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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the glycaemic response, macronutrient intake and insulin management in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared to healthy individuals around a running competition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective, controlled observational study performed in individuals with T1D and healthy people. 24 people (12 T1D) were included in this study (age: T1D 41±12 vs. healthy 38±6 years, females: 3 vs. 6, BMI: 25.53.0 vs. 22.9±2.8 kg/m2). Both groups received an intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM; FreeStyle Libre 1, Abbott, USA) system to assess glycaemia 24 hours before, during and 24 hours after a running competition. During this period, participants recorded their food intake and insulin administration. Data were analysed via ANOVA and mixed model analyses with post-hoc testing (p≤0.05). RESULTS: For overall glycaemic ranges in comparison of groups, significant differences were found for time in range (T1D 63±21% vs. healthy 89±13%, p = 0.001), time above range (TAR) 1 (T1D 21±15% vs. healthy 0±0%, p<0.001) and TAR 2 (T1D 8 [0-16%] vs. healthy 0±0%, p<0.001). When glycaemic variability was assessed, people with T1D had a higher glycaemic variability compared to healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Basal insulin dose was significantly reduced when compared against the regular pre-study basal insulin dose (pre-study 22±6 vs. pre-competition day 11±9 (-50±41%), p = 0.02; competition day 15±5 (-32± 1%)). CONCLUSION: People with T1D have impaired glucose responses around a running competition compared to healthy individuals. However, basal insulin dose reductions were sufficient to prevent further dysglycaemia. CLINICAL TRIAL ID: drks.de; DRKS00019886.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5445-5456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Dietary interventions like time-restricted feeding (TRF) show promising anti-cancer properties. We examined whether therapeutic TRF alone or combined with immunotherapy would diminish renal tumor growth in mice of varying body weights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young (7 week) chow-fed or older (27 week) high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice were orthotopically injected with renal tumor cells expressing luciferase. After tumor establishment, mice were randomized to ad libitum feeding or TRF +/- anti-CTLA-4. Body composition, tumor viability and growth, and immune responses were quantified. RESULTS: TRF alone reduced renal tumor bioluminescence in older HFD-fed, but not young chow-fed mice. In the latter, TRF mitigated tumor-induced loss of lean- and fat-mass. However, TRF did not alter excised renal tumor weights or intratumoral immune responses and failed to improve anti-CTLA-4 outcomes in any mice. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic TRF exhibits modest anti-cancer properties but fails to improve anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade in murine renal cancer.


Assuntos
Jejum , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22544-22551, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826330

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, given its growing incidence and its association with a variety of comorbidities. Weight gain results from an increase in energy intake without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure. To combat the obesity epidemic, many studies have focused on the pathways underlying satiety and hunger signaling, while other studies have concentrated on the mechanisms involved in energy expenditure, most notably adaptive thermogenesis. Hypothyroidism in humans is typically associated with a decreased basal metabolic rate, lower energy expenditure, and weight gain. However, hypothyroid mouse models have been reported to have a leaner phenotype than euthyroid controls. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we used a drug-free mouse model of hypothyroidism: mice lacking the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake in the thyroid. In addition to being leaner than euthyroid mice, owing in part to reduced food intake, these hypothyroid mice show signs of compensatory up-regulation of the skeletal-muscle adaptive thermogenic marker sarcolipin, with an associated increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Neither catecholamines nor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are responsible for sarcolipin expression or FAO stimulation; rather, thyroid hormones are likely to negatively regulate both processes in skeletal muscle. Our findings indicate that hypothyroidism in mice results in a variety of metabolic changes, which collectively lead to a leaner phenotype. A deeper understanding of these changes may make it possible to develop new strategies against obesity.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
5.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 70, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large portion sizes encourage overconsumption. Prior studies suggest that this may be due to errors in anticipating the effects of portion size, although the studies were limited to adults and energy-dense foods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate potential anticipation errors related to the effects of portion size on hunger, eating enjoyment, and healthiness ratings among 8-to-11-year-old children, for snacks differing in energy density and healthiness perception, and as a function of initial hunger. METHODS: In a within-subject design, 83 children aged 8 to 11 years old were first asked to anticipate how much they would enjoy, how hungry they would feel after eating, and how healthy it would be to eat a recommended serving size, a 50% larger portion, and a 125% larger portion of brownie or applesauce. Over six subsequent sessions, the children were asked to eat all of each of these portions and then rate their post-intake enjoyment, residual hunger, and healthiness perceptions. We also measured hunger at the beginning of each session. RESULTS: For both snacks, larger portions reduced anticipated and experienced residual hunger similarly. In contrast, larger portions increased anticipated but not experienced eating enjoyment for both snacks; although larger portions increased anticipated and experienced enjoyment ratings among extremely hungry children. All children under-anticipated how much they would enjoy the smaller portion sizes. Healthiness ratings were unaffected by portion size for both snacks but differed across foods (applesauce vs. brownie). CONCLUSIONS: Children anticipate the effects of portion size on hunger change accurately, overestimate the effects of portion size on eating enjoyment, and rate food healthiness on food type and not portion size. Helping children better anticipate the enjoyment from smaller (recommended) portion sizes and understand that food quantity, not just quality, matters for healthy eating may be a solution to improve portion control.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Lanches , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Lanches/fisiologia , Lanches/psicologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20849, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ingestion of a foreign body can cause different degrees of damage to esophagus, and several complications are potentially life-threatening if not properly handled. The aortic injury caused by a perforating esophageal foreign body is rare but lethal. The optimal management still remains controversial. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience in the management of the aortic injury caused by esophageal foreign body ingestion. METHODS: Between January 2015 and December 2015, we retrospectively enrolled cases of esophageal perforation involving the aorta by foreign body. The general parameters, esophageal foreign body, types of aortic injury, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Additionally, we reviewed the literature of the management of esophageal perforation involving the aorta caused by foreign bodies. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and the need for informed consent was waived (Quick review 2019, No. 609). RESULTS: Three cases of esophageal perforation involving the aorta by foreign body was selected in the study. Two male and 1 female patients (range, 51-58 years old) with the aorta involvement caused by a perforating foreign body in the esophagus in 3 forms were identified, including 1 patient with mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm, 1 patient with aortoesophageal fistula and 1 patient with the aortic intramural hematoma. One patient died of the rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during the preparation of the surgery. The other 2 patients were cured with a multidisciplinary approach, which is an urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair followed by mediastinal debridement/drainage or endoscopic retrieval. Two of 3 patients were survived until now. CONCLUSION: The management of the aortic injury caused by esophageal foreign body injury is challenging. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary management is crucial.


Assuntos
Aorta/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Falso Aneurisma/complicações , Angiografia/métodos , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fístula Esofágica/complicações , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(6): 804-808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516020

RESUMO

COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome are devastating pandemics. Effective control of metabolic parameters and their dysfunction may help prevent or minimize the acute and devastating effects of SARS-CoV-2 by reducing the local inflammatory response and blocking the entry of the virus into cells. With such consideration in mind, we gathered data from dietary surveys conducted in nine European countries to explore the relationship between actual clock hour of the large dinner meal and also interval in minutes between it and sunset in the respective countries and death rate above the median rate of per one million people as an index of mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Clock time of the dinner meal varied between 16:00 and 21:00 h across the European counties sampled, and the correlation between dinner mealtime and death rate was strongly correlated, R = 0.7991 (two-tailed p = 0.0098), with R 2 explaining 63% of the variation within the data. This strong linear positive correlation indicates that the later the clock time of the dinner meal, the higher is the death rate (and vice versa). The relationship between meal timing in reference to sunset, utilized as a gross surrogate marker of the activity/rest synchronizer of circadian rhythms, and death rate was negative and even slightly stronger, R = -0.8025 (two-tailed p = 0.0092), with R 2 explaining 64% of the variation within the data. This strong linear negative correlation indicates that the shorter the interval between the dinner meal and sunset, i.e., the closer the time of the largest meal of the day to bedtime, the greater is the death rate (and vice versa). Our preliminary approach to nighttime eating, in terms of the day's largest caloric intake, as a risk factor for the predisposing conditions of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other commonly associated comorbidities of being overweight, and death from COVID-19 infection reveals strong correlation with the time of the dinner meal, both in terms of its actual clock and circadian time.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Tempo
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R171-R183, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551825

RESUMO

Exercise is often used as a strategy for weight loss maintenance. In preclinical models, we have shown that exercise may be beneficial because it counters the biological drive to regain weight. However, our studies have demonstrated sex differences in the response to exercise in this context. In the present study, we sought to better understand why females and males exhibit different compensatory food eating behaviors in response to regular exercise. Using a forced treadmill exercise paradigm, we measured weight gain, energy expenditure, food intake in real time, and the anorectic effects of leptin. The 4-wk exercise training resulted in reduced weight gain in males and sustained weight gain in females. In male rats, exercise decreased intake, whereas it increased food intake in females. Our results suggest that the anorectic effects of leptin were not responsible for these sex differences in appetite in response to exercise. If these results translate to the human condition, they may reveal important information for the use and application of regular exercise programs.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos
11.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1520-1522, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324525

RESUMO

Accumulating data have now shown strong evidence that COVID-19 infection leads to the occurrence of neurological signs with different injury severity. Anosmia and agueusia are now well documented and included in the criteria list for diagnosis, and specialists have stressed that doctors screen COVID-19 patients for these two signs. The eventual brainstem dysregulation, due to the invasion of SARS CoV-2, as a cause of respiratory problems linked to COVID-19, has also been extensively discussed. All these findings lead to an implication of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here we provide additional elements that could explain other described signs like appetite loss, vomiting, and nausea. For this, we investigated the role of brainstem structures located in the medulla oblongata involved in food intake and vomiting control. We also discussed the possible pathways the virus uses to reach the brainstem, i.e., neurotropic and hematogenous (with its two variants) routes.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anorexia/etiologia , Área Postrema/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Nervo Olfatório , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Nervo Vago , Vômito/etiologia
12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1520-1522, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427468

RESUMO

Accumulating data have now shown strong evidence that COVID-19 infection leads to the occurrence of neurological signs with different injury severity. Anosmia and agueusia are now well documented and included in the criteria list for diagnosis, and specialists have stressed that doctors screen COVID-19 patients for these two signs. The eventual brainstem dysregulation, due to the invasion of SARS CoV-2, as a cause of respiratory problems linked to COVID-19, has also been extensively discussed. All these findings lead to an implication of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here we provide additional elements that could explain other described signs like appetite loss, vomiting, and nausea. For this, we investigated the role of brainstem structures located in the medulla oblongata involved in food intake and vomiting control. We also discussed the possible pathways the virus uses to reach the brainstem, i.e., neurotropic and hematogenous (with its two variants) routes.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anorexia/etiologia , Área Postrema/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Nervo Olfatório , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Nervo Vago , Vômito/etiologia
13.
Nature ; 581(7807): 194-198, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404998

RESUMO

Daily changes in light and food availability are major time cues that influence circadian timing1. However, little is known about the circuits that integrate these time cues to drive a coherent circadian output1-3. Here we investigate whether retinal inputs modulate entrainment to nonphotic cues such as time-restricted feeding. Photic information is relayed to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central circadian pacemaker-and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs)4. We show that adult mice that lack ipRGCs from the early postnatal stages have impaired entrainment to time-restricted feeding, whereas ablation of ipRGCs at later stages had no effect. Innervation of ipRGCs at early postnatal stages influences IGL neurons that express neuropeptide Y (NPY) (hereafter, IGLNPY neurons), guiding the assembly of a functional IGLNPY-SCN circuit. Moreover, silencing IGLNPY neurons in adult mice mimicked the deficits that were induced by ablation of ipRGCs in the early postnatal stages, and acute inhibition of IGLNPY terminals in the SCN decreased food-anticipatory activity. Thus, innervation of ipRGCs in the early postnatal period tunes the IGLNPY-SCN circuit to allow entrainment to time-restricted feeding.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Luz , Vias Neurais , Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/efeitos da radiação , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Corpos Geniculados/citologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/efeitos da radiação , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Neurosci ; 40(27): 5264-5272, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457069

RESUMO

One of the strongest drivers of food consumption is pleasure, and with a large variety of palatable food continuously available, there is rarely any necessity to eat something not tasty. The amygdala is involved in hedonic valuation, but its role in valence assignment during food choices is less understood. Given recent evidence for spatially segregated amygdala signatures encoding palatability, we applied a multivariate approach on fMRI data to extract valence-specific signal patterns during an explicit evaluation of food liking. These valence localizers were then used to identify hedonic valuation processes while the same healthy human participants (14 female, 16 male; in overnight fasted state on both scanning days) performed a willingness-to-eat task in a separate fMRI measurement. Valence-specific patterns of amygdala signaling predicted decisions on food consumption significantly. Findings could be validated using the same valence localizers to predict consumption decisions participants made on a separate set of food stimuli that had not been used for localizer identification. Control analyses revealed these findings to be restricted to a multivariate compared with a univariate approach, and to be specific for valence processing in the amygdala. Spatially distributed valuation signals of the amygdala thus appear to modulate appetitive consumption decisions, and may be useful to identify current hedonic valuation processes triggering food choices even when not explicitly instructed.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The expectation of tastiness is a particularly strong driver in everyday decisions on food consumption. The amygdala is important for hedonic valuation processes and involved in valence-related behavior, but the relationship between both processes is less understood. Here, we show that hedonic values of food are represented in spatially distributed activation patterns in the amygdala. The engagement of these patterns during food choices modulates consumption decisions. Findings are stable in a separate stimulus set. These results suggest that valence-specific amygdala signals are integrated into the formation of food choices.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurosci ; 40(24): 4727-4738, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354856

RESUMO

Decades of research have shown that the NAc is a critical region influencing addiction, mood, and food consumption through its effects on reinforcement learning, motivation, and hedonic experience. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the NAc shell induces voracious feeding, leading to the hypothesis that the inhibitory projections that emerge from the NAc normally act to restrict feeding. While much of this work has focused on projections to the lateral hypothalamus, the role of NAc projections to the VTA in the control food intake has been largely unexplored. Using a retrograde viral labeling technique and real-time monitoring of neural activity with fiber photometry, we find that medial NAc shell projections to the VTA (mNAc→VTA) are inhibited during food-seeking and food consumption in male mice. We also demonstrate that this circuit bidirectionally controls feeding: optogenetic activation of NAc projections to the VTA inhibits food-seeking and food intake (in both sexes), while optogenetic inhibition of this circuit potentiates food-seeking behavior. Additionally, we show that activity of the NAc to VTA pathway is necessary for adaptive inhibition of food intake in response to external cues. These data provide new insight into NAc control over feeding in mice, and contribute to an emerging literature elucidating the role of inhibitory midbrain feedback within the mesolimbic circuit.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The medial NAc has long been known to control consummatory behavior, with particular focus on accumbens projections to the lateral hypothalamus. Conversely, NAc projections to the VTA have mainly been studied in the context of drug reward. We show that NAc projections to the VTA bidirectionally control food intake, consistent with a permissive role in feeding. Additionally, we show that this circuit is normally inactivated during consumption and food-seeking. Together, these findings elucidate how mesolimbic circuits control food consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento Consumatório/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Recompensa
16.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical manifestations, outcomes, and complications of hijab pin ingestion in adolescents and to identify risk factors for a need for intervention. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients <25 years of age who presented to our emergency department because of hijab pin ingestion between 2007 and 2018. Comparison was performed between impaled and nonimpaled pins. RESULTS: We reviewed 1558 foreign-body ingestion cases. Of these, 208 (13.3%) patients presented because of hijab pin ingestion, with a total of 225 ingested pins. The mean patient age was 14.7 ± 4.1 years, and 88% of patients were girls. Time from ingestion to presentation was 24 ± 49.5 hours. Most pins were located in the stomach (46.6%), and 18.6% of all pins were impaled. Location in the stomach (odds ratio = 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.9-9.2]; P < .001) and abdominal tenderness on examination (odds ratio = 2.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.6]; P = .007) were strong independent risk factors for an impaled pin. Time to intervention was 22.9 hours, and 41 endoscopies were performed. One patient required laparoscopic surgery. No complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The hijab pin is an increasingly encountered foreign body in pediatric practice. Its specific clinical features distinguish it from other sharp objects. A delayed interventional approach in selected patients does not carry a higher risk of complications and results in significantly fewer interventions compared to existing guidelines. These findings will help guide pediatric specialists in this prevalent clinical scenario. Management recommendations are proposed.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/tendências , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367123

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of divergent genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on nitrogen (N) metabolism and lysine utilization in growing pigs. Twenty-four gilts (body weight [BW] 66 ± 5 kg) were selected from generation nine of the low RFI (LRFI; n = 12) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 12) Iowa State University Yorkshire RFI selection lines. Six pigs from each genetic line were assigned to each of two levels of lysine intake: 70% and 100% of estimated requirements based on the potential of each genetic line for protein deposition (PD) and feed intake. For all diets, lysine was first limiting among amino acids. Using isotope tracer, N-balance, and nutrient digestibility evaluation approaches, whole-body N metabolism and the efficiency of lysine utilization were determined for each treatment group. No significant interaction effects of line and diet on dietary N or gross energy digestibility, PD, and the efficiency of lysine utilization for PD were observed. The line did not have a significant effect on PD and digestibility of dietary N and GE. An increase in lysine intake improved N retention in both lines (from 15.0 to 19.6 g/d, SE 1.44, in LRFI pigs; and from 16.9 to 19.8 g/d, SE 1.67, in HRFI pigs; P < 0.01). At the low lysine intakes and when lysine clearly limited PD, the efficiency of using available lysine intake (above maintenance requirements) for PD was 80% and 91% (SE 4.6) for the LRFI and HRFI pigs, respectively (P = 0.006). There were no significant effects of line or of the line by diet interaction on N flux, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Lysine intake significantly increased (P < 0.05) N flux (from 119 to 150, SE 8.7 g/d), protein synthesis (from 99 to 117, SE 10.6 g of N/d), and protein degradation (from 85 to 100, SE 6.6 g of N/d). The protein synthesis-to-retention ratio tended to be higher in the LRFI line compared with the HRFI line (6.5 vs. 5.8 SE 0.62; P = 0.06), indicating a tendency for the lower efficiency of PD in this group. Collectively, these results indicate that genetic selection for low RFI is not associated with improvements in lysine utilization efficiency, protein turnover, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109132, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol increases the risk of developing colon cancer (CRC), in part via tissue inflammation and impaired barrier integrity. Circadian dyssynchrony (CD) is an understudied but common lifestyle associated factor that increases the risk of multi-organ tissue injury and number of malignancies including CRC. Our prior studies showed that the shift in light-dark cycle exacerbates barrier dysfunction and colonic inflammation in the setting of alcohol treatment, and increases the risk of CRC. Here we studied the interaction of alcohol with an abnormal eating pattern on markers of CD and colonic barrier integrity. METHOD: Mice were subjected to day (rest-phase = wrong-time WT) or night-time (active-phase = right-time RT) access to food in combination with access to water or 15% alcohol for total duration of 10 weeks. The food and liquid intake was measured. The locomotor activity data was recorded throughout the study, using a beam-break system. Mice were euthanized at two time points (ZT2 and ZT14). Time variation in the expression of the molecular marker of circadian clock (per2 gene) was measured in the central (hypothalamus) and intestinal (colon) tissue. Colonic protein expression of barrier markers (Occludin and Claudin-1) was studied. RESULTS: No significant differences were present in the weight gain and alcohol intake among the groups over the study period. We observed an interaction of WT eating with alcohol on behavioral markers of circadian rhythm. Compared to the RT + Water treated animals ("reference group"), combination of WT eating and alcohol consumption (WT + Alcohol) significantly changed the per2 oscillatory pattern, that was different between the colon and hypothalamus, indicative of worsening circadian dyssynchrony. This was associated with an overall impaired expression of barrier integrity markers in the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol induces circadian dyssynchrony which is worsened by abnormal food timing, associated with impaired barrier integrity in the colon. Future studies on the interaction of alcohol and food timing could provide further insights into alcohol associated CRC pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colo/lesões , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 361-373, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451030

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex remains one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers, veterinarians, and feedlot managers. In receiving, stocker/backgrounding, and feedlot cattle, BRD has been associated with decreased dry matter intake and daily gain, resulting in economic losses during the feeding period. Inflammation associated with BRD has the potential to decrease carcass yield and quality. Newly received calves are at various risks to contract BRD. Proper nutrition for newly received calves is key to recovery from stress associated with weaning and transport. This article reviews nutrient impacts on BRD and BRD impacts on nutrient metabolism.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/metabolismo , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional
20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(6): 524-534, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445739

RESUMO

Insulin acts on the CNS to modulate behaviour and systemic metabolism. Disturbances in brain insulin action represent a possible link between metabolic and cognitive health. Current findings from human research suggest that boosting central insulin action in the brain modulates peripheral metabolism, enhancing whole-body insulin sensitivity and suppressing endogenous glucose production. Moreover, central insulin action curbs food intake by reducing the salience of highly palatable food cues and increasing cognitive control. Animal models show that the mesocorticolimbic circuitry is finely tuned in response to insulin, driven mainly by the dopamine system. These mechanisms are impaired in people with obesity, which might increase their risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases. Overall, current findings highlight the role of insulin action in the brain and its consequences on peripheral metabolism and cognition. Hence, improving central insulin action could represent a therapeutic option for people at an increased risk of developing metabolic and cognitive diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia
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