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1.
BMJ ; 367: l5837, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. SETTING: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 104 restaurants with calorie information added to in-store and drive-thru menus in April 2017 and with weekly aggregated sales data during the pre-labeling (April 2015 to April 2017) and post-labeling (April 2017 to April 2018) implementation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the overall level and trend changes in mean purchased calories per transaction after implementation of calorie labeling compared with the counterfactual (ie, assumption that the pre-intervention trend would have persisted had the intervention not occurred) using interrupted time series analyses with linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes were by item category (entrees, sides, and sugar sweetened beverages). Subgroup analyses estimated the effect of calorie labeling in stratums defined by the sociodemographic characteristics of restaurant census tracts (defined region for taking census). RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 14 352 restaurant weeks. Over three years and among 104 restaurants, 49 062 440 transactions took place and 242 726 953 items were purchased. After labeling implementation, a level decrease was observed of 60 calories/transaction (95% confidence interval 48 to 72; about 4%), followed by an increasing trend of 0.71 calories/transaction/week (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) independent of the baseline trend over the year after implementation. These results were generally robust to different analytic assumptions in sensitivity analyses. The level decrease and post-implementation trend change were stronger for sides than for entrees or sugar sweetened beverages. The level decrease was similar between census tracts with higher and lower median income, but the post-implementation trend in calories per transaction was higher in low income (change in calories/transaction/week 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.21) than in high income census tracts (0.50, 0.19 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A small decrease in mean calories purchased per transaction was observed after implementation of calorie labeling in a large franchise of fast food restaurants. This reduction diminished over one year of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(11): 929-936, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701730

RESUMO

A balanced and wholesome diet provides the human organism with energy (macronutrients) and all necessary micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteinogenic amino acids, omega fatty acids) necessary for the maintenance of all metabolic processes. The necessary quantity and composition especially of energy-supplying macronutrients change with age due to physiological and pathological changes in the body. These age-related changes as well as corresponding recommendations for elderly patients will be summarized in the following article based on the current S3 guidelines of the German Society for Nutritional Medicine on «Clinical Nutrition in Geriatrics¼ as well as further literature and the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society. Nutrition at the terminal stage of life and special nutritional advices for persons suffering from diabetes mellitus are not discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas , Idoso , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Minerais
4.
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 700-705, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the status and trend of energy and macronutrient intake among elderly aged 60 and older years old in nine provinces( autonomous region) of China. METHODS: The data of China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2015 were used, which elderly ≥60 years old were selected as the subjects. The 3-consecutive day 24-hour dietary recall was used to collect information on food intake, the condiment intake was collected by weighting and bookkeeping method. Food consumption was converted into energy and various nutrient intakes by food composition table. RESULTS: The intakes of energy was 1706. 8 kcal/d, protein, fat and carbohydrates was 52. 2 g/d, 61. 4 g/d and 219. 3 g/d respectively in 2015. The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 12. 3%, 33. 3% and 53. 0%respectively. Compared with 1991, the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate decreased352. 3 kcal/d, 11. 5 g/d and 89. 8 g/d respectively. The percentage of energy from fat increased 9. 0 percentage points, carbohydrates decreased 8. 7 percentage points and protein was not changing. In 2015, the intakes of protein and carbohydrates had urbanrural differences. The elderly at the high income level had high intakes of protein and fat, the carbohydrates intake at low level. The main source of energy, protein and fat is grain, other food and edible oil respectively. CONCLUSION: The elderly of Chinese nine provinces( autonomous region) need to increase energy consumption, reduce the fat intake. We should guide rural and low-income elderly people to choose more economical and accessible food to meet their nutritional needs through food substitution. Focus on changes in blood lipids that may result from excessive intake of animal food in urban and high-income elderly people.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes , Idoso , Animais , China , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(10): 998-1004, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of different energy feeding patterns on the nutritional status, clinical course, and outcome of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and severe pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 43 malnourished infants, aged <6 months, who were diagnosed with ventricular septal defect and severe pneumonia and underwent surgical operation from January 1 to December 30, 2017 were enrolled. They were randomly divided into an observation group with 21 infants and a control group with 22 infants. The infants in the observation group were given calorie-enriched formula milk powder (100 kcal/100 mL) after surgery, and those in the control group were given formula milk powder with normal calories (67 kcal/100 mL). The two groups were observed for 3 months to record physical measurements, laboratory markers and nutritional risk screening results. Nutritional status was evaluated for all infants. The two groups were compared in terms of prognosis and adverse events. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in physical measurements, laboratory markers, nutritional assessment and nutritional risk screening results on admission (P>0.05). At discharge and 1 and 3 months after surgery, the control group had significantly higher degree of malnutrition and level of nutritional risk than the observation group (P<0.05). The analysis of variance with repeated measures showed significant differences in body weight, upper arm circumference, weight-for-age Z-score, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score, and albumin level at different time points and between different groups, and there was an interaction between group factors and time factors (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had a significantly lower average daily intake of fluid, a significantly higher average daily intake of energy, and a significantly lower incidence rate of insufficient feeding during hospitalization (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of postoperative pyrexia, as well as significantly lower hospital costs (P<0.05). No significant adverse reactions were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: An appropriate increase in postoperative energy supply for children with CHD can improve the status of malnutrition and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interventricular , Pneumonia , Ingestão de Energia , Comunicação Interventricular/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia/terapia
7.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 43, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare nutritional intakes against recommended values as well as between the perceived intake and needs of female lacrosse players. METHODS: Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse players (20.0 ± 1.7 yrs., 169.7 ± 6.4 cm; 69.9 ± 10.7 kg; 27.5 ± 3.3% fat) completed a four-day monitoring period during in-season. Athletes were outfitted with an activity monitor over four consecutive days and completed four-day food records to assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and dietary intake. Body composition was assessed and used to calculate recommended dietary intakes. Actual intake was self-reported using a commercially available food tracking program (MyFitnessPal©, USA). Daily average values were calculated for total and relative energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake. These values were then compared to published nutritional recommendations established by the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Appropriate pairwise comparisons were made depending on the normality of the distribution. RESULTS: Athletes ate significantly less than recommended values for energy, carbohydrates and protein. (p < 0.001). Significant discrepancies (p < 0.001) were also observed between perceptions of intake versus actual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes significantly underestimated perceived intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate when compared to perceived needs. Massive standard deviations and ranges were observed, suggesting that some athletes lack a basic understanding of their daily needs. Results from this data suggest that collegiate athletes lack appropriate understanding of basic nutrition needs and could benefit from basic nutrition education as it pertains to their health and performance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Esportes com Raquete , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1655-1659, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586978

RESUMO

In the elderly, there is a reduction of the efficiency in many organs, including muscles. The weight, strength and power reduction of elderly muscles is defined as sarcopenia. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, it can be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as reduced caloric intake, denervation of muscle fibers - in the course of various neurodegenerative diseases, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal disorders and others. The European Working Group on sarcopenia in the elderly published diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia in 2010, which should increase the recognition of this disease and speed up the treatment process. The best-confirmed methods of treatment of sarcopenia are nutritional hyperalimentation and resistance training. Pharmacological agents, i.e. selective androgen receptor modulators, and myostatin inhibitors are not sufficiently tested to be approved, by the FDA as a treatment regimen of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 419-441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588542

RESUMO

Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and output, influenced by numerous environmental, biological, and genetic factors. Only a minority of people with obesity have a genetic defect that is the main cause of their obesity. A key symptom for most of these disorders is early-onset obesity and hyperphagia. For some genetic obesity disorders, the hyperphagia is the main characteristic, often caused by disruptions of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, the central pathway that regulates the body's satiety and energy balance. For other disorders, obesity is part of a distinct combination of other clinical features such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, or organ abnormalities. This chapter focuses on genetic obesity disorders and also summarizes the present knowledge on the genetics of the more common polygenic/multifactorial obesity.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Leptina , Melanocortinas , Saciação
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 36, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with obesity; however, it is unclear if changes in energy intake affect the adaptive response to caloric restriction in those with risk variants. The three FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1421085, rs17817449 and rs9939609, are in strong linkage disequilibrium. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of these FTO SNPs vis-à-vis the effects of a 4-week hypocaloric diet on body composition in exercise-trained men and women. Two salivary biomarkers that associate with energy expenditure were also assessed (cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase, sAA). METHODS: Forty-seven exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 36) (mean ± SD: age 32 ± 9 years; height 169 ± 8 cm, body mass index 24.5 ± 2.9 kg/m2, hours of aerobic training per week 4.9 ± 3.8, hours of weight training per week 3.9 ± 2.4, years of training experience 13.4 ± 7.0) completed a 4-week hypocaloric diet (i.e., decrease total calories by ~ 20-25% while maintaining a protein intake of ~ 2.0 g/kg/d). Subjects were instructed to maintain the same training regimen and to decrease energy intake via carbohydrate and/or fat restriction during the treatment period. Body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Model: Hologic Horizon W; Hologic Inc., Danbury CT USA). Total body water was determined via a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device (InBody 770). Saliva samples were collected pre and post intervention in order to genotype the participants as well as to determine the concentrations of cortisol and sAA. RESULTS: Of the 47 subjects, 15 were of normal risk for obesity whereas 32 were carriers of the FTO gene risk alleles. Subjects were grouped based on their genotype for the three FTO SNPs (i.e., rs1421085, rs17817449 and rs9939609) due to their strong linkage disequilibrium. We have classified those with the normal obesity risk as "non-risk allele" versus those that carry the "risk allele" (i.e., both heterozygous and homozygous). Both groups experienced a significant decrease in total energy intake (p < 0.01); non-risk allele: pre kcal 2081 ± 618, post kcal 1703 ± 495; risk allele: pre kcal 1886 ± 515, post kcal 1502 ± 366). Both groups lost a significant amount of body weight (p < 0.01); however, there was no difference between groups for the change (post minus pre) in each group (risk allele change: - 1.0 ± 1.2 kg, non-risk allele change: - 1.2 ± 1.4 kg). Additionally, both groups lost a significant amount of fat mass (p < 0.01) with no differences between groups for the change in fat mass (risk allele change for fat mass: 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, non-risk allele change - 0.9 ± 0.4 kg). There were no significant changes in either group for fat free mass or total body water. The change in salivary alpha-amylase or cortisol was not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the short-term (i.e., 4 weeks), exercise-trained men and women consuming a hypocaloric diet that is relatively high in protein experience similar changes in body composition due exclusively to a decrement in fat mass and independent of FTO allele status. Therefore, weight and fat loss on a hypocaloric diet is, at least in the short-term, unaffected by the FTO gene.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Restrição Calórica , Exercício , Adulto , Alelos , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ ; 366: l4786, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: General adult population of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 36 324 households with data on product level household expenditure from UK Kantar FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) panel for January 2012 to December 2013. Data were used to estimate changes in energy (kcal, 1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ) purchase associated with a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. Data for 2544 adults from waves 5 to 8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2012-16) were used to estimate resulting changes in BMI and prevalence of obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effect on per person take home energy purchases of a 20% price increase for three categories of high sugar snacks: confectionery (including chocolate), biscuits, and cakes. Health outcomes resulting from the price increase were measured as changes in weight, BMI (not overweight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI ≥25 and <30), and obese (BMI ≥30)), and prevalence of obesity. Results were stratified by household income and BMI. RESULTS: For income groups combined, the average reduction in energy consumption for a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks was estimated to be 8.9×103 kcal (95% confidence interval -13.1×103 to -4.2×103 kcal). Using a static weight loss model, BMI was estimated to decrease by 0.53 (95% confidence interval -1.01 to -0.06) on average across all categories and income groups. This change could reduce the UK prevalence of obesity by 2.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval -3.7 to -1.7 percentage points) after one year. The impact of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks on energy purchase was largest in low income households classified as obese and smallest in high income households classified as not overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the price of high sugar snacks by 20% could reduce energy intake, BMI, and prevalence of obesity. This finding was in a UK context and was double that modelled for a similar price increase in sugar sweetened beverages.


Assuntos
Comércio , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lanches , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(3): 288-292, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the correlation between dietary nutrient intake and PG-SGA score in patients with oral cancers before radiotherapy. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with oral cancers treated in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital were selected. The 72-hour dietary survey method was used to understand the food intake of the patients. PG-SGA was used to make quantitative scoring of the nutritional status of the patients. SPSS 23.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The number of severe malnutrition cases in male patients was significantly higher than that in female patients (P<0.05). Energy, fat and fat energy ratio, carbohydrate and carbohydrate energy ratio from diet in good nutrition/mild malnutrition group, moderate malnutrition, severe malnutrition patients were over reference intake of dietary nutrients for Chinese residents; protein intake and protein energy ratio were greater than reference intake of nutrients for Chinese people. There was no significant difference among the three groups. The selenium intake of the well-nourished/mildly malnourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished groups was 67.15, 81.04 and 81.59 µg; vitamin E was 27.81, 30.88, 26.40 mg α-TE; vitamin C was 150.19, 159.81, 183.71 mg; retinol was 904.65, 1401.51, and 1373.81 µg RAE, respectively. Niacin was 12.97, 18.76 and 14.27 mg NE, respectively, reaching or exceeding the reference intake. There was no significant difference among the three groups. In male patients, dietary energy and niacin intake were negatively correlated with PG-SGA score (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with oral cancers have a high incidence of malnutrition before radiotherapy, and the average intake of dietary energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates and micronutrients such as selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, retinol and niacin reached or exceeded the reference intake. Energy and niacin intake were negatively correlated with PG-SGA score in male patients.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias Bucais , Estado Nutricional , China , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/complicações
13.
JAMA ; 322(12): 1178-1187, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550032

RESUMO

Importance: Changes in the economy, nutrition policies, and food processing methods can affect dietary macronutrient intake and diet quality. It is essential to evaluate trends in dietary intake, food sources, and diet quality to inform policy makers. Objective: To investigate trends in dietary macronutrient intake, food sources, and diet quality among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis of the US nationally representative 24-hour dietary recall data from 9 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (1999-2016) among adults aged 20 years or older. Exposure: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dietary intake of macronutrients and their subtypes, food sources, and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better diet quality; a minimal clinically important difference has not been defined). Results: There were 43 996 respondents (weighted mean age, 46.9 years; 51.9% women). From 1999 to 2016, the estimated energy from total carbohydrates declined from 52.5% to 50.5% (difference, -2.02%; 95% CI, -2.41% to -1.63%), whereas that of total protein and total fat increased from 15.5% to 16.4% (difference, 0.82%; 95% CI, 0.67%-0.97%) and from 32.0% to 33.2% (difference, 1.20%; 95% CI, 0.84%-1.55%), respectively (all P < .001 for trend). Estimated energy from low-quality carbohydrates decreased by 3.25% (95% CI, 2.74%-3.75%; P < .001 for trend) from 45.1% to 41.8%. Increases were observed in estimated energy from high-quality carbohydrates (by 1.23% [95% CI, 0.84%-1.61%] from 7.42% to 8.65%), plant protein (by 0.38% [95% CI, 0.28%-0.49%] from 5.38% to 5.76%), saturated fatty acids (by 0.36% [95% CI, 0.20%-0.51%] from 11.5% to 11.9%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 0.65% [95% CI, 0.56%-0.74%] from 7.58% to 8.23%) (all P < .001 for trend). The estimated overall Healthy Eating Index 2015 increased from 55.7 to 57.7 (difference, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.86-3.16; P < .001 for trend). Trends in high- and low-quality carbohydrates primarily reflected higher estimated energy from whole grains (0.65%) and reduced estimated energy from added sugars (-2.00%), respectively. Trends in plant protein were predominantly due to higher estimated intake of whole grains (0.12%) and nuts (0.09%). Conclusions and Relevance: From 1999 to 2016, US adults experienced a significant decrease in percentage of energy intake from low-quality carbohydrates and significant increases in percentage of energy intake from high-quality carbohydrates, plant protein, and polyunsaturated fat. Despite improvements in macronutrient composition and diet quality, continued high intake of low-quality carbohydrates and saturated fat remained.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Dieta Saudável/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489097

RESUMO

Introduction: The prison population in low-income countries is a group vulnerable to undernutrition, particularly incarcerated women. The aim of the study is to assess the nutritional status of women in prison and to determine the social profile and prison conditions related to undernutrition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 women prisoners in Antanimora prison located in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. All women detained for 3 months or more at the time of the survey were included in the study. Data collection was conducted in May and June 2013. A survey of women and anthropometric measurements were carried out to collect the data. Results: The proportion of undernourished female prisoners is 38.4%. Five percent of pregnant and lactating women and 44.3% of non-lactating and non-pregnant women are undernourished. The factors related to undernutrition of women prisoners are: taking two meals a day instead of three meals (p = 0.003), insufficient energy intake (p < 0.001), incarceration duration of more than 10 months (p < 0.001), absence of family visits (p = 0.013) and lack of financial assistance from family (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Improving the prisoners' diets and assistance from family both help to fight against prisoner undernutrition in prisons.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1141, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (NCSSBs) has many adverse health effects. However, the sugar and energy content in NCSSBs sold in China remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the sugar and energy content of NCSSBs in China and how these contents were labelled. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 15 supermarkets in Haidian District, Beijing from July to October 2017. The product packaging and nutrient information panels of NCSSBs were recorded to obtain type of products (local/imported), serving size, nutrient contents of carbohydrate, sugar and energy. For those NCSSBs without sugar content information, we used carbohydrate content as a replacement. RESULTS: A total of 463 NCSSBs met the inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. The median of sugar content and energy content was 9.6 [interquartile range (IQR): 7.1-11.3] g/100 ml and 176 (IQR: 121-201) kJ/100 ml. The median of sugar contents in juice drinks, tea-based beverages, sports drinks and energy drinks were 10.4, 8.5, 5.0 and 7.4 g/100 ml. Imported products had higher sugar and energy content than local products. There were 95.2% products of NCSSBs receiving a 'red'(high) label for sugars per portion according to the UK criteria, and 81.6% products exceeding the daily free sugar intake recommendation from the World Health Organization (25 g). There were 82 (17.7%) products with sugar content on the nutrition labels and 60.2% of them were imported products. CONCLUSIONS: NCSSBs had high sugar and energy content, and few of them provided sugar content information on their nutrition labels especially in local products. Measures including developing better regulation of labelling, reducing sugar content and restricting the serving size are needed for reducing sugar intakes in China.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Pequim , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Energéticas/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recomendações Nutricionais
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 273-282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468406

RESUMO

Taurine has been reported to play a key role in the growth and development of children's brains and nerves. Incorrect dietary habits and unbalanced nutrient intakes may be caused by socio-environmental and economic factors in low-income children. This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood lipid profiles, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and intakes of dietary taurine and nutrients after an 8-week nutrition education program (NEP) in low-income Korean children. In this intervention study, nutrition education, exercise, and nutrition counseling were conducted for 8-weeks in 22 low-income children (11-13 years old, 9 males and 13 females) at community child center located in Incheon, Korea. Changes after the NEP were evaluated using a one group pretest-posttest design. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. After the 8-week NEP, there was a significant decrease in the blood triglyceride level of female students (p < 0.01). As for nutrition knowledge, there were significant increases in the subscore of sugars and sodium in foods consumed by male students (p < 0.05), total score of nutrition knowledge (p < 0.01), subscore of sugars and sodium in foods (p < 0.01), and fat content of foods and adequate dietary intake in female students (p < 0.05). Dietary attitudes did not change. There were significant increases in intakes of dietary taurine, vitamin B6 (p < 0.01), and dietary fiber (p < 0.05) in female students after the NEP. There were significantly positive correlations between changes in dietary taurine intake and dietary attitudes as well as between changes in carbohydrate intake and total cholesterol level among all the subjects. Therefore, nutrition education to promote balanced nutrient intake and dietary attitudes for optimal growth and development of low-income children is needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Lipídeos/sangue , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estado Nutricional , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , República da Coreia
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 349-358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468413

RESUMO

Taurine is a ß-amino acid found most broadly distributed in human body, abundant in animal foods, and has an antioxidative function. Current nutritional intake and dietary habits of children in elementary schools show low level of the intake of vegetable foods and high level of the intake of processed foods and fast foods; this necessitates the emphasis of the intake of antioxidative nutrients for children. On account of the less consumption of vegetable foods as a main source of antioxidative nutrients for elementary school children, animal foods containing abundant amount of taurine can be preferably taken as an alternative foods therefor. Many previous studies have reported the protein intake of the children in elementary schools so far. However, the studies, reported the intake of taurine of elementary school children, are few. Thus, this study analyzed taurine and nutrients intake for children in Daegu, Korea. The average daily energy intake of the children was 153 ± 155 mg/day. The mean taurine intake values are followed; 27.6 ± 11.6 mg/day in the Q1 group, 61.2 ± 10.0 mg/day in the Q2 group, 137.7 ± 51.1 mg/day in the Q3 group, and 385.9 ± 123.6 mg/day in the Q4 group (p < .001). Q3 and Q4 groups showed significantly higher level of the intake of vitamin D, vitamin B12, Calcium, and folate than those of Q1 and Q2 groups. In the study, foods that affected the intake of taurine were as followed; fish and shellfish (79%), meat (14%), seaweed (5%), and other food products (2%).As a consequence, Taurine intake appears to be affected by seafood intake, and if seafood is consumed primarily, the amount of energy intake would be appropriate and will contribute to the increase of intakes of taurine, calcium and vitamin D.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Criança , Humanos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , República da Coreia , Alimentos Marinhos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 823-835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420761

RESUMO

When analyzing effect heterogeneity, the researcher commonly opts for stratification or a regression model with interactions. While these methods provide valuable insights, their usefulness can be somewhat limited, since they typically fail to take into account heterogeneity with respect to many dimensions simultaneously, or give rise to models with complex appearances. Based on the potential outcomes framework and through imputation of missing potential outcomes, our study proposes a method for analyzing heterogeneous effects by focusing on treatment effects rather than outcomes. The procedure is easy to implement and generates estimates that take into account heterogeneity with respect to all relevant dimensions at the same time. Results are easily interpreted and can additionally be represented by graphs, showing the overall magnitude and pattern of heterogeneity as well as how this relates to different factors. We illustrate the method both with simulations and by examining heterogeneous effects of obesity on HDL cholesterol in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort. Obesity was associated with reduced HDL in almost all individuals, but effects varied with smoking, risky alcohol consumption, higher education, and energy intake, with some indications of non-linear effects. Our approach can be applied by any epidemiologist who wants to assess the role and strength of heterogeneity with respect to a multitude of factors.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , HDL-Colesterol , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Obesidade , Fumar
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190048, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary patterns are based on the concept that food consumed together or by itself is as important as food or nutrient intake. OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary patterns in a sample of nursing professionals and to explore the differences between the patterns found using two techniques: principal components (PC) and principal factorial axis (PAF). METHOD: The current report was based on data from 309 participants on a nursing team at a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. A 24-hour dietary recall was used, resulting in 24 food groups. To identify the dietary patterns, we applied a multivariate analysis, specifically the PC and the PAF, followed by a Varimax orthogonal rotation. RESULTS: The Cattell graphic test indicated three factors to be extracted. The communality varied between 0.41 and 0.76. Higher loads than 0.30 were considered in the pattern composition. The two methods identified similar dietary patterns, called traditional patterns. The other two patterns were nominated as healthy and snacks, having inverted position of factors in the applied techniques. CONCLUSION: The observed differences refer to: the number of food groups that enter the composition of components and factors; the size of the smaller loads in the PAF and the order of the alimentary patterns, especially those derived from loads of a smaller magnitude. However, these differences do not seem to impact the interpretability of dietary patterns in this population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Ingestão de Energia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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