Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.798
Filtrar
1.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107845, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004533

RESUMO

Vegetable oils are frequently used as solvents for lipophilic materials; accordingly, the effects of their components should be considered in animal experiments. In this study, the effects of various vegetable oils on the course of Trypanosoma congolense infection were examined in mice. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered four kinds of oils (i.e., coconut oil, olive oil, high oleic safflower oil, and high linoleic safflower oil) with different fatty acid compositions and infected with T. congolense IL-3000. Oil-treated mice infected with T. congolense showed significantly higher survival rates and lower parasitemia than those of control mice. Notably, coconut oil, which mainly consists of saturated fatty acids, delayed the development of parasitemia at the early stage of infection. These results indicated that vegetable oil intake could affect T. congolense infection in mice. These findings have important practical implications; for example, they suggest the potential effectiveness of vegetable oils as a part of the regular animal diet for controlling tropical diseases and indicate that vegetable oils are not suitable solvents for studies of the efficacy of lipophilic agents against T. congolense.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Trypanosoma congolense/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomíase Africana/dietoterapia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Coco/química , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido Oleico/análise , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais/classificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Cártamo/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Cártamo/química , Óleo de Cártamo/farmacologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle
2.
Theriogenology ; 142: 433-440, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711708

RESUMO

Heat stress hampers nutrient utilisation and production of animals, and dietary betaine supplementation can mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on animals and improve their productivity. The present study was conducted to explore the effects of betaine supplementation on the growth performance of eighteen growing Karan Fries (KF) heifers having similar age and body conditions. The experiment was carried out on three groups (n = 6) of KF heifers viz. control, treatment I (betaine supplemented at 25  g/d/animal), and treatment II (betaine supplemented at 50  g/d/animal). The experiment lasted for eight months covering the three major seasons of Indian tropical conditions viz. hot-dry (temperature humidity index, THI = 83), hot-humid (THI = 85) and thermoneutral season (THI = 73). Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals and analysed for plasma growth hormone (GH; competitive ELISA) and total insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Sandwich ELISA), as well as expression of IGF-I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Betaine supplementation resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in dry matter intake, feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain, plasma GH and IGF-1 levels during all seasons. The concentrations of plasma IGF-1 and the mRNA expression of IGF-1 were higher (p < 0.01) in treatment I as compared to other groups during all seasons. Betaine supplementation at 25  g/d/animal was more cost-effective in improving growth performance of heat-stressed heifers as compared to 50  g/d/animal. The study suggests that the betaine protects intestinal integrity, enhances nutrient utilisation during heat stress and improves growth performance of growing heifers.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/dietoterapia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Betaína/farmacologia , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
3.
Nature ; 578(7795): 444-448, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875646

RESUMO

Metformin, the world's most prescribed anti-diabetic drug, is also effective in preventing type 2 diabetes in people at high risk1,2. More than 60% of this effect is attributable to the ability of metformin to lower body weight in a sustained manner3. The molecular mechanisms by which metformin lowers body weight are unknown. Here we show-in two independent randomized controlled clinical trials-that metformin increases circulating levels of the peptide hormone growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), which has been shown to reduce food intake and lower body weight through a brain-stem-restricted receptor. In wild-type mice, oral metformin increased circulating GDF15, with GDF15 expression increasing predominantly in the distal intestine and the kidney. Metformin prevented weight gain in response to a high-fat diet in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking GDF15 or its receptor GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL). In obese mice on a high-fat diet, the effects of metformin to reduce body weight were reversed by a GFRAL-antagonist antibody. Metformin had effects on both energy intake and energy expenditure that were dependent on GDF15, but retained its ability to lower circulating glucose levels in the absence of GDF15 activity. In summary, metformin elevates circulating levels of GDF15, which is necessary to obtain its beneficial effects on energy balance and body weight, major contributors to its action as a chemopreventive agent.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/citologia , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/deficiência , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/deficiência , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 288: 113377, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881203

RESUMO

The synergy between the genetic potential and the nutrient intake determines the growth performance of meat-type chicken and nutrigenomics approach helps us understand the response of candidate genes of growth in chicken to dietary manipulations. The current study aimed to assess the growth performance and expression of hepatic growth related genes in the naked neck broiler chicken in response to different dietary energy and protein levels with a hypothesis that high plane of nutrition enhances both of these positively. The results revealed that birds have shown significantly better growth performance under high protein (HP) and high energy (HE) dietary regime. The expression profiles of the genes studied revealed upregulation of IGF-1, IGF-2, and GH under dietary HP and HE regime relative to other protein and energy levels with greater upregulation at 3rd week than the 1st and 5th week of age of birds. The IGFR and GHR mRNA expression was significantly higher under HP and HE dietary regimen with an increasing and decreasing trend from 1st to 5th week of age, respectively. A consistent and significant downregulation of IGFBP-2 was observed under HP and HE regime throughout the feeding trial. The myostatin expression was higher at 3rd week of age followed by 1st week expression. The HP and HE as well as LP (Low protein) and HE diet resulted in significant upregulation of myostatin gene expression in liver. In support to the set hypothesis of this study the high protein and high energy diet resulted in better growth performance of broiler chickens with corresponding upregulation of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFR, GH, GHR, and Myostatin gene expression and downregulation of IGFBP-2 in liver.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842388

RESUMO

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are suggested to lower energy intake in the diet, but they have been paradoxically involved in the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Stevia is the least studied sweetener. This study aims to investigate the effect of stevia on postprandial glucose levels, appetite and food intake. METHODS: 30 participants (20 females/10 males; 26.1 (10.56) years; body mass index (BMI) 23.44 (3.42) Kg/m2) took part in a three-arm crossover trial where they received preloads of water, sugar (60 g) and stevia (1 g) on three different days, followed by an ad libitum pizza lunch. Breakfast was standardised. A one-day diet diary was collected on each test day. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess subjective feelings of appetite. Blood glucose samples were collected at 30-min intervals until 120 min post lunch. RESULTS: Energy intake did not significantly differ between preloads for ad libitum meals (p = 0.78) and overall day (p = 0.33). VAS scores for hunger and desire to eat (DTE) were lower following stevia preload compared to water (p < 0.05). After adjusting for the sugar preload and calorie content, postprandial glucose levels did not significantly differ between interventions. CONCLUSION: Stevia lowers appetite sensation and does not further increase food intake and postprandial glucose levels. It could be a useful strategy in obesity and diabetes prevention and management.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Stevia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Adulto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717525

RESUMO

Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) are prevalent in the food supply for their primary functional property of providing sweetness with little or no energy. Though tested for safety individually, there has been extremely limited work on the efficacy of each LCS. It is commonly assumed all LCS act similarly in their behavioral and physiological effects. However, each LCS has its own chemical structure that influences its metabolism, making each LCS unique in its potential effects on body weight, energy intake, and appetite. LCS may have different behavioral and physiological effects mediated at the sweet taste receptor, in brain activation, with gut hormones, at the microbiota and on appetitive responses. Further elucidation of the unique effects of the different commercially available LCS may hold important implications for recommendations about their use for different health outcomes.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/química , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771102

RESUMO

Prolonged caloric intake above energy needs disturbs the body's ability to store and manage the excess of energy intake, leading to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases. This study aimed to compare the effect of three foods, which contain demonstrated bioactive compounds in the treatment of obesity and as an adjuvant in obesity energy restriction treatments. In a mice obesity model induced through a high-fat diet; fish oil, soluble fibre, and soy were incorporated to evaluate its capacity to modulate metabolic factors in adipose tissue during a continued fat intake or weight reduction through a normocaloric diet. As a result, fish oil improved mitochondrial related, adipose tissue hormone expression, and oxidation products when high-fat diets are consumed; while soluble fibre improved glucose and inflammation pathways during high-fat diet intake. In weight reduction treatments few differential features, as a treatment adjuvant, were observed for fish oil and soy; while soluble fibre was able to improve the weight reduction effects induced by a normocaloric diet. As a conclusion, soluble fibre supplementation compared to an energy reduction program, was the only treatment able to induce a significant additional effect in the improvement of weight loss and adipose tissue metabolism.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Dieta Redutora , Mitocôndrias , Obesidade , Perda de Peso , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Soja
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9902-9918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495619

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) from oregano may have antimicrobial properties, potentially representing a methane mitigation strategy suitable for organic production. This study aimed to (1) examine the potential of oregano in lowering enteric methane production of dairy cows fed differing levels of dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) plant material containing high levels of EO; (2) determine whether differing levels of dried oregano plant material of another subspecies (Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare) with naturally low levels of EO in feed affected enteric methane production; and (3) evaluate the effect of various levels of the 2 oregano subspecies (containing high or low levels of EO) in feed on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acids. Each experiment had a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows that had rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas and were fed 4 different levels of oregano. Experiment 1 used low EO oregano [0.12% EO of oregano dry matter (DM)] and evaluated a control (C) diet with no oregano and 3 oregano diets with 18 (low; L), 36 (medium; M), and 53 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM (high; H). Experiment 2 used high EO oregano (4.21% EO of oregano DM) with 0, 7, 14, and 21 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM for C, L, M, and H, respectively. Oregano was added to the diets by substituting grass/clover silage on a DM basis. Low or high EO oregano in feed did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or methane production (grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of energy-corrected milk, and percentage of gross energy intake). Rumen fermentation was slightly affected by diet in experiment 1, but was not affected by diet in experiment 2. In both experiments, the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly and cubically (a cubic response was not observed for neutral detergent fiber) with increasing dietary oregano content, while milk fatty acids were slightly affected. In conclusion, dried oregano plant material with either high or low levels of EO did not lower the methane production of dairy cows over 4 consecutive days, and no substantial effects were observed on rumen fermentation or nutrient digestibility. This conclusion regarding methane production is in contrast with literature and requires further study.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Origanum , Silagem/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(11): 1874-1882, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amphetamine was formerly used as a treatment to combat obesity, but amphetamine's use as an appetite suppressant was discontinued because of its significant abuse potential. Most of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of amphetamine differ by sex, with females showing higher levels of drug intake and amphetamine-induced motivation, relapse, and locomotion, but it is unknown whether amphetamine's effects on feeding also differ by sex. Furthermore, previous research on the anorectic effects of amphetamine has been focused primarily on its effects on baseline homeostatic feeding, but it is unknown whether amphetamine also affects hedonic, reward-related feeding, which is an important factor driving the rise in obesity levels. METHODS: This study tested whether amphetamine alters food intake in a sex-dependent manner in two reward-related feeding paradigms: a sucrose two-bottle choice test and a high-fat/high-sugar binge intake model. RESULTS: Amphetamine altered food intake equally in males and females in both paradigms, with higher doses significantly inhibiting feeding and low doses of amphetamine increasing feeding at later time points. CONCLUSIONS: Amphetamine's effects on feeding and drug reward may be mediated by distinct mechanisms, which could allow for the development of new approaches to combat obesity with limited abuse and addiction-related side effects.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/farmacologia , Bulimia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Bulimia/induzido quimicamente , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438580

RESUMO

The natural sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, steviol glycoside (SG), has been proposed to exhibit a range of antidiabetic properties. The objective of this systematic review was to critically evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of SGs on human health, particularly type 2 diabetic (T2D) biomarkers, collecting data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Electronic searches were performed in PubMed and EMBASE and the bibliography of retrieved full-texts was hand searched. Using the Cochrane criteria, the reporting quality of included studies was assessed. Seven studies, nine RCTs, including a total of 462 participants were included. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of SGs on following outcomes: BMI, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The meta-analysis revealed an overall significant reduction in systolic BP in favour of SGs between SG and placebo, mean difference (MD): -6.32 mm Hg (-7.69 to 0.46). The overall effect of BMI, diastolic BP, FBG, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was a non-significant reduction in favour of SGs, and a non-significant increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, while no significant effect of HbA1c was found. Heterogeneity was significant for several analyses. More studies investigating the effect of SGs on human health, particularly T2D biomarkers, are warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diterpenos de Caurano/química , Diterpenos de Caurano/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue
11.
Sex Med Rev ; 7(4): 575-586, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin, a multifunctional serotonin receptor agonist and antagonist, is currently approved in the United States and Canada for the treatment of acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. A post hoc analysis of HSDD clinical trial data found that flibanserin treatment was associated with statistically significant weight loss relative to placebo, even though study patients were not selected for being overweight/obese and were provided no expectation for weight reduction or interventions intended to promote weight loss. AIM: To understand possible mechanisms by which flibanserin may produce weight loss. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Medline database for relevant publications on the mechanisms of action by which flibanserin may provide weight loss and the links between sexual function and weight management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Examination of (i) biopsychosocial factors regulating sexual desire, food intake, and weight regulation; (ii) clinical pharmacology of flibanserin; (iii) neurobiology of brain reward circuitry; and (iv) identification of possible mechanisms common to flibanserin and weight loss. RESULTS: Based on flibanserin clinical trial data, there was no consistent correlation between weight loss and improvement in sexual function, as assessed by HSDD outcome measures. Nausea, a common adverse event associated with flibanserin use, also did not appear to be a contributing factor to weight loss. Hypothetical links between flibanserin treatment and weight loss include modulation of peripheral 5-HT2A receptors and factors such as improved mood and improved sleep. CONCLUSION: Mechanisms of flibanserin-induced weight loss have not been well characterized but may involve indirect beneficial effects on peripheral 5-HT2A receptors and central regulation of mood and sleep. Future research may better elucidate the links between sexual function and weight management and the mechanism(s) by which flibanserin use may result in weight loss. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Goldstein I, et al. Weight Loss in Women Taking Flibanserin for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD): Insights into Potential Mechanisms. Sex Med Rev 2019;7:575-586.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas da Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia
12.
Endocr J ; 66(8): 677-682, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130574

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes induced compensatory hyperphagia by reducing fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion. This prospective study was performed in 26 type 2 diabetes patients treated with dapagliflozin (5 mg/day). Hormonal factors associated with glucose metabolism, dietary intakes estimated by brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ), body weight (BW), and body composition were measured at baseline, and 4 and 12 weeks after dapagliflozin. At 12 weeks, HbA1c levels and BW decreased significantly (both p < 0.0001). BMI at baseline was predictive to baseline log10 (FGF21) (p = 0.037). This study showed no change in FGF21, but insulin and glucagon levels decreased significantly (both p < 0.05). Although hyperphagia was found in 10 patients (38.5%), defining hyperphagia as >20% increase in carbohydrate intake, dapagliflozin treatment induced no hyperphagia, when analyzed by all subjects, and there was no significant association between changes in FGF21 levels and carbohydrate intake. On the other hand, a positive correlation between changes in FGF21 levels or carbohydrate intake and BW was observed (both p < 0.005). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intervention to maintain the reduced levels in FGF21 is beneficial for BW reduction in type 2 diabetes patients treated with SGLT2i.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1335-1343, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fatty acid, lauric acid ('C12'), and the amino acid, L-tryptophan ('Trp'), modulate gastrointestinal functions including gut hormones and pyloric pressures, which are important for the regulation of energy intake, and both potently suppress energy intake. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the intraduodenal administration of C12 and Trp, at loads that do not affect energy intake individually, when combined will reduce energy intake, which is associated with greater modulation of gut hormones and pyloric pressures. DESIGN: Sixteen healthy, lean males (age: 24 ± 1.5 y) received 90-min intraduodenal infusions of saline (control), C12 (0.3 kcal/min), Trp (0.1 kcal/min), or C12 + Trp (0.4 kcal/min), in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were measured continuously, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations, appetite perceptions, and gastrointestinal symptoms at 15-min intervals. Immediately after the infusions, energy intake from a standardized buffet meal was quantified. RESULTS: C12 + Trp markedly reduced energy intake (kcal; control: 1,232 ± 72, C12: 1,180 ± 82, Trp: 1,269 ± 73, C12 + Trp: 1,056 ± 106), stimulated plasma CCK (AUC(area under the curve)0-90 min, pmol/L*min; control: 21 ± 8; C12: 129 ± 15; Trp: 97 ± 16; C12 + Trp: 229 ± 22) and GLP-1 (AUC0-90 min, pmol/L*min; control: 102 ± 41; C12: 522 ± 102; Trp: 198 ± 63; C12 + Trp: 545 ± 138), and suppressed ghrelin (AUC0-90 min, pg/mL*min; control: -3,433 ± 2,647; C12: -11,825 ± 3,521; Trp: -8,417 ± 3,734; C12 + Trp: -18,188 ± 4,165) concentrations, but did not stimulate tonic, or phasic, pyloric pressures, compared with the control (all P < 0.05), or have adverse effects. C12 and Trp each stimulated CCK (P < 0.05), but to a lesser degree than C12 + Trp, and did not suppress energy intake or ghrelin. C12, but not Trp, stimulated GLP-1 (P < 0.05) and phasic pyloric pressures (P < 0.05), compared with the control. CONCLUSION: The combined intraduodenal administration of C12 and Trp, at loads that individually do not affect energy intake, substantially reduces energy intake, which is associated with a marked stimulation of CCK and suppression of ghrelin. The study was registered as a clinical trial at the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (www.anzctr.org.au,) as 12613000899741.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia , Piloro/efeitos dos fármacos , Triptofano/farmacologia , Adulto , Apetite , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Duodeno , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Humanos , Ácidos Láuricos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pressão , Valores de Referência , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(2): 115-122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048277

RESUMO

Both total caloric intake and consumption of free sugars is higher than recommended. This situation contributes, among many other factors, to the increase of overweight and obesity in the population. To maintain the sweet taste of foods and beverages while reducing the caloric content and the amount of free sugars in said products, many people choose to replace sugary products in their diet for options containing noncaloric sweeteners. This change in their dietary choice is accompanied by an increasing number of consultations with health professionals about the effects that non-caloric sweeteners could have on their body weight. Results reported in different scientific publications seem contradictory in relation to this topic: some of them, showing a positive association between the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners and energy intake and body weight, while others reporting that the consumption of these additives -in replacement of sugar- may lead to a reduction in caloric intake and body weight. The main objective of this article is to review the available evidence on the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners in relation to body weight, thus providing another tool for health professionals to make nutritional recommendations based on the best available evidence.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/farmacologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1162-1169, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the postprandial and overnight glycemic response using a novel green aquatic plant thought to provide a dietary source for high-quality protein, with an iso-carbohydrate/protein/caloric dairy shake. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled crossover trial among 20 abdominally obese participants (age 51.4 years; fasting plasma glucose 110.9 mg/dL), who were allocated to replace dinner with either, first, a green shake containing Wolffia globosa duckweed (Mankai: specific-strain) or an iso-carbohydrate/protein/calorie yogurt shake. A 2-week flash glucose-monitoring system was used to assess postmeal glucose dynamics (6 net administration days; 97 observation days in total). We further obtained from each participant dietary/daily activity/satiety scale/sleep logs. Participants were recruited from the green-Mediterranean diet arm of the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial-Polyphenols Unprocessed (DIRECT-PLUS) study. RESULTS: Wolffia globosa Mankai elicited a lower postprandial glucose peak compared with yogurt (∆peak = 13.4 ± 9.2 vs. 19.3 ± 15.1 mg/dL; P = 0.044), which occurred later (77.5 ± 29.2 vs. 59.2 ± 28.4 min; P = 0.037) and returned faster to baseline glucose levels (135.8 ± 53.1 vs. 197.5 ± 70.2 min; P = 0.012). The mean post-net incremental area under the curve (netAUC) was lower with Wolffia globosa up to 60 and 180 min (netAUC 60 min: 185.1 ± 340.1 vs. 441.4 ± 336.5 mg/dL/min, P = 0.005; netAUC 180 min: 707.9 ± 1,428.5 vs. 1,576.6 ± 1,810.1 mg/dL/min, P = 0.037). A Wolffia globosa-based shake replacing dinner resulted in lower next-morning fasting glucose levels (83.2 ± 0.8 vs. 86.6 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.041). Overall, postprandial glucose levels from the shake administration until the next morning were lower in the Wolffia globosa Mankai green shake compared with the yogurt shake (P < 0.001). Overnight sleep duration was similar (378.2 ± 22.4 vs. 375.9 ± 28.4 min; P = 0.72), and satiety rank was slightly higher for the Wolffia globosa shake compared with the yogurt shake (7.5 vs. 6.5; P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Wolffia globosa Mankai duckweed may serve as an emerging alternative plant protein source with potential beneficial postprandial glycemic effects.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Iogurte
16.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 131-139, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE(S): Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and a common medical condition associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Cereal beta-glucans are soluble fibers with potential health benefits. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effect of cereal beta-glucan consumption on weight, but these results have not been summarized in a meta-analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cereal beta-glucan consumption on body weight, body mass index, waist circumference and a total energy intake. METHODS: Studies were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Screening of relevant articles and references was carried out until December 2018. There were no language restrictions. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty eligible studies were identified and analyzed. Our study found a significant reduction in body weight and body mass index (BMI) following beta-glucan consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0.77 kg, 95% CI: -1.49, -0.04) and (WMD: -0.62 kg/cm2, 95% CI: -1.04, -0.21), respectively. There was no significant effect on waist circumference and energy intake. A subgroup analysis showed that a beta-glucan dose of ≥ 4 g/day lead to an increase in energy intake. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicates that cereal beta-glucan consumption seems to decrease body weight and BMI, but has no effect on waist circumference and energy intake.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/química , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(11): e1800912, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980498

RESUMO

SCOPE: The effects on the enteroendocrine system of three different grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) treatments are analyzed in rats on a cafeteria diet for 17 weeks. METHODS AND RESULTS: GSPE is administered in a corrective manner (15 last days of the cafeteria diet) at two doses, 100 and 500 mg GSPE per kg bw. A third, longer treatment in which GSPE (500 mg kg-1 bw) is administered daily every other week during the 17 weeks of the cafeteria diet is also tested. Most GSPE treatments lead to ghrelin accumulation in the stomach, limited CCK secretion in the duodenum, and increased GLP-1 and PYY mRNA in colon. GSPE also increases cecal hypertrophy and reduces butyrate content. When the treatment is administered daily every other week during 17 weeks, there is also an increase in colon size. These effects are accompanied by a reduced food intake at the end of the experiment when GSPE is administered at 500 mg GSPE kg-1 during the last 15 days, but not on the other treatments, despite an observed reduction in body weight in the longer treatment. CONCLUSION: GSPE modulates the enteroendocrine system in models in which it also reduces food intake or body weight.


Assuntos
Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/genética , Ratos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995824

RESUMO

Supplementation with inulin-propionate ester (IPE), which delivers propionate to the colon, suppresses ad libitum energy intake and stimulates the release of satiety hormones acutely in humans, and prevents weight gain. In order to determine whether IPE remains effective when incorporated into food products (FP), IPE needs to be added to a widely accepted food system. A bread roll and fruit smoothie were produced. Twenty-one healthy overweight and obese humans participated. Participants attended an acclimatisation visit and a control visit where they consumed un-supplemented food products (FP). Participants then consumed supplemented-FP, containing 10 g/d inulin or IPE for six days followed by a post-supplementation visit in a randomised crossover design. On study visits, supplemented-FP were consumed for the seventh time and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 420 min later. Blood samples were collected to assess hormones and metabolites. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Taste and appearance ratings were similar between FP. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different between treatments, due to a decreased intake following IPE-FP. These observations were not related to changes in blood hormones and metabolites. There was an increase in REE following IPE-FP. However, this effect was lost after correcting for changes in fat free mass. Our results suggest that IPE suppresses appetite and may alter REE following its incorporation into palatable food products.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inulina/farmacologia , Obesidade , Propionatos/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Calorimetria Indireta , Colo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Inulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso , Propionatos/uso terapêutico , Descanso , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar
19.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0211565, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009472

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe energy partitioning in dairy crossbreed bulls fed tropical forage-based diets supplemented with different additives. Twenty F1 crossbred bulls (Holstein x Gyr) with initial and final live weight (LW) averages of 190 ± 17 and 275 ± 20 kg were fed sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) silage (70:30 DM basis) with supplemented concentrate at a forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50. The bulls were allocated to four treatment: control groups (without additives), monensin [22 mg/kg monensin dry matter (DM)] (M), virginiamycin (30 mg/kg virginiamycin DM) (V), and combination (22 mg/kg DM of monensin and 30 mg/kg DM of virginiamycin) (MV), in a completely randomised design. The intake of gross energy (GE, MJ/d), digestible energy (DE, MJ/d), metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/d), as well as energy losses in the form of faeces, urine, methane, heat production (HE), and retained energy (RE) were measured. Faecal output was measured in apparent digestibility trial. Right after the apparent digestibility trial, urine samples were collected in order to estimate the daily urinary production of the animals. Heat and methane production were measured in an open circuit respirometry chamber. The intake of GE, DE, and ME of the animals receiving monensin and virginiamycin alone or in combination (MV) showed no differences (P>0.05) from the control treatment. However, the MV treatment reduced (P<0.05) the methane production (5.44 MJ/d) compared to the control group (7.33 MJ/d), expressed in MJ per day, but not when expressed related to gross energy intake (GEI) (CH4, % GEI) (P = 0.34). Virginiamycin and monensin alone or in combination did not change (P>0.05) the utilization efficiency of ME for weight gain, RE and net gain energy. This study showed that for cattle fed tropical forages, the combination of virginiamycin and monensin as feed additives affected their energy metabolism by a reduction in the energy lost as methane.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Monensin/farmacologia , Panicum/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Virginiamicina/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 83, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almonds have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol but there is limited information regarding their effects on the dyslipidemia characterized by increased levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that is associated with abdominal adiposity and high carbohydrate intake. The objective of the present study was to test whether substitution of almonds for other foods attenuates carbohydrate-induced increases in small, dense LDL in individuals with increased abdominal adiposity. METHODS: This was a randomized cross-over study of three 3wk diets, separated by 2wk washouts: a higher-carbohydrate (CHO) reference diet (CHOhigh), a higher-CHO diet with isocaloric substitution of 20% kcal (E) from almonds (CHOhigh + almonds), and a lower-CHO reference diet (CHOlow) in 9 men and 15 women who were overweight or obese. The two CHOhigh diets contained 50% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 35% fat (6% saturated, 21% monounsaturated, 8% polyunsaturated), while the CHOlow diet contained 25% carbohydrate, 28% protein, 47% fat (8% saturated, 28% monounsaturated, 8% polyunsaturated). Lipoprotein subfraction concentrations were measured by ion mobility. RESULTS: Relative to the CHOlow diet: 1) the CHOhigh + almonds diet significantly increased small, dense LDLIIIa (mean difference ± SE: 28.6 ± 10.4 nmol/L, P = 0.008), and reduced LDL-peak diameter (- 1.7 ± 0.6 Å, P = 0.008); 2) the CHOhigh diet significantly increased medium-sized LDLIIb (24.8 ± 11.4 nmol/L, P = 0.04) and large VLDL (3.7 ± 1.8 nmol/L, P = 0.05). Relative to CHOlow, the effects of CHOhigh on LDLIIIa (17.7 ± 10.6 nmol/L) and LDL-peak diameter (- 1.1 ± 0.6 Å) were consistent with those of CHOhigh + almonds, and the effects of CHOhigh + almonds on LDLIIb (21.0 ± 11.2 nmol/L) and large VLDL (2.8 ± 1.8 nmol/L) were consistent with those of CHOhigh, but did not achieve statistical significance (P > 0.05). None of the variables examined showed a significant difference between the CHOhigh + almonds and CHOhigh diets (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our analyses provided no evidence that deriving 20% E from almonds significantly modifies increases in levels of small, dense LDL or other plasma lipoprotein changes induced by a higher carbohydrate low saturated fat diet in individuals with increased abdominal adiposity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01792648 .


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Prunus dulcis , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA