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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5128-5131, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019140

RESUMO

With the progress of surgical technology, the survival rate after resection of esophageal and tongue carcinomas has improved. However, the surgical protocol for esophageal and tongue surgery is complex, and surgery for elderly esophageal and tongue carcinoma patients with cardiopulmonary dysfunction is difficult. Using an artificial tongue and esophagus will be helpful for patients. However, peristalsis of foods depends on food size, taste, and viscosity. This study developed and evaluated a new diagnosis machine for drinking and peristalsis motion. Before clinical evaluation, animal experiments were performed on healthy adult goats using a stereo camera. After a feasibility study of the diagnosis system for peristalsis, clinical evaluation was conducted on healthy normal volunteers. We observed no aspiration pneumonia. The foods and drinks tested were safe. There was no mis-swallowing, but the participants' feeling with regard to taste differed. Overall, the results indicated that the quantitative swallowing and peristalsis diagnosis system is safe. Evaluation of the visual imaging and spectral analysis gave us useful information about peristalsis, which will help us design an artificial tongue and esophagus with a good control mechanism in the near future.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Peristaltismo , Idoso , Animais , Ingestão de Líquidos , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Língua
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5146-5149, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019144

RESUMO

We introduce a novel monitoring solution for fluid accumulation in the human body (e.g. internal bleeding), based on observation of a selected energy-describing feature of the Ballistocardiogram (BCG) signal. It is hypothesized that, because of additional damping generated by the fluid, BCG signal energy decreases as compared to its baseline value. Data were collected from 15 human volunteers via accelerometers attached to the participants' body, and an electromechanical-film (EMFi) sensor-equipped bed. Fluid accumulation along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was induced by means of water intake by the participants, and the BCG signal was recorded before and after intake. Based on performance evaluation, we selected a suitable energy feature and sensing channel amongst the ones investigated. The chosen feature showed a significant decrease in signal energy from baseline to after-intake condition (p-value<0.001), and identified the presence of fluid accumulation with high sensitivity (90% in bed-based, and 100% in standing-position monitoring).


Assuntos
Balistocardiografia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731509

RESUMO

The association between the changes in lifestyle during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confinement and body weight have not been studied deeply. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine lifestyle changes, such as eating habits and physical activity (PA) patterns, caused by confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze its association with changes in body weight. Seven hundred participants (women, n = 528 and men, n = 172) aged between 18-62 years old of the Chilean national territory participated in the study. Food habits, PA, body weight, and sociodemographic variables were measured through a survey in May and June 2020. The body weight increase presented positive association with the consumption of fried foods ≥ 3 times per week (OR; 3.36, p < 0.001), low water consumption (OR; 1.58, p = 0.03), and sedentary time ≥6 h/day (OR; 1.85, p = 0.01). Conversely, fish consumed (OR; 0.67, p = 0.03), active breaks (OR; 0.72, p = 0.04), and PA ≥ 4 times per week (OR; 0.51, p = 0.001) presented an inverse association with body weight increase. Daily alcohol consumption (OR; 4.77, p = 0.003) was associated with PA decrease. Food habits, PA, and active breaks may be protective factors for weight increase during COVID-19 confinement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Peso Corporal , Chile , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849647

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (COVID-19), has become a global health concern. Currently, several vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 are in clinical trials but approval of these vaccines is likely to take a long time before they are available for public use. In a previous report, the importance of passive immunity and how immunoglobulin (Ig)G collected from recovered coronavirus patients could help in the protection against COVID-19 and boost the immune system of new patients was reported. Passive immunity by immunoglobulin transfer is a concept employed by most mammals and bovine IgG has a role to play in human therapy. IgG is one of the major components of the immunological activity found in cow's milk and colostrum. Heterologous transfer of passive immunity associated with the consumption of bovine immune milk by humans has been investigated for decades for its immunological activity against infections. This short review focuses on passive immunity and how microfiltered raw immune milk or colostrum collected from cows vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 could provide short-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and could be used as an option until a vaccine becomes commercially available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ingestão de Líquidos/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Leite/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vacinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bovinos , Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 602, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857296

RESUMO

Presently, in several parts of the world, water consumption is not measured or visualized in real time, in addition, water leaks are not detected in time and with high precision, generating unnecessary waste of water. That is why this article presents the implementation of a smart water measurement consumption system under an architecture design, with high decoupling and integration of various technologies, which allows real-time visualizing the consumptions, in addition, a leak detection algorithm is proposed based on rules, historical context, and user location that manages to cover 10 possible water consumption scenarios between normal and anomalous consumption. The system allows data to be collected by a smart meter, which is preprocessed by a local server (Gateway) and sent to the Cloud from time to time to be analyzed by the leak detection algorithm and, simultaneously, be viewed on a web interface. The results show that the algorithm has 100% Accuracy, Recall, Precision, and F1 score to detect leaks, far better than other procedures, and a margin of error of 4.63% recorded by the amount of water consumed.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Life Sci ; 258: 118192, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781062

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to identify possible health - promoting effects of wogonin (Wog) on testicular dysfunction in rats caused by cadmium. Pre-treatment of cadmium chloride (Cd: 5 mg/kg b.wt.) administered rats with wogonin (10 mg/kg b.wt) resulted in significant improvement in Cd-induced decrease in body and organ (testes and epididymides) weights. Wogonin treatment significantly improved Cd-induced reduction in sperm quality and quantity, steroidogenic gene (SFI, StAR, CYP11A1, 3ß-HSD, CYP17A1 and 17ß-HSD) and protein (SF1, StAR and CYP17A1) expressions and serum testosterone levels. Wogonin treatment provided significant protection to Cd-induced aggression in testicular oxidative (elevated levels of MDA) and anti-oxidative (diminished activities of SOD, CAT and GPx) status. Wog significantly up-regulated mRNA levels of Nrf2, NQO1 and HO-1 and down-regulation of Keap1 in cadmium treated testes. Wogonin administration significantly suppressed Cd-stimulated increase in inflammatory reactions (increase in NF-κB p65 DNA, p-IKKß, TNF-α levels and decrease in IL-10 levels). Wogonin prevented apoptotic damage by enhanced protein distribution of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax due to Cd exposure. Furthermore, Wogonin presented significant protection to histo-morphometric changes resulted after Cd administration. Taken together, the findings of this study provided clear evidence of the therapeutic potential of Cd-induced testicular toxicity at least partly due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
7.
Nature ; 583(7816): 421-424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641825

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as the body's master circadian clock that adaptively coordinates changes in physiology and behaviour in anticipation of changing requirements throughout the 24-h day-night cycle1-4. For example, the SCN opposes overnight adipsia by driving water intake before sleep5,6, and by driving the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone7,8 and lowering body temperature9,10 to reduce water loss during sleep11. These responses can also be driven by central osmo-sodium sensors to oppose an unscheduled rise in osmolality during the active phase12-16. However, it is unknown whether osmo-sodium sensors require clock-output networks to drive homeostatic responses. Here we show that a systemic salt injection (hypertonic saline) given at Zeitgeber time 19-a time at which SCNVP (vasopressin) neurons are inactive-excited SCNVP neurons and decreased non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and body temperature. The effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature were prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of SCNVP neurons and mimicked by optogenetic stimulation of SCNVP neurons in vivo. Combined anatomical and electrophysiological experiments revealed that osmo-sodium-sensing organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) neurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (OVLTGAD) relay this information to SCNVP neurons via an excitatory effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Optogenetic activation of OVLTGAD neuron axon terminals excited SCNVP neurons in vitro and mimicked the effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons blunted the effects of systemic hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature. Finally, we show that hypertonic saline significantly phase-advanced the circadian locomotor activity onset of mice. This effect was mimicked by optogenetic activation of the OVLTGAD→ SCNVP pathway and was prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons. Collectively, our findings provide demonstration that clock time can be regulated by non-photic physiologically relevant cues, and that such cues can drive unscheduled homeostatic responses via clock-output networks.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética , Organum Vasculosum/citologia , Organum Vasculosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Organum Vasculosum/enzimologia , Organum Vasculosum/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina Hipertônica/metabolismo , Solução Salina Hipertônica/farmacologia , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/farmacologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0229187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678839

RESUMO

Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) have difficulty controlling their alcohol cravings and thus exhibit increased use and early relapse. Although patients tend to respond more strongly to alcohol-related images than to non-alcohol-related images, few researchers have examined the factors that modulate cravings. Here, we examined whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to behavioural cues in individuals with AUD and in healthy controls (HCs). The participants included 24 patients with AUD and 15 HCs. We presented visual cues consisting of four beverage-related images (juice, drinking juice, sake, and drinking sake), and the cue reactivity of AUD participants was contrasted with that of HC participants. Multiple comparisons revealed that the AUD group had lower BOLD responses than the HC group in the left precuneus (p = 0.036) and the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p = 0.044) to images of drinking juice and higher BOLD responses than the HC group in the left PCC (p = 0.044) to images of drinking sake. Furthermore, compared to the HCs, the AUD patients had decreased BOLD responses associated with cue reactivity to drinking juice in the left precuneus during the periods from 15 to 18 s (p = 0.004, df = 37) and 18 to 21 s (p = 0.002, df = 37). Our findings suggest that HCs and AUD patients differ in their responses not to images of alcoholic beverages but to images related to alcohol-drinking behaviour. Thus, these patients appear to have different patterns of brain activity. This information may aid clinicians in developing treatments for patients with AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687521

RESUMO

We sought to investigate the association between consumption of coffee, tea, or soft drinks and risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) among Koreans using nationwide population-based data. This cross-sectional survey was performed through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Participants older than 19 years were included in the sample for analysis after excluding those with any missing data. The diagnosis of OAG was based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria, and participants without glaucomatous optic neuropathy served as controls. The frequency of beverage consumption during the past 12 months was obtained through a questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between consumption of each type of beverage and prevalence of OAG. A total of 6,681 participants was included in the analysis. The prevalence of OAG was 4.4% (n = 323), including 5.4% (n = 169) among men and 3.5% (n = 154) among women. After adjusting for multiple covariates, coffee consumption was significantly associated with OAG, while no significant association was found between consumption of tea or soft drinks and OAG. Participants who drank coffee had a higher risk of having OAG compared with those who did not drink coffee (odds ratio [OR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.72; p = 0.011). In sex-stratified analyses, the robust association of coffee consumption with OAG was observed in men (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.71-9.25; p = 0.001) but not in women. Our results suggest that coffee consumption may affect the risk of OAG, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Café , Ingestão de Líquidos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Chá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
Tex Med ; 116(5): 40-42, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645191

RESUMO

After three years of work, the Center for Healthcare Data at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth is sharing part of its growing trove of numbers for data-driven discussions on many aspects of health care in Texas. The center doesn't have all the answers. But its work under a federal certification from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has resulted in valuable state and regional statistics that the center leaders believe provide food not only for thought, but also for policy.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Assistência à Saúde , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Demência/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Alimentos , Humanos , Mebendazol , Medicare , Obesidade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202356, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of "ultra-early" postoperative feeding (oral liquid diet offered in the post-anesthetic recovery room) in patients undergoing common general surgical procedures and to assess the volume of intravenous fluids, as well as the rate of complications and the length of hospital stay. METHODS: Prospective, observational study, which assessed the compliance with the "ultra-early" feeding, the reduction of preoperative fasting time, the perioperative venous hydration volume, the length of stay and the operative morbidity. RESULTS: 154 patients with a mean age of 46 ± 15 years were followed. "Ultra-early" feeding was performed in 144 cases (93.5%). Patients who did not receive the "ultra-early" feeding received a significantly greater volume of postoperative intravenous fluids (500mL versus 200mL, p = 0.018). The length of stay was 2.4 ± 2.79 days (conventional feeding) versus 1.45 ± 1.83 days ("ultra-early" feeding), with no statistical difference (p = 0.133). There was no difference in the percentage of general complications (p = 0.291), vomiting (p = 0.696) or surgical infection (p = 0.534). CONCLUSION: "Ultra-early" feeding had a high adherence by patients undergoing common general surgical procedures, and it was related to decreased infusion of postoperative fluids. Complication rates and the length of stay were similar between groups.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110716, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560981

RESUMO

Household consumption activities affect energy and water consumption directly and indirectly. Based on input-output modeling, this paper divided Chinese urban and rural residents into 12 groups, and investigated the impact of the consumption activities of residents with different levels of income on China's energy and water consumption from the perspective of consumers. Two main results were found. 1) In 2012, the energy consumption caused by the consumption activities of the highest-income urban residents accounted for 17.3% of the total energy consumption. For water resources, the per capita water withdrawal and consumption of the highest-income urban residents reached 481.21 m3 and 284.45 thousand m3, 6 times more than that of the low-income rural residents. 2) We identified medium and medium-high income urban residents as the key groups of residents. From the perspective of the industrial sectors, the key sectors for high energy consumption and water usage included the Electricity and Agricultural sectors, and we identified the Electricity sector as the key sector for the water and energy nexus of the residential sectors. The conclusions of this paper have pertinence for policymaking, and they provide an appropriate policy basis for guiding residents' energy and water consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Características da Família , China , Humanos , Renda , Recursos Hídricos
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(5): 1525-1534, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530230

RESUMO

To explore the water consumption characteristics of trees, the thermal dissipation probe technology was used to monitor sap flow of Populus bolleana in east sandy land of Yellow River, from July to November in 2017. Microclimate variables were monitored. We analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variations of water consumption, and proposed the models for water consumption with back propagation neural network (BPNN) and Elman neural network (ENN) based on fuzzy rules. Results showed that the average sap flow rate of P. bolleana was 4.98 g·cm-2·h-1 in growing season (July to October), with solar radiation (Rs), temperature (T), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH) as the main factors affecting sap flow. Due to the influence of meteorological factors, water consumption was characterized by obvious seasonal variation, with that in summer (July-August) being 1.4 times of that in autumn (September-October). BPNN and ENN models based on fuzzy rules were used to simulate water consumption of P. euphratica. The optimal parameter calibration of two models explained more than 80% of the total variation, which indicated that these two models could more accurately simulate water consumption. Compared with the BP neural network model, the simulated results of ENN model showed that the relative error was reduced by 27.0%, RMSE was reduced by 24.3%, Nash-Sutclife efficiency coefficient increased by 67.9%, R2 was higher than 0.80. The ENN model performed better than BPNN model with a higher efficiency and goodness of fitness. ENN model effectively improved the simulating accuracy of water consumption. Therefore, it could be used as an optimal model to estimate water consumption of P. bolleana in east sandy land of Yellow River.


Assuntos
Populus , China , Ingestão de Líquidos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Transpiração Vegetal , Árvores , Água
16.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126933, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402881

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, groundwater serves as the sole major potable water source. Salinization along with the elevated presence of metals become the major threat for this resource in coastal districts of Bangladesh. Therefore, a multi-hazard approach is planned to appraise the groundwater quality. Probabilistic health risks assessment was employed to quantify risk due to drinking from polluted water in coastal districts. Geostatistical tools, pollution indices, and health risk models were conducted using water quality data from 925 samples (n = 566 in the wet season, and n = 359 in the dry season). Groundwater quality index (GWQI) reveals about 65% of the samples are 'poor to unsuitable' as potable water in the study area. Metals pollution indices are correlated to each other, and demonstrated a diversified outcome. In addition, the multivariate analyses of water quality confirmed the major influencing factors that come from the geogenic processes along with the anthropogenic contribution. Probabilistic health risk assessment results depicted as a medium to high level of non-carcinogenic threats for consumers in the study area. Districts such as Khulna, Satkhira, Bhola, Pirojpur, Bagerhat, Jhalakati, Patuakhali, Barguna, and Lakshmipur possesses a high level of threat due to poor water-quality. Finally, it can be said that the study area is exposed to multi-hazards such as salinization, and elevated metals in groundwater. Substantial human health concerns might arise in the study area due to contaminated water consumption. This study clearly explained the groundwater quality challenges considering the multi-hazard in the coastal districts of Bangladesh, that could be applicable in policy formulation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bangladesh , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água Potável/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Humanos , Metais/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
18.
J Fam Pract ; 69(3): E19-E20, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289134

RESUMO

A high-quality randomized controlled trial says 'Yes.'


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Infecções Urinárias , Feminino , Humanos , Água
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 468, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purposes were to investigate the drinking patterns and hydration biomarkers among young adults with different levels of habitual total drinking fluids intake. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 young adults aged 18-23 years in Baoding, China. Total drinking fluids and water from food were assessed by 7-day 24-h fluid intake questionnaire and duplicate portion method, respectively. The osmolality and electrolyte concentrations of the 24 h urine and fasting blood samples were tested. Differences in LD1 (low drinker), LD2, LD3 and HD (high drinker) groups, stratified according to the quartiles of total drinking fluids, were compared using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis H test and chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 156 participants (80 males and 76 females) completed the study. HD group had greater amounts of TWI (Total Water Intake), water from food, higher and lower contributions of total drinking fluids and water from food to TWI, respectively, than LD1, LD2 and LD3 groups (p < 0.05). Participants in HD group had higher amounts of water and water from dishes than participants in LD1, LD2 and LD3 groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the contributions of different fluids to total drinking fluids within the four groups (p > 0.05). The osmolality of urine was 59-143 mOsm/kg higher in LD1 than that in LD2, LD3 and HD group (p < 0.05). The percentage of participants in optimal hydration status increased from 12.8% in LD1 group to 56.4% in HD group (p < 0.05). HD and LD3 groups had 386~793 higher volumes of urine than that of LD1 and LD2 groups (p < 0.05). Differences were found in the concentrations of electrolytes among the four groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the plasma biomarkers (p > 0.05), with the exception of higher concentration of Mg in LD3 and HD groups than that in LD1 and LD2 groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with higher total drinking fluids had better drinking pattern and hydration status. Interventions should be undertaken to advise adults to have adequate total drinking fluids, in order to keep in optimal hydration status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration number was ChiCTR-ROC-17010320, which was registered on the Chinese clinical trial registry.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Água , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275718

RESUMO

In general, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) feed on honey produced from collected nectar. In the absence of nectar, during certain times of the year or in monocultural landscapes, honey bees forage on honeydew. Honeydew is excreted by different herbivores of the order Hemiptera that consume phloem sap of plant species. In comparison to nectar, honeydew is composed of a higher variety of sugars and additional sugars with higher molecular weight, like the trisaccharide melezitose that can be a major constituent of honeydew. However, melezitose-containing honey is known to cause malnutrition in overwintering honey bees. Following the hypothesis that melezitose may be the cause for the so called 'honeydew flow disease', three independent feeding experiments with caged bees were conducted in consecutive years. Bees fed with melezitose showed increased food uptake, higher gut weights and elevated mortality compared to bees fed a control diet. Moreover, severe disease symptoms, such as swollen abdomen, abdomen tipping and impaired movement were observed in melezitose-fed bees. 16S-amplicon sequencing indicated that the melezitose diet changed the species composition of the lactic acid bacteria community within the gut microbiota. Based on these results, we conclude that melezitose cannot be easily digested by the host and may accumulate in the hindgut. Within cages or during winter, when there is no opportunity for excretion, the accumulated melezitose can cause severe intestinal symptoms and death of the bees, probably as result of poor melezitose metabolism capabilities in the intestinal microbiota. These findings confirm the causal relation between the trisaccharide melezitose and the honeydew flow disease and indicate a possible mechanism of pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida
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