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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(11): 1351-1363, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132271

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown that coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of developing several chronic disorders. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the effects of coffee, we analyzed molecular response upon exposure to coffee extract using cellular and animal models of these diseases. As obesity is recognized as a major risk factor for these chronic diseases, we investigated the effect of coffee on adipogenesis using mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. We found that coffee induced proteasomal degradation of IRS-1, leading to reduction of PPARγ expression, a master transcription factor for adipogenesis. Reduction in weight as well as in IRS-1 expression was detected in the fat tissues of the high fat-diet-fed mice when reared with 60% coffee for 7 weeks. As for Alzheimer's disease, we analyzed the effect of coffee on amyloid ß (Aß) production in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We found a 20% reduction in Aß production when treated with 2.5% coffee for 2 d. This reduction was due to proteasomal degradation of BACE1 (ß-secretase), which was activated by protein kinase A. In addition, coffee ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages by reducing NFκB activity and Nrf2 activation. Roasted coffee prevents selenite-induced cataractogenesis by ameliorating antioxidant loss. Pyrocatechol, a component of roasted coffee, also reduced Aß production and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by a similar mechanism as coffee. Our results suggest that roasting coffee beans to generate pyrocatechol is necessary for the preventive effects of coffee intake on the chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Catarata/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Café , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Adipogenia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Catecóis , Células Cultivadas , Café/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
2.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1284-1289, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationship between fluid intake and lower urinary tract symptoms in individuals with neurogenic bladder is unknown. We investigated the association between fluid intake and urinary symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with multiple sclerosis presenting to the neurology office was conducted. Fluid intake and lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed by the questionnaire based voiding diary and the American Urological Association Symptom Score, respectively. The relationship between fluid intake and lower urinary tract symptoms was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Among 200 individuals with multiple sclerosis the mean total daily fluid intake was 2,489 ml (SD 1,883) and did not differ according to severity (ie mild, moderate, severe) of lower urinary tract symptoms (F=0.30, p=0.74). Fluid restricting behavior to control urinary symptoms was reported by 47% of subjects. Subjects who reported fluid restricting were more likely to have worse urinary symptoms (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.53-2.47, p <0.01). After accounting for fluid restricting behavior on multivariate analysis, there was a minimal relationship between caffeinated fluid intake and lower urinary tract symptom severity (OR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.01, p=0.01), and there was no relationship between total fluid intake and lower urinary tract symptom severity (OR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.00, p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Caffeinated fluid intake has a minimal effect on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. On average, patients with multiple sclerosis do not hydrate excessively and a considerable proportion restrict fluid intake to control urinary symptoms. Fluid intake may not contribute considerably to lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Adulto , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/fisiopatologia , Micção/fisiologia
3.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194449

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: Los actuales hábitos de vida empiezan a distanciarse cada vez más de aquellos que permiten mantener un estilo de vida saludable, destacando entre ellos el de la hidratación. Cada vez son más las personas que no se hidratan adecuadamente debido a la diversidad de bebidas refrescantes y al poco conocimiento que tienen sobre ellas y su importancia. Se destaca este hecho en la población infantil, debido principalmente a cómo se trabajan estos contenidos en las escuelas. Este trabajo pretende realizar un análisis del hábito de hidratación que presenta una muestra de escolares de dos colegios de la provincia de Badajoz (España), así como efectuar una prospección sobre los conocimientos que poseen a cerca de la importancia de la hidratación en el cuerpo humano. MÉTODOS: El diseño del estudio fue observacional transversal. Se utilizó para ello cuestionario validado para comprobar el nivel de consumo y conocimiento que posee una muestra de 168 escolares, en dos centros seleccionados en la provincial de Badajoz. RESULTADOS: Más de la mitad de los estudiantes (52,98%) no llegan a las recomendaciones de consumo de agua diario; no obstante mejorarían con la leche y los zumos naturales no envasados. Se destaca también el alto consumo de los refrescos ya que, alrededor de la mitad (48,21%) lo consumen por encima de las recomendaciones. Además, existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas (<0,05) entre sexos y lugar de residencia respecto a la frecuencia del consumo de agua. Por otro lado, únicamente sustancialmente menos de la mitad del alumnado investigado (24,40%) conocen la importancia de la hidratación. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados obtenidos dejan claro que los participantes no poseen ni una hidratación realmente correcta ni un alto conocimiento sobre dicho tema. Se propone que sea incorporada esta temática, de la hidratación, a la Educación para la Salud escolar


BACKGROUND: The current habits of life begin to distance themselves more and more from those that allow maintaining a healthy lifestyle, highlighting among them that of hydration. More and more are people who do not hydrate properly, due to the diversity of refreshing drinks and the lack of knowledge that has the population about its importance. This fact stands out of the child population, mainly because of how they work content in schools. Therefore, this work is a research on the habit of hydration in children from two schools in the province of Badajoz, as well as make a research on the knowledge that possess about their importance in the human body. METHODS: The design study was transversal observational. We conducted a validating questionnaire to check the level of consumption and knowledge that have a total of 168 school divided into two centers of the region of Badajoz. RESULTS: More than half of the students (52.98%) fail the recommendations of daily water consumption; however, they get better with milk and natural juices. The high consumption of soft drinks also stands out, since around half (48.21%) consume it above the recommendations. On the other hand, just much less than half of them (24.40%) know the importance of hydration. Also there are statistical differences (<0.05) between sex and location of the region with respect to the water ingest. CONCLUSIONS: The results make clear that the participants do not possess a really correct hydration or a high knowledge on this subject. In addition, there are differences between sexes and places of residence in certain sections. So it's suggest that this subject be incorporated into the school health education


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucos , Laticínios
4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 81-84, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Migraine is a common type of headaches and disabling disorder. Based on evidences dehydration is closely related to promote migraine headcahe frequency and severity. The Water intake is the best intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. water intake in migraine patients has rarely been studied. the present study aimed to evaluate the relation between water intake and headache properties in migraine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The present study was conducted using a cross-sectional design on 256 women 18-45 years old referred to neurology clinics for the first time. The diagnosis of migraine by a neurologist the according to ICHD3 criteria and To assess migraine severity the Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), visual analog scale (VAS), and a 30-day headache diary were used. One-way analysis was used to evaluate the associations between MIDAS and VAS with daily water intake. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the number of days and duration of headache with daily water intake. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and P-values < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The results showed that the severity of migraine disability (P < 0.001), pain severity (P < 0.001), headaches frequency (P < 0.001), and duration of headaches (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in those who consumed more water or total water. CONCLUSION: The present study found a significant negative correlation between daily water intake and migraine headache characteristics but further clinical trials are needed to interpret the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Desidratação/complicações , Água Potável , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Urol ; 204(5): 982-988, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the effect of enhanced recovery after surgery protocol related fluid restriction on kidney function and the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury and 3-month kidney function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospectively collected, single institution cohort we studied 296 consecutive patients (146 pre-enhanced recovery after surgery vs 150 enhanced recovery after surgery) who underwent radical cystectomy from 2010 to 2018. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, time to bowel movements, time to tolerate regular diet, postoperative complications and 30-day readmission rate. Study limitations include its retrospective design and relatively modest sample size. RESULTS: We observed an increased rate of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients on the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol (42.7% vs 30.1%, OR 1.725, p=0.025). On multivariate analysis enhanced recovery after surgery protocol remained a significant predictor of acute kidney injury even when controlling for other covariates including baseline kidney function (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04-3.30, p=0.036). Patients with postoperative acute kidney injury demonstrated significantly higher odds of stage 3 chronic kidney disease at 3 months even after controlling for baseline renal function (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9, p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Use of an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol following radical cystectomy was associated with a higher risk of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients who had baseline chronic kidney disease which could be related to the restricted perioperative fluid management mandated by enhanced recovery after surgery. Use of the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol did not impact the length of hospital stay or readmission rates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Rim/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344848

RESUMO

Understanding water intake variation is crucial for assessing human exposure to water pollutants. The correlation between water intake and demographic factors warrants further exploration. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate urban water consumption and its associated factors among adults in Wuxi, China, in 2015. The water consumption information was obtained by a 24-h self-report diary over seven consecutive days. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to detect how water consumption varied with the demographic variables. Finally, a total of 1188 adults (18-87 years old) were included. The results demonstrated that the median water consumption of the adults was 1525 mL/day in summer and 1217 mL/day in winter. The results of the CART analysis demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) and age were the leading factors that were associated with water consumption in summer and winter, respectively. The water consumption threshold of BMI for men differed from women (23 kg/m2 vs. 18 kg/m2) in summer, and the threshold of age for men was also different from women (43 years vs. 21 years) in winter. In conclusion, the findings are useful for accurately assessing human exposure to water pollutants and identifying the high-risk subgroups.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Glaucoma ; 29(6): 498-503, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the correlation and agreement between intraocular pressure (IOP) parameters evaluated by the modified diurnal tension curve (mDTC) and the water drinking test (WDT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an indigenous African population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, interventional, comparative study of 50 newly diagnosed, previously untreated primary open-angle glaucoma patients at the out-patient clinic of the Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan. A series of IOP measurements were taken 2 hourly (from 7:00 AM to 3:00 PM) for the mDTC, using Goldmann applanation tonometer. The WDT was performed thereafter. The patients drank 800 mL of water within 5 minutes, and another series of IOP measurements were taken every 15 minutes for a duration of 1 hour from the moment water was fully ingested. Both the mDTC and the WDT were performed on the same day. IOP peak, mean, and IOP fluctuations were estimated from the data collected. Comparison between the mDTC and the WDT was performed using the paired Student T test for means, Pearson correlation analysis for correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis for agreement. RESULTS: Estimated IOP parameters were significantly higher for the WDT than for the mDTC. The average peak IOP was 27.8±4.0 mm Hg during the WDT and 24.9±3.1 mm Hg during the mDTC (P<0.001). The average mean IOP was 25.8±3.6 mm Hg during the WDT and 22.3±2.4 mm Hg during the mDTC (P<0.001). The average IOP fluctuation was higher (6.6±2.9 mm Hg) during the WDT compared with 4.7±2.0 mm Hg during the mDTC. The mean and peak IOPs were strongly correlated between the mDTC (r=0.729, P<0.001) and the WDT (r=0.658, P<0.001). IOP fluctuation, however, showed weak correlation between the mDTC and the WDT (r=0.258, P=0.709). CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong positive correlation between IOP parameters (peak and mean IOP) estimated from the WDT and the mDTC. The peak and mean IOP can be estimated from the WDT, which is quicker, compared with the mDTC. This is more relevant in low resource settings with limited personnel, time, and resource constraints. In addition, higher IOP values were obtained from the WDT compared with the mDTC, and therefore could serve as a useful practical way to determine target peak in order to optimize IOP control in glaucoma patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Tonometria Ocular/métodos , Idoso , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água
8.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 49, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Observational studies have shown that tea consumption has a potentially beneficial effect on bone health. However, few studies have assessed the effects of types of tea consumed on bone health. We aimed to investigate whether drinking oolong tea is associated with increased calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: From an epidemiological survey in Shantou, 476 postmenopausal women aged 40 to 88 years were enrolled in the study. All women were questioned about their demographic features, lifestyle, health status, types of tea consumed, habit of tea consumption, and habitual dietary intake by use of a structured questionnaire. Estimated areal BMD was measured by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS). RESULTS: As compared with non-tea drinkers, oolong tea drinkers had higher calcaneus BMD (ß 34.70 [95% CI 10.38, 59.03]). In addition, calcaneus BMD was significantly increased for those drinking 1-5 cups/day (ß 27.43 [95% CI 3.70, 51.16]) but not > 5 cups/day. We observed no linear increase in calcaneus BMD with increasing years of tea consumption and local polynomial regression fitting showed a parabola-shaped association between years of tea consumption and calcaneus BMD. However, symptoms of osteoporosis did not differ by types of tea consumed. CONCLUSION: Long-term moderate oolong tea consumption may have beneficial effects on bone health in postmenopausal women in Shantou of southern China.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcâneo/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Análise de Regressão , Ultrassonografia
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 37, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swallowing-induced syncope is rare and there are few case reports of it in the existing medical literature. Even rarer are instances involving young and healthy individuals, with no existing pre-conditions or apparent risk factors. Hence the value of such case reports in understanding the phenomenon better and potentially inferring patterns of practical interest is significant; here we describe an unusual case of a swallowing-induced syncope in a young, healthy, and active white man. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 32-year-old white man experienced a syncopal episode following the ingestion of a cold carbonated beverage on a hot day. He rapidly recovered consciousness and save for mild lightheadedness all ill effects disappeared within minutes. On examination no concerns were detected and he was discharged, with the cause being ascribed to esophageal stimulation effected vagus nerve overactivation. CONCLUSIONS: The suddenness and unpredictability of swallowing-induced syncope make it a potentially dangerous condition, with risks both to the patient as well as, depending on the context, others. However, it is poorly understood due to its infrequency. The present case report adds to the body of much needed evidence which should help facilitate an improved understanding of the phenomenon.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Síncope Vasovagal/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 82, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water requirements increases with gestational age. Insufficient water intake causes dehydration, which may adversely affect maternal health and birth outcomes. However, few related studies have been conducted. The purposes are to assess the water intake and hydration state among pregnant women, and to investigate the associations with pregnancy complications and maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study will be applied. A total of 380 pregnant women will be recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University. Hydration biomarkers and health outcomes will be tested during 15~17 weeks' gestation, 20~22 weeks' gestation, 30~32 weeks' gestation, during childbirth and 42 days after childbirth. Daily fluid intake will be collected using a 24-h fluid intake record for 7 consecutive days. A semi-quantified food frequency method will be used to assess food intake and water intake from food. Anthropometric measurement will be taken following standardized processes. Intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) will be measured using a body composition analyzer. Morning fasting urine and blood osmolality will be tested by laboratory physicians using an osmotic pressure molar concentration meter. Pregnancy complications will be assessed and diagnosed throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-infant outcomes will be monitored using related indicators and technologies. In order to explore the internal mechanism and interactions from the perspective of endocrine, pregnancy related hormones (estradiol, prolactin, progesterone) and the hydration-related hormones (copeptin) will be tested during pregnancy. A mixed model of repeated measures ANOVA will be analyzed using SAS 9.2. RESULTS: The results may provide basic data on water intake among pregnant women. The association between hydration state and maternal-infant outcomes will also be explored. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary exploratory study findings will fill the gaps in the research on water intake, hydration and maternal health, birth outcomes, provide scientific reference data for updating recommendation on water adequate intake among pregnant women, and provide suggestion for developing water intake interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol has been registered on the website of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. The Identifier code is ChiCTR1800019284. The Registry date is 3 November, 2018. Registry name is "Study for the correlation between hydration state and pregnancy complications, maternal and infant outcomes during pregnancy".


Assuntos
Desidratação/complicações , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033078

RESUMO

Soda consumption in adolescents has been linked to poorer metabolic outcomes. We tested whether replacing soda with reduced fat milk would improve features of atherogenic dyslipidemia and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Thirty overweight and obese adolescent boys who were habitual consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages were randomly assigned to consume 24 oz/day of sugar-sweetened soda or an energy equivalent of reduced fat (2%) milk for 3 weeks with crossover to the alternate beverage after a ≥ 2 weeks washout. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and other laboratory measures were assessed after each beverage period. Lipid and lipoprotein measurements, C-reactive protein, and serum transaminases did not differ significantly between the soda and milk phases of the study. Systolic blood pressure z-score and uric acid concentration were significantly lower after consuming milk compared to soda. Milk consumption also significantly decreased plasma glucosyl ceramide (d18:1/C16:0) and lactosylceramides (d18:1/C16:0 and d18:1/C18:0). While no effects of replacing soda with milk on lipid and lipoprotein measurements were observed in these normolipidemic weight-stable adolescent boys, decreases in systolic blood pressure, uric acid, and glycosphingolipids suggest that an overall favorable effect on cardiometabolic risk can be achieved following a short-term dietary intervention.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Leite , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Glucosilceramidas/sangue , Humanos , Lactosilceramidas/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Ácido Úrico/sangue
12.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 26(2): 137-140, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine if fecal incontinence (FI) is associated with self-reported fluid intake in women seeking care for pelvic floor disorders. The secondary aim was to determine the association between bowel symptoms and fluids associated with FI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of women presenting for evaluation of pelvic floor disorders from 2009 to 2015. The presence of FI was defined as an affirmative response of any frequency to the question, "During the last 4 weeks, how often have you leaked or soiled yourself with stool?" Data on fluid intake and bowel symptoms were collected using the Questionnaire-based Voiding Diary and Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory short form, respectively. The relationship between FI and quartiles of fluid intake, as well as the relationship between bowel symptoms and fluids associated with FI, was analyzed. RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-four women were included: 379 (41%) with and 545 (59%) without FI. There was an association between FI and increasing total carbonated fluid intake (P = 0.009) and decreasing water intake (P = 0.009). The associations between FI and carbonated fluid intake and FI and water intake remained significant after controlling for patient characteristics (P < 0.05). There was a significant association between the symptom of straining to defecate and carbonated beverage intake (P = 0.046), which remained significant after controlling for patient characteristics (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of carbonated beverages is associated with FI in women. Intake of carbonated fluids is associated with bowel symptoms that may exacerbate FI symptoms.


Assuntos
Água Carbonatada/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Incontinência Fecal , Intestino Grosso/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Estudos Transversais , Incontinência Fecal/diagnóstico , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Psychol Res ; 84(5): 1223-1234, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666412

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that dehydration and water supplementation affect mood and cognitive performance in both adults and children on a variety of tasks that assess memory, attention, executive function, and speeded responses. Given the varied effects of water on cognition, this study explored potential effects of water supplementation, hydration status, and thirst on thinking and decision-making tasks. 29 adult participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests on two separate occasions after having fasted from the previous night. On one occasion, they were offered 500 ml of water to drink prior to testing. Measures of urine osmolality confirmed the group-level effectiveness of the dehydration manipulation. Water supplementation was found to improve performance on tasks measuring cognitive reflection in judgement and decision-making. This increase in performance was associated with differences in tasks implicated in inhibition processes. Drinking water after a 12-h dehydration period increased performance in judgement and decision-making tasks, and this was not explained by differences in subjective thirst or attentiveness.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/terapia , Água Potável , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(2): 213-221, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094260

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the influence of fluid intake on heat acclimation and the subsequent effects on exercise performance following acute hypohydration. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, either able to consume water ad libitum (n = 10; age 23 [3] y, height 1.81 [0.09] m, body mass 87 [13] kg; HAW) or not allowed fluid (n = 10; age 26 [5] y, height 1.76 [0.05] m, body mass 79 [10] kg; HANW) throughout 12 × 1.5-h passive heat-acclimation sessions. Experimental trials were completed on 2 occasions before (2 baseline trials) and 1 following the heat-acclimation sessions. These sessions involved 3 h of passive heating (45°C, 38% relative humidity) to induce hypohydration followed by 3 h of ad libitum food and fluid intake after which participants performed a repeat sled-push test to assess physical performance. Urine and blood samples were collected before, immediately, and 3 h following hypohydration to assess hydration status. Mood was also assessed at the same time points. RESULTS: No meaningful differences in physiological or performance variables were observed between HANW and HAW at any time point. Using pooled data, mean sprint speed was significantly (P < .001) faster following heat acclimation (4.6 [0.7] s compared with 5.1 [0.8] s). Furthermore, heat acclimation appeared to improve mood following hypohydration. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that passive heat-acclimation protocols may be effective at improving short-duration repeat-effort performance following acute hypohydration.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Perda de Peso , Afeto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Cognição , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed in epidemiological studies. Moreover, the relationship of bioactive components in coffee with BMD has not been studied. The aim of the current study is to identify coffee-associated metabolites and evaluate their association with BMD. METHODS: Two independent cohorts totaling 564 healthy community-dwelling adults from the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study (HKOS) who visited in 2001-2010 (N = 329) and 2015-2016 (N = 235) were included. Coffee consumption was self-reported in an food frequency questionnaire. Untargeted metabolomic profiling on fasting serum samples was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platforms. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression and robust regression were used for the association analyses. RESULTS: 12 serum metabolites were positively correlated with coffee consumption after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (P < 4.87 × 10-5), with quinate, 3-hydroxypyridine sulfate, and trigonelline (N'-methylnicotinate) showing the strongest association. Among these metabolites, 11 known metabolites were previously identified to be associated with coffee intake and 6 of them were related to caffeine metabolism. Habitual coffee intake was positively and significantly associated with BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The metabolite 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU) (ß = 0.012, SE = 0.005; P = 0.013) was significantly associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, whereas 3-hydroxyhippurate (ß = 0.007, SE = 0.003, P = 0.027) and trigonelline (ß = 0.007, SE = 0.004; P = 0.043) were significantly associated with BMD at the femoral neck. CONCLUSIONS: 12 metabolites were significantly associated with coffee intake, including 6 caffeine metabolites. Three of them (AFMU, 3-hydroxyhippurate, and trigonelline) were further associated with BMD. These metabolites could be potential biomarkers of coffee consumption and affect bone health.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/sangue , Café/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Alcaloides/sangue , Café/metabolismo , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipuratos/sangue , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Modelos Lineares , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/sangue
17.
Women Birth ; 33(5): e455-e463, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restriction of food and fluids during labour increases women's discomfort, anxiety and stress which are associated with obstruction of the normal process of labour. Whilst research evidence and clinical guidelines recommend that normal uncomplicated labouring women should not be limited in their oral intake during labour, some midwives continue to restrict or discourage women's oral intake. To promote best practice, it is important to understand the influencing factors which affect midwives' decision-making processes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the influences that affect midwifery practice regarding oral food and fluid intake for low-risk labouring women. DESIGN: An interpretive descriptive approach employed 12 semi-structured interviews with registered midwives with current labour and birthing experience in Australia. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Three themes were identified: midwives' knowledge and beliefs; work environment and women's expectations of care. Midwives' practice was affected by their knowledge and values developed from professional and personal experiences of labour, their context of practice and work environment, the clinical guidelines, policies and obstetric control, and women's choice and comfort. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that midwives' decision-making in relation to women's oral nutrition during labour is multifaceted and influenced by complicated environments, models of care, and power relations between doctors and midwives, more so than clinical guidelines. It is important for midwives to be aware of factors negatively influencing their decision-making processes to enable autonomy and empowerment in the provision of evidence-based care of labouring women.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Trabalho de Parto , Tocologia/métodos , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal , Adulto , Austrália , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766680

RESUMO

The motivation to seek and consume water is an essential component of human fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, optimal function, and health. This review describes the evolution of concepts regarding thirst and drinking behavior, made possible by magnetic resonance imaging, animal models, and novel laboratory techniques. The earliest thirst paradigms focused on single factors such as dry mouth and loss of water from tissues. By the end of the 19th century, physiologists proposed a thirst center in the brain that was verified in animals 60 years later. During the early- and mid-1900s, the influences of gastric distention, neuroendocrine responses, circulatory properties (i.e., blood pressure, volume, concentration), and the distinct effects of intracellular dehydration and extracellular hypovolemia were recognized. The majority of these studies relied on animal models and laboratory methods such as microinjection or lesioning/oblation of specific brain loci. Following a quarter century (1994-2019) of human brain imaging, current research focuses on networks of networks, with thirst and satiety conceived as hemispheric waves of neuronal activations that traverse the brain in milliseconds. Novel technologies such as chemogenetics, optogenetics, and neuropixel microelectrode arrays reveal the dynamic complexity of human thirst, as well as the roles of motivation and learning in drinking behavior.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Animais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Animais , Motivação/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa , Optogenética/tendências , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Primatas , Roedores , Paladar , Língua
19.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703309

RESUMO

At present, obesity and overweight are major public health concerns. Their classical determinants do not sufficiently explain the current situation and it is urgent to investigate other possible causes. In recent years, it has been suggested that water intake could have important implications for weight management. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of hydration status on body weight and composition in healthy adolescents from Spain. The study involved 372 subjects, aged 12-18 years. Water intake was assessed through the validated "hydration status questionnaire adolescent young". Anthropometric measurements were performed according to the recommendations of the International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment (ISAK) and body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Water intake normalized by body weight was positively correlated with body water content (boys (B): r = 0.316, p = 0.000; girls (G): r = 0.245, p = 0.000) and inversely with body mass index (BMI) (B: r = -0.515, p = 0.000; G: r = -0.385, p =0.000) and fat body mass (B: r = -0.306, p = 0.000; G: r = -0.250, p = 0.001). Moreover, according to BMI, overweight/obese individuals consumed less water than normal weight ones. In conclusion, higher water balance and intake seems to be related with a healthier body composition. In conclusion, higher water balance and intake is associated with a healthier body composition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 5(5): 505-512, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687184

RESUMO

Clinically, the stable sole-ground contact in the diet is considered as important for achieving safe swallows in the dysphagic patients. However, the effects of varied sole-ground contacts on swallow-related muscles activities remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sole-ground contacts on the muscle activities during swallow for various materials; 26 healthy adult subjects participated in this study. Three different sole-ground contact conditions were investigated; sole-ground contact with knees bent to 90° (KB 90°), sole-ground contact with knees bent to 135° (KB 135°), and sole-ground off the floor (Off). Participants swallowed four bolus materials (saliva, 5-ml water, 10-ml water, and 5-ml yogurt) in each sole-ground contact condition. The muscular activities of the suprahyoid (SH) muscle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle during swallowing were detected and recorded using surface electromyography. The sole-ground contact pressure was evaluated using the data acquisition system. Duration of SH during 10-ml water swallow for Off was significantly longer than that for KB 90°. Duration of SH during 5-ml yogurt swallow for Off was significantly longer than that for KB 90°. Integration of SH during 10-ml water swallow for Off was significantly greater than that for KB 135°. Integration of SH during 5-ml yogurt swallow for Off was significantly greater than that for KB 90°. No significant differences were found in peak of SH. Sole-ground contact conditions had significant effect on swallow-related muscles activities. The stable sitting positions might be more advantageous for performing effective swallows compared with less stable sitting positions.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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