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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3815-3824, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468675

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed (UP) foods and associated factors among adults. We used cross-sectional data on 947 adults from the 2008-2009 Campinas Health Survey. Food consumption data were collected using the 24-h dietary recall method and food items were classified according to NOVA classification based on the nature, extent and purpose of industrial processing. Linear regression models were run to evaluate the association between the consumption UP foods and predictor variables with a 5% significance level. The average daily energy intake per capita was 2000.6 kcal and UP foods represented 24.1% of this intake. UP food consumption was higher among women and increased with the increase in schooling. Consumption was also higher among young adults between 20 and 29 years old as well as ex-smokers and individuals who were physically active at leisure. The results show that there is still time to intervene in favor of the health of the adult population. Thus, studies dedicated to the investigation of food intake from the perspective of the NOVA classification, the possible repercussions for health and the evaluation of food and nutrition actions and policies should be prioritized in the current context of Brazil.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3865-3874, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468679

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake and associated factors among elderly adults. A cross-sectional population-based study evaluating participants from the Health Survey of the City of Campinas (ISACAMP) was conducted in 2014/2015, with 1,074 elderly individuals (≥60 years). Dietary fiber intake was obtained using a 24-hour recall, and the prevalence of inadequate fibers was estimated according to the cut-off point of the Institute of Medicine (30 g/day for men and 21 g/day for women). The factors evaluated were sociodemographic conditions (sex, age, schooling, income, marital status), health (number of reported diseases) and lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption). The prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake was 86.6%, being higher in men (RP=1.10), single or divorced (RP=1.09) and physically inactive (PR=1.07). Elderly adults with higher incomes and who reported having 1 to 2 chronic non-communicable diseases had a higher intake of fibers. The high prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake in the elderly adults indicates that health and nutrition actions should be developed to ensure adequate dietary intake of these compounds.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
3.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(10): 1141-1148, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous study suggested an association between low caloric intake(CI), negative nitrogen balance, and poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH). Objective of this multinational, multicenter study was to investigate whether clinical outcomes vary by protein intake(PI) or CI in SAH patients adjusting for the nutritional risk as judged by the modified NUTrition Risk in the Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score. METHODS: The International Nutrition Survey(INS) 2007-2014 was utilized to describe the characteristics, outcomes and nutrition use. A subgroup of patients from 2013 and 2014(when NUTRIC score was captured) examined the association between CI and PI and time to discharge alive(TTDA) from hospital using Cox regression models, adjusting for nutrition risk classified by the mNUTRIC score as low(0-4) or high(5-9). RESULTS: There were 489 SAH patients(57% female with a mean ± SD age 57.5 ± 13.9 years, BMI of 25.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and APACHE-2 score 19.4 ± 7.0. Majority(85%) received enteral nutrition(EN) only, with a time to initiation of EN of 35.4 ± 35.2 hours. 64% had EN interrupted. Patients received a CI of 14.6 ± 7.1 calories/kg/day and PI 0.7 ± 0.3 grams/kg/day corresponding to 59% and 55% of total prescribed CI and PI respectively. In the 2013 and 2014 subgroup there were 226 SAH patients with a mNUTRIC score of 3.4 ± 1.8. Increased CI and PI were associated with faster TTDA among high mNUTRIC patients(HR per 20% of prescription received = 1.34[95% CI,1.03 -1.76] for CI and 1.44[1.07 -1.93] for PI), but not low mNUTRIC patients(CI: HR = 0.95[0.77 -1.16] PI:0.95[0.78 -1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this multicenter study found that SAH patients received under 60% of their prescribed CI and PI. Further, achieving greater CI and PI in hi risk SAH patients was associated with improved TTDA. mNUTRIC serves to identify SAH patients that benefit most from artificial nutrition and efforts to optimize protein and caloric delivery in this subpopulation should be maximized.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 229-236, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective procedure in the management of obesity, achieving a significant decrease in energy intake. AIM: To measure calorie and macronutrient intake in patients subjected to gastric bypass (GBP) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 53 patients subjected to SG and 27 subjected to GBP, who were in the first, second or sixth postoperative month. A food frequency consumption survey was applied by specialized nutritionists and their nutritional status was assessed. RESULTS: Mean calorie intake in months 1, 2 and 6 were 505, 600 and 829.8 kcal, respectively. A significantly higher intake was observed at month 1 in patients with those subjected to SG, compared with GBP patients. Protein consumption was <60 g/d, except at 6 months in patients with GBP. At months 1, 2 and 6, mean consumption of lipids were 17, 28 and 30 g/day, respectively. The figures for carbohydrates were 42, 31 and 77 g/day, respectively. At month 1, patients with GBP had a higher BMI, equalizing at 6 months with those of SG. At 6 months 37% of patients had a normal body mass index and 17% remained obese. A negative correlation was observed between weight loss and energy intake during the first month (rho: -0.40; p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Patients subjected to BS had a low calorie and macronutrient intake in the first six postoperative months. Their calorie intake is negatively associated with weight loss, mainly during the first postoperative month.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371975

RESUMO

This three-arm randomised controlled trial evaluated whether (1) a multi-component weight loss intervention targeting diet, physical activity (PA), and sleep was effective at improving dietary intake over six months and 12 months, compared with a control, and (2) the enhanced diet, PA, and sleep intervention was more effective at improving dietary intake than the traditional diet and PA intervention. A total of 116 adults (70% female, 44.5 years, BMI 31.7 kg/m2) were randomised to either traditional diet and PA intervention; enhanced diet, PA, and sleep intervention; or wait-list control. To examine between-group differences, intervention groups were pooled and compared with the control. Then, the two intervention groups were compared. At six months, the pooled intervention group consumed 1011 fewer kilojoules/day (95% CI -1922, -101), less sodium (-313.2 mg/day; 95% CI -591.3, -35.0), and higher %EI from fruit (+2.1%EI; 95% CI 0.1, 4.1) than the controls. There were no differences in intake between the enhanced and traditional groups at six months. At 12 months, the pooled intervention and control groups reported no significant differences. However, compared to the traditional group, the enhanced reported higher %EI from nutrient-dense foods (+7.4%EI; 95% CI 1.3, 13.5) and protein (+2.4%EI; 95% CI 0.1, 4.6), and reduced %EI from fried/takeaway foods (-3.6%EI; 95% CI -6.5, -0.7), baked sweet products (-2.0%EI; 95% CI -3.6, -0.4), and packaged snacks (-1.1%EI; 95% CI -2.2, -0.3). This weight loss intervention reduced total energy and sodium intakes as well as increased fruit intake in adults at six months. The enhanced intervention group reported improved dietary intake relative to the traditional group at 12 months.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371977

RESUMO

The effectiveness of weight loss treatment displays dramatic inter-individual variabilities, even with well-controlled energy intake/expenditure. This study aimed to determine the association between daily rhythms of cardiac autonomic control and weight loss efficiency and to explore the potential relevance to weight loss resistance in humans carrying the genetic variant C at CLOCK 3111T/C. A total of 39 overweight/obese Caucasian women (20 CLOCK 3111C carriers and 19 non-carriers) completed a behaviour-dietary obesity treatment of ~20 weeks, during which body weight was assessed weekly. Ambulatory electrocardiographic data were continuously collected for up to 3.5 days and used to quantify the daily rhythm of fractal cardiac dynamics (FCD), a non-linear measure of autonomic function. FCD showed a 24 h rhythm (p < 0.001). Independent of energy intake and physical activity level, faster weight loss was observed in individuals with the phase (peak) of the rhythm between ~2-8 p.m. and with a larger amplitude. Interestingly, the phase effect was significant only in C carriers (p = 0.008), while the amplitude effect was only significant in TT carriers (p < 0.0001). The daily rhythm of FCD and CLOCK 3111T/C genotype is linked to weight loss response interactively, suggesting complex interactions between the genetics of the circadian clock, the daily rhythm of autonomic control, and energy balance control.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Coração/inervação , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fractais , Genótipo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444923

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status, determinants of nutritional status, and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of older family caregivers (FC). Nutritional status was measured using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), plasma albumin, plasma pre-albumin, and blood hemoglobin concentrations. Dietary intake was assessed with a three-day food record. Comorbidity (B -0.283, 95% CI: -0.492, -0.073), quality of life (B 0.045, 95% CI: 0.018, 0.072) and energy intake (B 0.001, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.002) were significantly associated with the MNA scores of the older FCs (n = 125). It was common for FCs to have lower than recommended intakes of energy and several nutrients, independent of the risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA. Over half of the FCs had inadequate intake of protein, vitamin A, folate, and fiber, and 25-40% of the FCs had a low intake of vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, magnesium, iron, and selenium. It is important to follow both the nutritional status and dietary intake of older FCs regularly to find those with lower than recommended nutrient intake and to avoid poor nutritional status and its adverse effects hampering their ability to serve as FCs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pré-Albumina/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Albumina Sérica/análise
8.
Health Rep ; 32(8): 18-26, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have upended the way Canadians eat and shop for food. Since the pandemic began, many Canadians have reported consuming food away from home (FAFH) less often. FAFH tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home. Little is known about patterns of Canadians' FAFH consumption before the pandemic. This study used 2015 national-level nutrition data, the most recent available, to characterize patterns of FAFH consumption and selected markers of dietary intake. DATA AND METHODS: National-level food intake data came from the first 24-hour dietary recall provided by 20,475 respondents aged 1 or older to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition. Mean daily intakes of selected food subgroups and nutrients, adjusted for total energy intake, were compared between those who had consumed any food in a restaurant on the previous day and those who had not. Estimates were generated overall and for eight age and sex groups. RESULTS: In 2015, overall, 21.8% of Canadians had consumed FAFH in a restaurant on the previous day. Eating out was most common among males aged 19 to 54 (27.7%) and least common among young children aged 1 to 5 (8.4%). Compared with Canadians who had not eaten out on the previous day, those who had eaten out had consumed, on that day, fewer servings of whole fruit; whole grains; dark green and orange vegetables; other vegetables (excluding potatoes); milk and fortified soy-based beverages; and legumes, nuts and seeds, on average. Those who had eaten out had consumed, on average, less fibre and total sugar, and more total fat, saturated fat and sodium on that day. There were few differences for meat and poultry, fish and seafood, and protein intake. DISCUSSION: On the day that Canadians ate out in a restaurant, their dietary intake was generally less favourable than that of Canadians who did not eat out. If Canadians continue to eat at home more and to consume less FAFH, as early pandemic-period reports suggest, then results can be used to gauge the potential dietary implications of these shifts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444223

RESUMO

Among U.S. adolescents, foods/beverages that are store-bought (i.e., from grocery and convenience stores) are significant contributors of energy intake. However, it remains unclear (1) what foods/beverages are consumed by U.S. adolescents from grocery and convenience stores and (2) if there are differences in foods/beverages consumed by store type. Therefore, we analyzed 29,216 eating occasions from adolescents (12-19 years; n = 4065) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 to report food/beverage groups and nutrients consumed from grocery and convenience stores. Differences in food/beverage groups and nutrient densities by store type were calculated using multiple logistic and linear regressions. Adolescents were more likely to consume "Beverages" and "Snacks and Sweets" and less likely to consume "Grains", "Protein", "Milk and Dairy", "Condiments and Sauces", and "Fruits" from convenience compared to grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). Foods/beverages from convenience stores were higher in carbohydrates, total sugar, and added sugar and lower in protein, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber than those from grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). In conclusion, while foods/beverages from convenience stores are more energy-dense and nutrient-poor, there is a critical need to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthier foods/beverages in both store types to encourage healthier dietary behaviors among U.S. adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Comércio , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Lanches
10.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21804, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383974

RESUMO

During the last few decades, the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners, as a substitute for caloric sweeteners, has sharply increased. Although research shows that caloric versus low-calorie sweeteners can have differential effects on the brain, it is unknown which neuronal populations are responsible for detecting the difference between the two types of sweeteners. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated how drinking sucrose or sucralose (a low-calorie sweetener) affects the activity of glutamatergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Furthermore, we explored the consequences of consuming a free-choice high fat diet on the calorie detection abilities of these glutamatergic neurons. We found that glutamatergic neurons indeed can discriminate sucrose from water and sucralose, and that consumption of a free-choice high fat diet shifts the glutamatergic neuronal response from sucrose-specific to sucralose-specific, thereby disrupting calorie detection. These results highlight the disruptive effects of a diet high in saturated fat on calorie detection in the lateral hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem
11.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 756-770, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340742

RESUMO

Objectives: Cross-sectional reports on weight gain during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home have raised concerns for weight increases as the pandemic continues. We examined behaviors that impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure among adults in the United States during shelter-at-home. Methods: Cross-sectional data (N=1779; April 24 - May4, 2020) were collected on demographics, diet, physical activity, sleep, and food purchasing behaviors. Percent of participants reporting increase/ decrease/no change in these behaviors during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home were assessed. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior, in all participants and across sex (43.38% males). Results: Increased consumption of healthy foods, energy-dense unhealthy foods, and snacks, and increased sedentary activities (p < .001) was reported. Physical activity and alcohol intake declined (p < .001). Females were more likely than males (p < .001) to report ultra-processed foods/high-calorie snack intake, fruit/vegetable intake (p < .001) and increase (p < .01) sleep and sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Acute behavioral changes supporting greater energy intake and less energy expenditure, especially in females, underscore the significance of COVID-19-related increase in unstructured time. Longitudinal assessment of body weight and health behaviors is warranted to understand the impact of pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3147-3160, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378705

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to evaluate dietary fiber intake and associated factors in adolescents, identify food sources of the nutrient, and determine associations between indicators of dietary patterns (energy/macronutrients/micronutrients) and dietary fiber intake. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 24-hour recall data. The NOVA classification was used to determine the contribution of foods to dietary fiber intake. Reference values from the World Health Organization (≥12.5 g) and the US Institute of Medicine (14 g) per 1,000 kcal were used to assess intake. The mean intake of dietary fiber/1,000 kcal/day was 6.4 g (1.5 g of soluble fiber and 4.9 g of insoluble fiber) among the 891 adolescents. Fiber intake was low, especially among those who ate fruits, vegetables, and beans less, those who consumed soft drinks and processed meats more, and those who did not eat breakfast every day. Unprocessed/minimally processed foods provided 68.8%, 53.7%, and 72.1% of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber, respectively, whereas ultra-processed products provided 24.8%, 37.9%, and 21.0% respectively. Fiber intake was inversely associated with energy intake, fat, free sugar, and animal protein in the diet. The insufficient fiber intake underscores the need for actions that promote healthy nutrition on the individual and family levels.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates potential cardiometabolic benefits of energy consumption earlier in the day. This study examined the association between fasting duration, timing of first and last meals, and cardiometabolic endpoints using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from NHANES (2005-2016) were utilized. Diet was obtained from one to two 24-h dietary recalls to characterize nighttime fasting duration and timing of first and last meal. Blood samples were obtained for characterization of C-reactive protein (CRP); glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c %); insulin; glucose; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol. Survey design procedures for adjusted linear and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: Every one-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with a significantly higher insulin and CRP, and lower HDL. Every one-hour increase in timing of the last meal of the day was statistically significantly associated with higher HbA1c and lower LDL. Every one-hour increase in first mealtime was associated with higher CRP (ß = 0.044, p = 0.0106), insulin (ß = 0.429, p < 0.01), and glucose (ß = 0.662, p < 0.01), and lower HDL (ß = -0.377, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large public health dataset, evidence for the beneficial effect of starting energy consumption earlier in the day on cardiometabolic endpoints was observed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Refeições/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360135

RESUMO

Diet management or caloric restriction for diabetes mellitus patients is essential in order to reduce the disease's burden. Mathematical programming problems can help in this regard; they have a central role in optimal diet management and in the nutritional balance of food recipes. The present study employed linear optimization models such as linear, pre-emptive, and non-pre-emptive goal programming problems (LPP, PGP and NPGP) to minimize the deviations of over and under achievements of specific nutrients for optimal selection of food menus with various energy (calories) levels. Sixty-two food recipes are considered, all selected because of being commonly available for the Indian population and developed dietary intake for meal planning through optimization models. The results suggest that a variety of Indian food recipes with low glycemic values can be chosen to assist the varying glucose levels (>200 mg/dL) of Indian diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Planejamento de Cardápio , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Objetivos , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360243

RESUMO

The high prevalence of non-communicable disease in New Zealand (NZ) is driven in part by unhealthy diet selections, with food costs contributing to an increased risk for vulnerable population groups. This study aimed to: (i) identify the nutrient density-to-cost ratio of NZ foods; (ii) model the impact of substituting foods with a lower nutrient density-to-cost ratio with those with a higher nutrient density-to-cost ratio on diet quality and affordability in representative NZ population samples for low and medium socioeconomic status (SES) households by ethnicity; and (iii) evaluate food processing level. Foods were categorized, coded for processing level and discretionary status, analyzed for nutrient density and cost, and ranked by nutrient density-to-cost ratio. The top quartile of nutrient dense, low-cost foods were 56% unprocessed (vegetables, fruit, porridge, pasta, rice, nuts/seeds), 31% ultra-processed (vegetable dishes, fortified bread, breakfast cereals unfortified <15 g sugars/100 g and fortified 15-30 g sugars/100 g), 6% processed (fruit juice), and 6% culinary processed (oils). Using substitution modeling, diet quality improved by 59% and 71% for adults and children, respectively, and affordability increased by 20-24%, depending on ethnicity and SES. The NZ diet can be made healthier and more affordable when nutritious, low-cost foods are selected. Processing levels in the healthier, modeled diet suggest that some non-discretionary ultra-processed foods may provide a valuable source of low-cost nutrition for food insecure populations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Nutrientes , Adulto , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444732

RESUMO

Physical activity and protein intake are associated with ageing-related outcomes, including loss of muscle strength and functional decline, so may contribute to strategies to improve healthy ageing. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between physical activity or sedentary behaviour and protein intake patterns in community-dwelling older adults across five countries. Self-reported physical activity and dietary intake data were obtained from two cohort studies (Newcastle 85+ Study, UK; LiLACS, New Zealand Maori and Non-Maori) and three national food consumption surveys (DNFCS, The Netherlands; FINDIET, Finland; INRAN-SCAI, Italy). Associations between physical activity and total protein intake, number of eating occasions providing protein, number of meals with specified protein thresholds, and protein intake distribution over the day (calculated as a coefficient of variance) were assessed by regression and repeated measures ANOVA models adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity was associated with higher total protein intake and more eating occasions containing protein, although associations were mostly explained by higher energy intake. Comparable associations were observed for sedentary behaviour in older adults in Italy. Evidence for older people with higher physical activity or less sedentary behaviour achieving more meals with specified protein levels was mixed across the five countries. A skewed protein distribution was observed, with most protein consumed at midday and evening meals without significant differences between physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels. Findings from this multi-study analysis indicate there is little evidence that total protein and protein intake patterns, irrespective of energy intake, differ by physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels in older adults.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Itália , Masculino , Refeições , Países Baixos , Nova Zelândia , Reino Unido
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444736

RESUMO

Pomegranate juice (Punica granatum) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine (Unani Medicine, Ayurveda); its main compounds are anthocyanins and ellagic acid, which have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and cardiovascular health effects. The objective was to evaluate the effect of pomegranate juice on inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular and physiological markers associated with obesity induced by a high-fat diet in a murine model. The results show that pomegranate juice reduces the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (cLDL) 39% and increases the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (cHDL) by 27%, leading to a 12%-18% decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In addition to reducing blood pressure by 24%, it also had an antiatherogenic effect by decreasing sE-selectin levels by 42%. On the other hand, the juice significantly increased adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, decreased levels of inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)), and inhibited the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pomegranate juice requires clinical studies to prove its immunoregulatory and therapeutic effects on cardiovascular and atherogenic risks.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Inflamação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Romã (Fruta) , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Energia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444936

RESUMO

A debate is ongoing on the significance and appropriateness of the NOVA classification as a tool for categorizing foods based on their degree of processing. As such, the role of ultra-processed food (UPF) on human health is still not completely understood. With this review, we aimed to investigate the actual level of consumption of UPF across countries and target populations to determine the impact in real contexts. Suitable articles published up to March 2021 were sourced through the PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 99 studies providing data on the level of UPF consumption expressed as the percentage of total energy intake were identified, for a total of 1,378,454 participants. Most of them were published in Brazil (n = 38) and the United States (n = 15), and the 24 h recall was the most-used tool (n = 63). Analysis of the results revealed that the United States and the United Kingdom were the countries with the highest percent energy intake from UPF (generally >50%), whereas Italy had the lowest levels (about 10%); the latter was inversely associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet. High variability was also observed based on sex, age, and body mass index, with men, young people, and overweight/obese subjects generally having higher levels of consumption compared to older subjects. Overall, our findings underline the large differences in UPF intake. Since most of the observations derived from studies conducted with food questionnaires are not specifically validated for UPF, further efforts are essential to confirm the results previously obtained and to investigate further the association between UPF consumption and health status, also considering the actual contribution within different dietary patterns, which has been less investigated to date.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444944

RESUMO

Despite recent advances, the causes of and effective therapies for pediatric chronic cholestatic diseases remain elusive, and many patients progress to liver failure and need liver transplantation. Malnutrition is a common complication in these patients and is a well-recognized, tremendous challenge for the clinician. We undertook a narrative review of both recent and relevant older literature, published during the last 20 years, for studies linking nutrition to pediatric chronic cholestasis. The collected data confirm that malnutrition and failure to thrive are associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, and they also affect the outcomes of liver transplantation, including long-term survival. Malnutrition in children with chronic liver disease is multifactorial and with multiple potential nutritional deficiencies. To improve life expectancy and the quality of life, patients require careful assessments and appropriate management of their nutritional statuses by multidisciplinary teams, which can identify and/or prevent specific deficiencies and initiate appropriate interventions. Solutions available for the clinical management of these children in general, as well as those directed to specific etiologies, are summarized. We particularly focus on fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and malnutrition due to fat malabsorption. Supplemental feeding, including medium-chain triglycerides, essential fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, and the extra calories needed to overcome the consequences of anorexia and high energy requirements, is reviewed. Future studies should address the need for further improving commercially available and nutritionally complete infant milk formulae for the dietary management of this fragile category of patients. The aid of a specialist dietitian, educational training regarding nutritional guidelines for stakeholders, and improving family nutritional health literacy appear essential.


Assuntos
Colestase/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colestase/complicações , Doença Crônica , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Hepatopatias/complicações , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Qualidade de Vida , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
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