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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20186, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702808

RESUMO

It has been well established that dietary patterns play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of hypertension. Our aim was to investigate the association between pregnancy dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among nulliparous pregnant Chinese women.A cross-sectional, case-control study.Three hospitals in Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, South China.A total of 2580 participants who reported dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).Four primary dietary patterns were identified by principal component factor analysis and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, Western food, and salty snacks patterns. Women with high scores on pattern characterized by salty snacks were at increased risk.This study suggests that dietary pattern characterized by salty snack increases the risk of hypertension during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Incidência , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 70, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large portion sizes encourage overconsumption. Prior studies suggest that this may be due to errors in anticipating the effects of portion size, although the studies were limited to adults and energy-dense foods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate potential anticipation errors related to the effects of portion size on hunger, eating enjoyment, and healthiness ratings among 8-to-11-year-old children, for snacks differing in energy density and healthiness perception, and as a function of initial hunger. METHODS: In a within-subject design, 83 children aged 8 to 11 years old were first asked to anticipate how much they would enjoy, how hungry they would feel after eating, and how healthy it would be to eat a recommended serving size, a 50% larger portion, and a 125% larger portion of brownie or applesauce. Over six subsequent sessions, the children were asked to eat all of each of these portions and then rate their post-intake enjoyment, residual hunger, and healthiness perceptions. We also measured hunger at the beginning of each session. RESULTS: For both snacks, larger portions reduced anticipated and experienced residual hunger similarly. In contrast, larger portions increased anticipated but not experienced eating enjoyment for both snacks; although larger portions increased anticipated and experienced enjoyment ratings among extremely hungry children. All children under-anticipated how much they would enjoy the smaller portion sizes. Healthiness ratings were unaffected by portion size for both snacks but differed across foods (applesauce vs. brownie). CONCLUSIONS: Children anticipate the effects of portion size on hunger change accurately, overestimate the effects of portion size on eating enjoyment, and rate food healthiness on food type and not portion size. Helping children better anticipate the enjoyment from smaller (recommended) portion sizes and understand that food quantity, not just quality, matters for healthy eating may be a solution to improve portion control.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Lanches , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Lanches/fisiologia , Lanches/psicologia
4.
J Neurosci ; 40(27): 5264-5272, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457069

RESUMO

One of the strongest drivers of food consumption is pleasure, and with a large variety of palatable food continuously available, there is rarely any necessity to eat something not tasty. The amygdala is involved in hedonic valuation, but its role in valence assignment during food choices is less understood. Given recent evidence for spatially segregated amygdala signatures encoding palatability, we applied a multivariate approach on fMRI data to extract valence-specific signal patterns during an explicit evaluation of food liking. These valence localizers were then used to identify hedonic valuation processes while the same healthy human participants (14 female, 16 male; in overnight fasted state on both scanning days) performed a willingness-to-eat task in a separate fMRI measurement. Valence-specific patterns of amygdala signaling predicted decisions on food consumption significantly. Findings could be validated using the same valence localizers to predict consumption decisions participants made on a separate set of food stimuli that had not been used for localizer identification. Control analyses revealed these findings to be restricted to a multivariate compared with a univariate approach, and to be specific for valence processing in the amygdala. Spatially distributed valuation signals of the amygdala thus appear to modulate appetitive consumption decisions, and may be useful to identify current hedonic valuation processes triggering food choices even when not explicitly instructed.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The expectation of tastiness is a particularly strong driver in everyday decisions on food consumption. The amygdala is important for hedonic valuation processes and involved in valence-related behavior, but the relationship between both processes is less understood. Here, we show that hedonic values of food are represented in spatially distributed activation patterns in the amygdala. The engagement of these patterns during food choices modulates consumption decisions. Findings are stable in a separate stimulus set. These results suggest that valence-specific amygdala signals are integrated into the formation of food choices.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gerontologist ; 60(4): 628-637, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social eating is associated with a range of physical and mental health benefits for older adults. Previous research has identified some of the practical barriers that may limit social eating, such as cost and access to public transport. However, little is known about the psychosocial issues that can affect older adults' engagement with social eating. This study examines psychosocial barriers and facilitators to attending community-based social eating opportunities for older adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-two older people aged between 59 and 89 years living in Manchester, UK, participated in semi-structured interviews or focus groups about their experiences and perceptions of social eating opportunities. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analyses. As there are known gender differences in relation to attitudes and behaviors relating to food and social activities, a framework analysis was applied to explore how these themes were differentially expressed by gender. RESULTS: Four themes were identified that related to the importance of (a) offering more than food; (b) participants' social identity; (c) taking the first step; and (d) embarrassment and self-consciousness about physical health. Gender differences related to perceptions of the relevance and attractiveness of social eating, and the role of social support. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study improves our understanding of older adults' social eating experiences and highlights clear strategies by which social eating opportunities could be made more attractive, accessible, and acceptable to older adults.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Almoço , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Reino Unido
6.
Eat Behav ; 37: 101385, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344324

RESUMO

Coping with food cravings is crucial for weight management. Individuals tend to use avoidance strategies to resist food cravings and prevent overeating, but such strategies may not result in the benefits sought. This study compared the effects of two cognitive techniques (Restructuring vs. Defusion) for dealing with food cravings in terms of their impact on healthy vs. unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., consumption of chocolate and/or carrots following the intervention). Sixty-five participants (Mage = 19.65 years) received either a 30-minute face-to-face instruction on cognitive restructuring (CR) or cognitive defusion (CD) along with 15 min of practice, or 45 min of obesity education and discussion (control). To examine craving and eating choices following the intervention, participants received bags of chocolate and carrots and were asked to carry these with them at all times over the next week, exchanging the bags every 2 days. Participants in the CD group ate fewer chocolates (M = 11.74) compared to CR (M = 17.06) and Control groups (M = 29.18) during the experimental week. The groups did not differ in number of carrot pieces eaten, though the CD group ate more carrots than chocolates. CD resulted in fewer self-reported cravings compared to CR and CO groups. At a final taste test, both CD and CR groups ate significantly fewer chocolates compared to the CO group. CD appears to be an effective technique in managing food craving and to present some advantages over CR.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(4): 943-955, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170328

RESUMO

The incorporation of microeconomics concepts into studies using self-administration procedures has provided critical insights into the factors that influence consumption of a wide range of food and drug reinforcers. In particular, the fitting of demand curves to consumption data provides a powerful analytic tool for computing objective metrics of behavior that can be compared across a wide range of reward types in both human and animal experiments. The results of these analyses depend crucially on the mathematical form used to fit the data. The most common choice is an exponential form proposed by Hursh and Silberberg, which is widely used and has provided fundamental insights into relationships between cost and consumption, but it also has some disadvantages. In this paper, we first briefly review the use of demand curves to quantify the motivating effects of food and drugs, then we describe the current methodology and highlight some potential issues that arise in its application. To address these issues, we propose a new mathematical framework for the analysis of consumption data, including a new functional form for the demand curve. We show that this proposed form gives good fits to data for a range of different reinforcers and experimental protocols, while allowing for straightforward calculation of key metrics of demand, including preferred consumption level, maximum response, price at maximum response, and price elasticity of demand. We provide software implementing our entire analysis pipeline, including data fits, data visualization, and the calculation of demand metrics.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Animais , Análise de Dados , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Economia/tendências , Humanos , Motivação/fisiologia , Autoadministração
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 33, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developmental science, there is an extensive literature on non-food related self-regulation in childhood, where several domains relating to emotions, actions and cognitions have been identified. There is now growing attention to food related self-regulation in childhood, especially difficulties with ASR, and the consequences for weight gain and adiposity. The aim of this narrative review was to conduct a reciprocal analysis of self-regulation in the food and non-food domains in childhood (referred to as appetite self-regulation (ASR) and general self-regulation (GSR) respectively). The focus was on commonalities and differences in key concepts and underpinning processes. METHODS: Databases and major journals were searched using terms such as self-regulation, appetite self-regulation, or self-regulation of energy intake, together with associated constructs (e.g., Executive Function, Effortful Control, delay-of-gratification). This was followed by backward and forward snowballing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The scholarship on GSR in childhood has had a focus on the role of the cognitively-oriented Executive Function (EF), the temperamentally-based Effortful Control (EC) and the recursive interplay between bottom-up (reactive, emotion driven, approach or avoidance) and top-down (cognitive, conscious decision-making) processes. "Hot" and "cool/cold" EF and self-regulation situations have been distinguished. There were some parallels between GSR and ASR in these areas, but uncertainty about the contribution of EF and EC to ASR in young children. Possible differences between the contribution to ASR-related outcomes of delay-of-gratification in food and non-food tasks were apparent. Unique elements of ASR were identified; associated with psychological, biological and neurological responses to food and bottom-up processes. A diverse number of situations or elements connected to ASR exist: for example, energy balance homeostasis, caloric compensation, hunger regulation, satiation, satiety, energy density of food, eating in the absence of hunger, emotional eating, etc. CONCLUSIONS: Self-regulation in food and non-food domains are amenable to a reciprocal analysis. We argue that self-regulation of appetite should be added as a domain under the umbrella of self-regulation in childhood along with the other non-food related domains. This could lead to a broader understanding of self-regulation in childhood, and generate novel lines of enquiry.


Assuntos
Apetite , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Resposta de Saciedade , Autocontrole , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções , Ingestão de Energia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
9.
Qual Life Res ; 29(8): 2197-2207, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219706

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The implication of adolescence diet quality and of certain specific foods' intake on HRQoL remain underexplored, and little importance has been given to biological changes (e.g. growth, maturation, dimorphism, body composition), that remarkably increase the variability of diet and physical activity behaviours. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between diet quality and food intake with HRQoL in adolescents, considering maturity, body composition, and physical activity level. METHODS: In total 669 Portuguese adolescents aged 10-17 years, attending three secondary schools, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Diet quality was assessed by Diet Quality International-Index (DQI-I), physical activity level was self-reported, and the HRQoL was assessed by the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire. The KIDSCREEN-52 includes ten dimensions (physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, parent relations and home life, social support and peers, school environment, social acceptance and bullying and financial resources) and it allowed to compute a general index of the HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-10 index) through a selection of 10 items out of the KIDSCREEN-52 list. Fat mass was obtained by skinfold thickness. Maturity was objectively measured. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. RESULTS: Boys scored higher in HRQoL and in physical well-being, self-perception, autonomy, parent relations and home life than girls. Intakes of unhealthy foods were negatively correlated with physical well-being, self-perception, and social acceptance and bullying, while healthy foods were positively correlated with psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and school environment. The DQI-I showed to be positively correlated with physical well-being. Participants who reported to have a higher DQI-I (≥ 60) perceived better their school environment and social acceptance and bullying. However, those results were not determined by diet quality but rather by bone age and physical activity level. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that boys reported higher HRQoL and higher scores in the majority of HRQoL dimensions, compared to girls. The intake of unhealthy foods was negatively correlated with some HRQoL dimensions, whilst healthy foods showed positive correlations with some HRQoL dimensions. Biological maturity and physical activity level revealed to be important confounders in the study of diet quality and perception of school environment and social acceptance and bullying in adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(2): 160-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129753

RESUMO

Human oro-pharyngeal feeding is old as mammals's (150 millions years). This fonction is performed and coordinated by the central and peripheric nervous system. Thus, eating and speaking use the same anatomic ducts and ways. To that purpose, the Broca praxic language area is close to the praxic area of the motor mastication and swallowing control in brain cortex. This area, a new innovation of human evolution, is connected directly with the old motor ways of preexisting oral feeding. The brain connectome and Foxp2 gene have contributed with efficiency to this linking when the language came.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069791

RESUMO

Various dairy nutrients have been associated with cognitive performance. Several observational studies have explored associations between the intake of total dairy or some dairy subgroups and cognitive performance. However, studies on the potential impact of a broad variety of dairy subclasses are scarce. We examined cross-sectional associations between a wide assortment of dairy products and cognitive performance. A total of 619 Dutch community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years completed a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cognitive performance was assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery; the tests were clustered into cognitive domains using z-scores. Linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, habitual physical activity, total energy intake, and dietary factors, were performed to quantify the associations. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to correct for multiple testing. After full adjustment, higher skimmed dairy (ß ± SD: 0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.06), fermented dairy (0.04 ± 0.02, p = 0.09), and buttermilk (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.19) consumption were associated with better executive functioning. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 30 g increase in Dutch cheese intake was associated with a 33% lower probability of poor information processing speed (PR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.97). No associations were observed between dairy consumption and attention and working memory or episodic memory.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição , Laticínios/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 679-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006380

RESUMO

Food selectivity by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is relatively high as compared to typical children and consequently puts them at risk of nutritional inadequacies. Thus, there is a need to educate children with ASD on food types and their benefits in a simple and interesting manner that will encourage food acceptance and enable a move toward healthy living. The use of technological intervention has proven to be an effective tool for educating children with ASD in maintaining attention and mastering new skills as compared to traditional methods. Some of the popularly used technologies are computer-based intervention and robotics which do not support ecological validity (i.e., mimicking natural scenario). Consideration of natural factors is essential for better learning outcomes and generalized skills which can easily be incorporated into reality-based technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. These technologies provide evidence-based support for ecological validation of intervention and sustaining the attention of children with ASD. The main objective of this study is to review existing reality-based technology intervention for children with ASD and investigate the following: (1) commonly used reality-based technology, (2) types of intervention targeted with reality-based technology, and (3) what subjects' inclusion types are used in the reality-based interventions. These objective statements have guided our recommendation of reality-based technology that can support ecological validity of food intake intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Robótica
13.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(4): 382-388, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating behavior is affected by psychological and neurocognitive factors. However, little is known about this relationship in anxious patients. Our aim was to investigate the associations between impulsivity, inhibitory control, energy-dense food consumption, and body mass index (BMI) in women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 51 adult females with GAD answered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and participated in a go/no-go task using food images. Anthropometric measurements were evaluated. A food frequency questionnaire and a snack test were used to study eating behavior. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the variables of interest, adjusted by age. RESULTS: Impulsivity predicted intake of sugar (p = 0.016, 95%CI 0.67-6.05), total fat (p = 0.007, 95%CI 0.62-3.71), and saturated fat (p = 0.004, 95%CI 0.30-1.48). The snack test showed a positive correlation between presence of impulsivity and intake of biscuits (R = 0.296; p = 0.051). Response inhibition to food images in the go/no-go task paradigm did not predict BMI or food intake. CONCLUSION: Impulsivity was predictive of higher sugar and saturated fat intake in women diagnosed with GAD. Our findings add to the literature regarding the association between neuropsychological factors and food consumption in this specific population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1324-1329, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental distractions have been shown to affect eating patterns. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a cognitive distraction on amount, preference, and memory of food consumed and perceptions of fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of food in a healthy young-adult population. METHODS: A randomized controlled crossover study of 119 healthy adults (20.2 ± 1.4 y; 57% women; 48% white) assigned participants to begin under either the distracted (DIS, n = 55) or control (CON, n = 64) conditions. DIS participants consumed a meal of quiche while completing a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) for 15 min. CON participants ate without any task assignment. After a 30-min rest period, participants were offered a snack and given 5 min to eat ad libitum. Participants completed a survey assessing fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of the meal using 100 mm visual analogue scales. One week later, participants completed the opposite condition. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. RESULTS: Those in DIS consumed 13 g less of the meal (P < 0.001), even when comparing by initial condition (P < 0.001) and adjusting for sex (P < 0.001). A carryover effect of initial condition was found (P < 0.001), such that participants first assigned to DIS condition consumed less (95.2 ± 61.7 g) when distracted compared to all other condition combinations (127-133 g). Those in DIS had decreased accuracy for both memory of quiche received (absolute difference, 1.1 ± 1.6 compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P < 0.001) and memory of quiche consumed (0.8 ± 1.1 for DIS compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: When distracted, healthy young adults consumed significantly less food and their memory of the meal was dampened. These findings underscore the potential importance of cognitive distraction in affecting food intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04078607.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Refeições/psicologia , Atenção , Estudos Cross-Over , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Saciação , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019123

RESUMO

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes (GDM). This study aimed to assess if the result of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for GDM influences health (diet and physical activity) behaviours of pregnant women with obesity. In total, 1031 women who participated in the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) of a lifestyle intervention from early pregnancy were included. Changes in weight gain, dietary intake and physical activity following an OGTT undertaken between 27+0 and 28+6 weeks' and 34 and 36 weeks' gestation were examined using linear regression with appropriate adjustment for confounders. Obese women without GDM (IADPSG criteria) gained 1.9 kg (95% CI -2.2, -1.5, p < 0.001) more weight than women with GDM. Women with GDM demonstrated greater reductions in energy (-142kcal, 95%CI -242.2, -41.9, p = 0.006), carbohydrate intake (-1.5%E 95%CI -2.8, -0.3, p = 0.016) and glycaemic load (-15.2, 95%CI -23.6, -6.7, p < 0.001) and a greater increase in protein intake (2%E, 95%CI 1.3, 2.7, p < 0.001), compared to women without GDM. Trial intervention allocation did not influence any associations observed. The findings emphasise the need for strategies to optimise the health behaviours of pregnant women with obesity, following a negative OGTT for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Reino Unido , Ganho de Peso
16.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024270

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between mindful eating, disordered eating and mood in university students in health-related disciplines. A total of 221 university students participated in the study; 102 students studied sport and exercise science (SS), 54 students pharmacy sciences (PS), and 65 students health sciences (HS). Participants completed the Binge Eating Scale (BES), the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS). 41% of the students were classified as binge eaters and 57% were above the POMS threshold of depression. Binge eaters were found to have significantly lower MEQ score and significantly higher total mood disturbance scores (TMD) compared to non-binge eaters (p < 0.01). Students with a high depression score exhibited no differences in the MEQ score but a significantly higher BES score compared to non-depressed students (p < 0.01). Gender differences were found in the MEQ with females exhibiting significantly higher scores in the MEQ score and in all MEQ subscales compared to males, with the exception of the emotional subscale that females were noted to have a lower score compared to males (p < 0.01). The MEQ score was inversely related to the BES score (r = -0.30, p < 0.01) and TMD (r = -0.21, p < 0.05). The MEQ score was a significant negative predictor of the variance of the binge eating behavior of the students (B = -3.17, p < 0.001). In conclusion, mindfulness in eating is inversely related to the binge eating behavior and mood state of university students studying health-related subjects and is a significant negative predictor of disordered eating behavior in this high risk population.


Assuntos
Bulimia/prevenção & controle , Depressão , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Atenção Plena , Universidades , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/etiologia , Bulimia/etiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906271

RESUMO

The role of a properly balanced diet in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders has been suggested, while vegetables and fruits have a high content of nutrients that may be of importance in the case of depressive disorders. The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the observational studies analyzing association between fruit and vegetable intake and mental health in adults. The search adhered to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), and the review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (CRD42019138148). A search for peer-reviewed observational studies published until June 2019 was performed in PubMed and Web of Science databases, followed by an additional manual search for publications conducted via analyzing the references of the found studies. With respect to the intake of fruit and/or vegetable, studies that assessed the intake of fruits and/or vegetables, or their processed products (e.g., juices), as a measure expressed in grams or as the number of portions were included. Those studies that assessed the general dietary patterns were not included in the present analysis. With respect to mental health, studies that assessed all the aspects of mental health in both healthy participants and subjects with physical health problems were included, but those conducted in groups of patients with intellectual disabilities, dementia, and eating disorders were excluded. To assess bias, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was applied. A total of 5911 studies were independently extracted by 2 researchers and verified if they met the inclusion criteria using a 2-stage procedure (based on the title, based on the abstract). After reviewing the full text, a total of 61 studies were selected. A narrative synthesis of the findings from the included studies was performed, which was structured around the type of outcome. The studies included mainly focused on depression and depressive symptoms, but also other characteristics ranging from general and mental well-being, quality of life, sleep quality, life satisfaction, flourishing, mood, self-efficacy, curiosity, creativity, optimism, self-esteem, stress, nervousness, or happiness, to anxiety, minor psychiatric disorders, distress, or attempted suicide, were analyzed. The most prominent results indicated that high total intake of fruits and vegetables, and some of their specific subgroups including berries, citrus, and green leafy vegetables, may promote higher levels of optimism and self-efficacy, as well as reduce the level of psychological distress, ambiguity, and cancer fatalism, and protect against depressive symptoms. However, it must be indicated that the studies included were conducted using various methodologies and in different populations, so their results were not always sufficiently comparable, which is a limitation. Taken together, it can be concluded that fruits and/or vegetables, and some of their specific subgroups, as well as processed fruits and vegetables, seems to have a positive influence on mental health, as stated in the vast majority of the included studies. Therefore, the general recommendation to consume at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day may be beneficial also for mental health.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Frutas , Verduras , Adulto , Depressão/dietoterapia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 30, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on long-term effects of a cluster randomized controlled kindergarten-based intervention trial, which aimed to increase vegetable intake among Norwegian preschool children (3-5 years at baseline). The effects of the intervention at follow-up 1 (immediately post-intervention) have previously been published. This paper presents the effects of the intervention from baseline to follow-up 2 (12 months post-intervention). RESULTS: Parental consents were obtained for 633 out of 1631 eligible children (response rate 38.8%). The effects of the intervention from baseline to follow-up 2 were assessed by mixed-model analyses taking the clustering effect of kindergartens into account. Children's vegetable intake was reported by the parents at baseline (spring 2015), at follow-up 1 (spring 2016) and at follow-up 2 (spring 2017). No significant long-term effects in child vegetable intake were found. A mean difference of - 0.1 times per day (95% CI - 0.5, 0.2) (P = 0.44) was found for the daily frequency of vegetable intake. A mean difference of - 0.2 different kinds of vegetables eaten over a month (95% CI - 1.0, 0.7) (P = 0.70) was found and for daily amount of vegetables a mean difference of - 15.0 g vegetables (95% CI - 38.0, 8.0) (P = 0.19) was found. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials ISRCTN51962956 (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN51962956). Registered 21 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Verduras , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(4): 1091-1106, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897576

RESUMO

Eating disorders are frequently triggered by stress and are more prevalent in women than men. First signs often appear during early adolescence, but the biological basis for the sex-specific differences is unknown. Central administration of native relaxin-3 (RLN3) peptide or chimeric/truncated analogues produces differential effects on food intake and HPA axis activity in adult male and female rats, but the precise role of endogenous RLN3 signalling in metabolic and neuroendocrine control is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effects of microRNA-induced depletion (knock-down) of RLN3 mRNA/(peptide) production in neurons of the brainstem nucleus incertus (NI) in female rats on a range of physiological, behavioural and neurochemical indices, including food intake, body weight, anxiety, plasma corticosterone, mRNA levels of key neuropeptides in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and limbic neural activity patterns (reflected by c-fos mRNA). Validated depletion of RLN3 in NI neurons of female rats (n = 8) produced a small, sustained (~ 2%) decrease in body weight, an imbalance in food intake and an increase in anxiety-like behaviour in the large open field, but not in the elevated plus-maze or light/dark box. Furthermore, NI RLN3 depletion disrupted corticosterone regulation, increased oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin, but not corticotropin-releasing factor, mRNA, in PVN, and decreased basal levels of c-fos mRNA in parvocellular and magnocellular PVN, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and the lateral hypothalamic area, brain regions involved in stress and feeding. These findings support a role for NI RLN3 neurons in fine-tuning stress and neuroendocrine responses and food intake regulation in female rats.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Sistema Límbico/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Núcleos da Rafe/metabolismo , Relaxina/deficiência , Animais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Sistema Límbico/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleos da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relaxina/antagonistas & inibidores , Relaxina/genética
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(4): 957-966, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897573

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Although clozapine is effective in treating schizophrenia, it is associated with adverse side effects including weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Despite this, the role of clozapine on feeding behaviour and food intake has not been thoroughly characterised. Clozapine has a broad pharmacological profile, with affinities for several neurotransmitter receptors, including serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) and histamine. Given that the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor and histaminergic H1 receptor are involved in aspects of feeding behaviour, the effect of clozapine on feeding may be linked to its action at these receptors. METHODS: We assessed, in rats, the effect of acute and subchronic administration of clozapine on responding for food under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule under conditions of food restriction and satiety. We also examined the effect of antagonists of the serotonin 5-HT2C and histaminergic H1 receptors on the same schedule. Clozapine reliably increased responding for food, even when rats had ad libitum access to food. The effect of clozapine on responding for food was reproduced by combined (but not individual) antagonism of the serotonin 5-HT2C and histaminergic H1 receptors. CONCLUSION: These findings show that clozapine enhances the motivation to work for food, that this effect is stable over repeated testing, and is independent of hunger state of the animal. This effect may relate to a combined action of clozapine at the serotonin 5-HT2C and histaminergic H1 receptors.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Clozapina/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/fisiologia , Receptores 5-HT1 de Serotonina/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esquema de Reforço , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
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