol]. The mean total cholesterol level was 4.4 mmol/l, HDL - 1.7 mmol/l, LDL - 2.3 mmol/l and triglycerides - 0.8 mmol/l. In the multivariate regression model, no correlation was found between dietary quality parameters and metabolic compensation measured with HbA1c or lipidogram and the place of residence (village, small town, big city). However, there were differences in the quality of the diet depending on the sex. Women were characterized by higher index of a healthy diet (pHDI-10) (26.3 vs 21.4, p=0.005) and lower index of unhealthy diet (nHDI-14) (13.3 vs 18.6, p <0.001) than men. Conclusions: The results of this study clearly suggest, that despite good metabolic control, patients require more education on the choice of healthy product groups.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Dietoterapia/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Endocr Regul ; 53(1): 8-13, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitries are involved in the inhibition and stimulation of the appetite, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one-month lasting high-intensity exercise on the POMC mRNA and NPY mRNA expression in the above-mentioned brain structure and appetite and food intake levels. METHODS: Fourteen male Wistar rats (250±50 g) were used and kept in the well-controlled conditions (22±2 °C, 50±5% humidity, and 12 h dark/light cycle) with food and water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups (n=7): 1) control group (C, these rats served as controls) and 2) exercised group (RIE, these rats performed a high-intensity exercise for one month (5 days per week) 40 min daily with speed 35 m/min. The total exercise time was 60 min. The body weight and food intake were recorded continuously during the experiments. RESULTS: The results showed relative mRNA expression of POMC and NPY estimated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. There were no significant differences in the NPY and POMC mRNAs expression levels and food intake between C and RIE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that one-month regular intensive exercise did not alter the levels of NPY and POMC mRNAs expression (as two important factors in the regulation of appetite) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and food intake suggesting that this type of exercise itself is not an appropriate procedure for the body weight reduction.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540208

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder affected by psychological, environmental, and biological factors. Individuals with AN avoid high-fat, high-calorie diets and have shown abnormal metabolism of fatty acids (FAs), which are essential for brain and cognitive/neuropsychiatric health. To clarify the relationship between FAs and AN, fasting and postprandial plasma FAs in AN patients and age-matched control women were analyzed via mass-spectrometry. Clinical phenotypes were assessed using Becker Anxiety Inventory and Becker Depression Inventory. AN patients and controls exhibited different FA signatures at both fasting and postprandial timepoints. Lauric acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) were higher in AN than in controls (lauric acid: 15,081.6 ± 14,970.2 vs. 8257.4 ± 4740.2 pmol/mL; ALA at fasting: 2217.7 ± 1587.6 vs. 1087.9 ± 821.2 pmol/mL; ALA at postprandial: 1830.9 ± 1115.6 vs. 1159.4 ± 664.7 pmol/mL. EPA: 33,788.3 ± 17,487.5 vs. 22,860.6 ± 12,642.4 pmol/mL; DPA: 32,664.8 ± 16,215.0 vs. 20,969.0 ± 12,350.0 pmol/mL. FDR-adjusted p-values < 0.05). Food intake and AN status modified the correlations of FAs with body mass index (BMI), depression, and anxiety. Desaturases SCD-18 and D6D showed lower activities in AN compared to controls. Altered FA signature, specifically correlations between elevated n-3 FAs and worsened symptoms, illustrate metabolic underpinnings in AN. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms by which FA dysregulation, specifically elevated n-3 FAs, affects AN risk and outcome.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Ansiedade/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Jejum , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4052, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492856

RESUMO

Metabolites are active controllers of cellular physiology, but their role in complex behaviors is less clear. Here we report metabolic changes that occur during the transition between hunger and satiety in Drosophila melanogaster. To analyze these data in the context of fruit fly metabolic networks, we developed Flyscape, an open-access tool. We show that in response to eating, metabolic profiles change in quick, but distinct ways in the heads and bodies. Consumption of a high sugar diet dulls the metabolic and behavioral differences between the fasted and fed state, and reshapes the way nutrients are utilized upon eating. Specifically, we found that high dietary sugar increases TCA cycle activity, alters neurochemicals, and depletes 1-carbon metabolism and brain health metabolites N-acetyl-aspartate and kynurenine. Together, our work identifies the metabolic transitions that occur during hunger and satiation, and provides a platform to study the role of metabolites and diet in complex behavior.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dieta , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398891

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of fibre from the main food sources of fibre in the UK diet with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Participants enrolled in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2007-2012) with 7-day food records (n = 6898; 61% men) were included for cross-sectional analyses. General linear models evaluated associations across fifths of fibre intakes (total, vegetable, fruit, potato, whole grain and non-whole grain cereal) with BMI, %BF, WC and CRP. Fully adjusted analyses showed inverse linear trends across fifths of total fibre and fibre from fruit with all outcome measures (ptrend < 0.0001). Vegetable fibre intake showed an inverse association with WC (ptrend 0.0156) and CRP (ptrend 0.0005). Fibre from whole grain sources showed an inverse association with BMI (ptrend 0.0002), %BF (ptrend 0.0007) and WC (ptrend 0.0004). Non-whole grain cereal fibre showed an inverse association with BMI (Ptrend 0.0095). Direct associations observed between potato fibre intake and measures of body composition and inflammation were attenuated in fully adjusted analyses controlling for fried potato intake. Higher fibre intake has a beneficial association on body composition, however, there are differential associations based on the food source.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Brain Stimul ; 12(6): 1556-1564, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following the single-session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), there is little research on the effects of multi-session of rTMS on food consumption and body weight in obese subjects. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 4-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese adults. METHODS: Forty-three obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 70 years were randomized to the sham or real treatment group (21 in the TMS group and 22 in the sham treatment group). A total of 8 sessions of rTMS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was provided over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was weight change in kilograms from baseline to 4 weeks. Secondary endpoints included changes in anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors, food intake, and appetite. RESULTS: Participants in the rTMS group showed significantly greater weight loss from baseline following the 8 session of rTMS (-2.75 ±â€¯2.37 kg vs. 0.38 ±â€¯1.0 kg, p < 0.01). Consistent with weight loss, there was a significant reduction in fat mass and visceral adipose tissue at week 4 in the rTMS group compared with the control group (p < 0.01). After the 8 sessions of rTMS, the TMS group consumed fewer total kilocalories and carbohydrates per day than the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 8 sessions of HF rTMS delivered to the left DLPFC were effective in inducing weight loss and decreasing food intake in obese patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at http://cris.cdc.go.kr (KCT0002548).


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fissura/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 42, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pre-industrial diet of the Swedish peasantry did not include mushrooms. In the 1830s, some academic mycologists started information campaigns to teach people about edible mushrooms. This propaganda met with sturdy resistance from rural people. Even at the beginning of the last century, mushrooms were still only being occasionally eaten, and mostly by the gentry. During the twentieth century, the Swedish urban middle class accepted mushrooms as food and were closely followed by the working-class people. A few individuals became connoisseurs, but most people limited themselves to one or two taxa. The chanterelle, Cantharellus cibarius Fr., was (and still is) the most popular species. It was easy to recognize, and if it was a good mushroom season and the mushroomer was industrious, considerable amounts could be harvested and preserved or, from the late 1950s, put in the freezer. The aim of this study is to review the historical background of the changes in attitude towards edible mushrooms and to record today's thriving interest in mushrooming in Sweden. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent in October and November 2017 to record contemporary interest in and consumption of mushrooms in Sweden. In total, 100 questionnaires were returned. The qualitative analysis includes data extracted from participant and non-participant observations, including observations on activities related to mushroom foraging posted on social media platforms, revealed through open-ended interviews and in written sources. With the help of historical sources, including earlier studies and ethnographical data collections, a diachronic analysis is given to describe the changes over time. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the last 100 to 140 years, Sweden has changed from a mycophobic to a mycophilic society with a passionate interest in the utilization of wild mushrooms. In the late twentieth century, various social institutions connected with mushroom hunting evolved. Evening classes, study circles, clubs, exhibitions, consultants, and a wide array of handbooks promoted this interest. In the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has become widely accepted, especially among the middle class, but also among Swedes in general. The so-called hipster-generation, born in the 1990s, harvests mushrooms due to their interest in producing their own food. This group often uses social media to identify edible species. Most people who go mushrooming gather only a few species. There are, however, some dedicated individuals who have become hobby specialists and who know a wide diversity of taxa. A few study participants reported that they were afraid of not being able to distinguish between poisonous fungi species and edible ones and therefore refrain from picking any wild mushrooms at all. However, they still consume cultivated mushrooms, such as Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, bought in grocery stores or served in cafes and restaurants. CONCLUSION: Swedish society has changed rapidly during the last decades and so has the interest in mushrooming among its members. Throughout the second part of the twentieth century, the flow of information about mushrooms has continued through lecturers, courses, media, exhibitions, and even associations. Walking in forestland is also an important leisure activity for many urban Swedes, and in the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has also become a thriving pastime among people with an urban lifestyle.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Recreação/história , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Suécia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219607, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295301

RESUMO

Why do people who care about the environment adopt behaviours that are not consistent with their beliefs? Previous studies approach this as a case of cognitive dissonance, researchers looking into the strategies through which people reduce gaps between their attitudes and their behaviours. Here we start from the premise that there is no dissonance, and that people have consistent reasons of why they are doing what they are doing. The research task is then to shed light on these reasons. Using Q-methodology, a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach, we interviewed 42 environmentally-minded researchers asking them why they eat meat. Our interviewees were aware of and cared about the environmental and ethical impacts of meat eating, but reasoned that they eat meat because either technological, or political changes are more important than what they personally do, because of doubts about the impact of personal action in a complex world, or simply because they lack the determination to stop eating meat. Our analysis suggests that policies and messages that try to educate or guilt meat-eaters are unlikely to work with those well aware of the impacts of their actions.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Dissonância Cognitiva , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Atitude , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Princípios Morais , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295837

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to describe the oral impact (estimate, severity, frequency) on daily performance (e.g., eating, speaking) and identify the potential perceived oral impairment(s) and socio-behavioral factors associated with oral impact, namely presence or absence of oral impact, among children aged 9-12 years old in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 186 children aged 9-12 years old was recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics, oral health-related behaviors, and perceived oral impairments (e.g., caries, toothache) were obtained from participants. The validated Arabic Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP) inventory was used to assess oral impacts. Sample descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions modeling the association between C-OIDP and explanatory variables were performed. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the children was 10.29 ± 1.24 years, 66.4% were from public schools, and 52% were females. At least one C-OIDP was reported by 78% of the participants. The mean C-OIDP score was 2.27 ± 1.99. Toothache was reported as a perceived impairment for almost all oral impacts and was the strongest predictor of C-OIDP. Low father income was negatively associated with C-OIDP (odds ratio (OR) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.62). Females had significantly higher odds of reporting C-OIDP than males. Conclusions: In this convenience sample, a high percentage of children aged 9-12 years old reported C-OIDP, which was linked to oral impairment and socio-demographic factors. Further studies, however, are required to explore the clinical, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors in relationship to C-OIDP among Saudi children in a representative sample.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Infantil , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Fala , Atividades Cotidianas , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Arábia Saudita , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fala/fisiologia
15.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 38(1): 8, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food intake augments CO2 production; however, minute ventilation is not augmented during exercise after food intake. Respiratory chemoreceptors respond to CO2 and influence respiration. We examined the effect of food intake on respiratory chemosensitivity to CO2 in young adults. METHODS: The hypercapnic ventilatory response was measured in eleven healthy individuals before and after food intake. To evaluate the respiratory chemoreflex response to CO2, minute ventilation was plotted against end-tidal PCO2 using data obtained with the rebreathing method. RESULTS: Sublingual temperature, CO2 output, minute ventilation, and end-tidal PCO2 were all significantly higher at baseline in the session after food intake than in the session before food intake. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in chemosensitivity to CO2 between the sessions before and after food intake (1.60 ± 0.62 vs. 1.53 ± 0.62 l min-1 mmHg-1). CONCLUSIONS: Food intake does not influence respiratory chemosensitivity to CO2 in young adults, which is different from infants. This suggests that control of respiration differs between young adults and infants and that the elevated minute ventilation after food intake in young adults is not caused by a change in respiratory chemosensitivity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3497-3512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273401

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Analysis of lick pattern for sucrose and NaCl and of the forced swimming response after dopamine antagonist administration led us to suggest that dopamine on D1-like receptors is involved in behavioural activation, and the level of activation is "reboosted" on the basis of an evaluation process involving D2-like receptors. Although some studies investigated licking microstructure for water after dopamine antagonists, the within-session time course of their effect was never investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to further investigate the role of dopamine receptors in the mechanisms governing water ingestion, focussing on the within-session time course of the microstructure parameters, and to test the proposed hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) and of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride (0.025-0.25 mg/kg) on licking microstructure for water were examined in 20-h water-deprived rats in 30-min sessions. RESULTS: As previously observed with sucrose and NaCl, SCH 23390 reduced licking by reducing burst number, suggesting reduced behavioural activation. Moreover, it resulted in an increased burst size. Raclopride reduced the size of licking bursts, while their number was either increased or decreased depending on the dose. CONCLUSION: The results support the suggestion that D1 receptors are involved in behavioural activation and D2 receptors are involved in a related evaluation process. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis, the increased burst size after D1-like receptor blockade might be interpreted as a pro-hedonic effect consequent to the increased cost of the activation of the licking response.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Masculino , Racloprida/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7655-7663, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255263

RESUMO

Feed efficiency has been widely studied in many areas of dairy science and is currently seeing renewed interest in the field of breeding and genetics. A critical part of determining how efficiently an animal utilizes feed is accurately measuring individual dry matter (DM) intake. Currently, multiple methods are used to measure feed intake or determine the DM content of that feed, resulting in different levels of accuracy of measurement. Furthermore, the scale at which data need to be collected for use in genetic analyses makes some methodologies impractical. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the current methodologies used to measure both feed intake in ruminants and DM content of feedstuffs, current methods to predict individual DM intake, and applications of large-scale intake measurements. Overall, advances in milk spectral data analysis present a promising method of estimating individual DM intake on a herd scale with further validation of prediction models. Although measurements of individual feed intake rely on the same underlying principle, the methods selected are largely dictated by the costs of capital, labor, and necessary analyses. Finally, DM methodologies were synthesized into a comprehensive protocol for use in a variety of feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/economia
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(9): 890-895, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332926

RESUMO

AIM: Poor food intake is a major concern among hospitalized older adults. This study investigated the frequency and optimal timing of in-hospital food intake assessment in terms of its ability to predict hospitalization functional outcomes. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a cohort study of 699 older adults (age ≥70 years) admitted to internal medicine wards for non-disabling conditions was carried out. Daily food intake was assessed using self-reported estimation of portions consumed at each meal and calculated according to the caloric composition of the meals. Nutritional status on admission, baseline and discharge activities of daily living, and cognitive status were assessed using validated questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance (n = 263) and multiple logistic regression models (n = 475) for predicting activities of daily living and cognitive decline were used to establish required frequency and optimal timing of food-intake monitoring. RESULTS: Mean daily intake significantly increased from the first 48 h from admission (0.51 ± 0.30) to the second and third assessments (0.62 ± 0.30 and 0.63 ± 0.30, respectively). Eating half or less of the served meals both within the first 48 h of admission and after 48 h was associated with higher odds of cognitive decline (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.94; OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.51, respectively). Low intake after 48 h of admission was associated with higher odds of activities of daily living decline (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: Food intake increases from the first 48 h of admission onwards and becomes more consistent 3 days after admission. The associations between low food intake at various time points and worse functional outcomes show the importance of routine food intake monitoring for at least 3 days. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 890-895.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição , Avaliação Nutricional , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180080, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the self-perception of the food conditions of elderly users of dental prosthesis, in order to verify the interference that dental prosthesis has in their feeding. METHODS: The present study counted with 60 elderly, participants of the Centro de Convivência Nair Ventorin Gurgacz (Community Center), aged between 60 and 88 years old. All participants answered to a questionnaire elaborated by the researchers and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). RESULTS: The elderly who participated in this study, mostly women, used a bimaxillary removable prosthesis for over 30 years; although they classified their nutrition as "good" and did not present preference for specific food consistency, they frequently felt pain while chewing. The average score of the GOHAI was 29.73, considered "low", the index dimension with worst score was physical function, that includes eating, speaking and swallowing. No relation was observed between time of use of dental prosthesis, age and the GOHAI scores. CONCLUSION: The elderly rarely complaint about discomfort or embarrassment on feeding, however, they present an average lower than expected in the GOHAI index, which indicates that, although they do not report it, many deteriorations, that seem to be natural may be happening and may be the cause of worst quality of life.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição/fisiologia , Prótese Dentária/efeitos adversos , Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344946

RESUMO

The dietary habits of people directly impact their health conditions. Especially in elder populations (in 2017, 6.7% of the world's population was over 65 years of age), these habits could lead to important-nutrient losses that could seriously affect their cognitive and functional state. Recently, a great research effort has been devoted to using different technologies and proposing different techniques for monitoring food-intake. Nevertheless, these techniques are usually generic but make use of the most innovative technologies and methodologies to obtain the best possible monitoring results. However, a large percentage of elderly people live in depopulated rural areas (in Spain, 28.1% of the elderly population lives in this type of area) with a fragile cultural and socioeconomic context. The use of these techniques in these environments is crucial to improving this group's quality of life (and even reducing their healthcare expenses). At the same time, it is especially challenging since they have very specific and strict requirements regarding the use and application of technology. In this Systematic Literature Review (SLR), we analyze the most important proposed technologies and techniques in order to identify whether they can be applied in this context and if they can be used to improve the quality of life of this fragile collective. In this SLR, we have analyzed 326 papers. From those, 29 proposals have been completely analyzed, taking into account the characteristics and requirements of this population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Espanha/epidemiologia
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