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2.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(11): 2391-2399, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether water drinking test (WDT) alters choroidal structure using binarization of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomographic (EDI-OCT) images. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 57 eyes of 57 normal subjects. The intraocular pressure (IOP), EDI-OCT images, and laser speckle flowgraphic images were recorded at baseline, and at 15, 30, 45, and 120 min after the WDT. The EDI-OCT images were converted to binary images using ImageJ software, and we examined luminal area, interstitial area, whole choroidal area, the ratio of luminal area to whole choroidal area (L/W ratio), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT), and central retinal thickness (CRT). RESULTS: The luminal area, L/W ratio, whole choroidal area, and IOP were significantly increased 30 min after water drinking; levels returned to the baseline at 120 min. No significant changes were found in the CRT and interstitial area. The fluctuations in the SCT after water intake were significantly correlated with those in the L/W ratio and luminal area but not with those of the interstitial area. The choroidal blood flow velocity was significantly decreased at 30 min. Fluctuations in the luminal area, L/W ratio, and whole choroidal area were significantly correlated with IOP fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the SCT after water drinking were mainly due to the changes in the choroidal vascular space. Dilatations of the choroidal vessels after water drinking may lead to choroidal thickening and subsequent IOP elevation. These findings should be considered in the evaluation of choroidal structure in patients with retinal disease.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Vasos Retinianos/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2105-2118, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of altering dietary sodium intake for 3 days preceding exercise on sweat sodium concentration [Na+], and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory variables. METHODS: Fifteen male endurance athletes (runners n = 8, cyclists n = 7) consumed a low (LNa, 15 mg kg-1 day-1) or high (HNa, 100 mg kg-1 day-1) sodium diet, or their usual free-living diet [UDiet, 46 (37-56) mg kg-1 day-1] for 3 days in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, collecting excreted urine (UNa) and refraining from exercise. On day 4, they completed 2 h running at 55% [Formula: see text]O2max or cycling at 55% maximum aerobic power in Tamb 35 °C. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were collected, and sweat from five sites using absorbent patches along the exercise protocol. RESULTS: UNa on days 2-3 pre-exercise [mean (95% CI) LNa 16 (12-19) mg kg-1 day-1, UDiet 46 (37-56) mg kg-1 day-1, HNa 79 (72-85) mg kg-1 day-1; p < 0.001] and pre-exercise aldosterone [LNa 240 (193-286) mg kg-1 day-1, UDiet 170 (116-224) mg kg-1 day-1, HNa 141 (111-171) mg kg-1 day-1; p = 0.001] reflected sodium intake as expected. Pre-exercise total body water was greater following HNa compared to LNa (p < 0.05), but not UDiet. Estimated whole-body sweat [Na+] following UDiet was 10-11% higher than LNa and 10-12% lower than HNa (p < 0.001), and correlated with pre-exercise aldosterone (1st h r = - 0.568, 2nd h r = - 0.675; p < 0.01). Rectal temperature rose more quickly in LNa vs HNa (40-70 min; p < 0.05), but was similar at the conclusion of exercise, and no significant differences in heart rate or perceived exertion were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Three day altered sodium intake influenced urinary sodium excretion and sweat [Na+], and the rise in rectal temperature, but had no effect on perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise in hot ambient conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Suor/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wrist-mounted motion sensors can quantify the volume and intensity of physical activities, but little is known about their long-term validity. Our aim was to validate a wrist motion sensor in estimating daily energy expenditure, including any change induced by long-term participation in endurance and strength training. Supplemental heart rate monitoring during weekly exercise was also investigated. METHODS: A 13-day doubly labeled water (DLW) measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) was performed twice in healthy male subjects: during two last weeks of a 12-week Control period (n = 15) and during two last weeks of a 12-week combined strength and aerobic Training period (n = 13). Resting energy expenditure was estimated using two equations: one with body weight and age, and another one with fat-free mass. TEE and activity induced energy expenditure (AEE) were determined from motion sensor alone, and from motions sensor combined with heart rate monitor, the latter being worn during exercise only. RESULTS: When body weight and age were used in the calculation of resting energy expenditure, the motion sensor data alone explained 78% and 62% of the variation in TEE assessed by DLW at the end of Control and Training periods, respectively, with a bias of +1.75 (p <.001) and +1.19 MJ/day (p = .002). When exercise heart rate data was added to the model, the combined wearable device approach explained 85% and 70% of the variation in TEE assessed by DLW with a bias of +1.89 and +1.75 MJ/day (p <.001 for both). While significant increases in TEE and AEE were detected by all methods as a result of participation in regular training, motion sensor approach underestimated the change measured by DLW: +1.13±0.66 by DLW, +0.59±0.69 (p = .004) by motion sensor, and +0.98±0.70 MJ/day by combination of motion sensor and heart rate. Use of fat-free mass in the estimation of resting energy expenditure removed the biases between the wearable device estimations and the golden standard reference method of TEE and demonstrated a training-induced increase in resting energy expenditure by +0.18±0.13 MJ/day (p <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Wrist motion sensor combined with a heart rate monitor during exercise sessions, showed high agreement with the golden standard measurement of daily TEE and its change induced by participation in a long-term training protocol. The positive findings concerning the validity, especially the ability to follow-up the change associated with a lifestyle modification, can be considered significant because they partially determine the feasibility of wearable devices as quantifiers of health-related behavior.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Óxido de Deutério/análise , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Água/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Punho , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234499

RESUMO

The increasingly aging society in developed countries has raised attention to the role of technology in seniors' lives, namely concerning isolation-related issues. Independent seniors that live alone frequently neglect meals, hydration and proper medication-taking behavior. This work aims at eating and drinking recognition in free-living conditions for triggering smart reminders to autonomously living seniors, keeping system design considerations, namely usability and senior-acceptance criteria, in the loop. To that end, we conceived a new dataset featuring accelerometer and gyroscope wrist data to conduct the experiments. We assessed the performance of a single multi-class classification model when compared against several binary classification models, one for each activity of interest (eating vs. non-eating; drinking vs. non-drinking). Binary classification models performed consistently better for all tested classifiers (k-NN, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, Multilayer Perceptron, Random Forests, HMM). This evidence supported the proposal of a semi-hierarchical activity recognition algorithm that enabled the implementation of two distinct data stream segmentation techniques, the customization of the classification models of each activity of interest and the establishment of a set of restrictions to apply on top of the classification output, based on daily evidence. An F1-score of 97% was finally attained for the simultaneous recognition of eating and drinking in an all-day acquisition from one young user, and 93% in a test set with 31 h of data from 5 different unseen users, 2 of which were seniors. These results were deemed very promising towards solving the problem of food and fluids intake monitoring with practical systems which shall maximize user-acceptance.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Condições Sociais , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Neuron ; 103(2): 242-249.e4, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153646

RESUMO

For thirsty animals, fluid intake provides both satiation and pleasure of drinking. How the brain processes these factors is currently unknown. Here, we identified neural circuits underlying thirst satiation and examined their contribution to reward signals. We show that thirst-driving neurons receive temporally distinct satiation signals by liquid-gulping-induced oropharyngeal stimuli and gut osmolality sensing. We demonstrate that individual thirst satiation signals are mediated by anatomically distinct inhibitory neural circuits in the lamina terminalis. Moreover, we used an ultrafast dopamine (DA) sensor to examine whether thirst satiation itself stimulates the reward-related circuits. Interestingly, spontaneous drinking behavior but not thirst drive reduction triggered DA release. Importantly, chemogenetic stimulation of thirst satiation neurons did not activate DA neurons under water-restricted conditions. Together, this study dissected the thirst satiation circuit, the activity of which is functionally separable from reward-related brain activity.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Estômago/inervação , Órgão Subfornical/citologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Optogenética , Concentração Osmolar , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estimulação Física
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075843

RESUMO

Despite the importance of maintaining an adequate hydration status, water intake is frequently neglected due to the fast pace of people's lives. For the elderly, poor water intake can be even more concerning, not only due to the damaging impact of dehydration, but also since seniors' hydration regulation mechanisms tend to be less efficient. This work focuses on the recognition of the pre-drinking hand-to-mouth movement (a drink trigger) with two main objectives: predict the occurrence of drinking events in real-time and free-living conditions, and assess the potential of using this method to trigger an external component for estimating the amount of fluid intake. This shall contribute towards the efficiency of more robust multimodal approaches addressing the problem of water intake monitoring. The system, based on a single inertial measurement unit placed on the forearm, is unobtrusive, user-independent, and lightweight enough for real-time mobile processing. Drinking events outside meal periods were detected with an F-score of 97% in an offline validation with data from 12 users, and 85% in a real-time free-living validation with five other subjects, using a random forest classifier. Our results also reveal that the algorithm first detects the hand-to-mouth movement 0.70 s before the occurrence of the actual sip of the drink, proving that this approach can have further applications and enable more robust and complete fluid intake monitoring solutions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Bebidas , Desidratação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Condições Sociais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(4): 381-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135328

RESUMO

Water is critical to survival, yet free-standing water is often rare in deserts and seasonally dry environments. Thus, many dry-adapted species utilize either metabolic (that produced from metabolism) or dietary (that found in food) water to meet their hydric needs. It is suspected that desert reptiles can fulfill their hydric needs solely through dietary water intake. However, food consumption does not improve the hydration state of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum), a binge-feeding desert lizard, and meal consumption by snakes leads to increased voluntary drinking. Therefore, we predicted that meal consumption would not improve hydration state in dehydrated western diamondbacked rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). We found no significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between moderately dehydrated snakes that consumed a meal and those that did not. In fact, snakes that received a meal reached severe dehydration more than a week sooner than snakes that did not receive a meal. Additionally, consuming a meal when severely dehydrated did not reduce plasma osmolality, whereas severely dehydrated snakes provided with water ab lib. returned to a normosmotic state. These results provide the most convincing evidence that carnivorous desert reptiles likely rely on free-standing water to fulfill their hydric needs. These species have thus had to adapt to sporadic water availability through minimizing water loss and tolerating considerable variation in plasma osmolality.


Assuntos
Crotalus/fisiologia , Desidratação , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Água , Animais , Alimentos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 337-341, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982263

RESUMO

Water is an important component of human body and plays a variety of important physiological roles. The intake and discharge of human water is in a dynamic equilibrium. Insufficient water intake will affect the hydration status of human body, which in turn affects cognition and health. Therefore, maintaining proper hydration status is of great importance for maintaining and promoting the health of the body. There were many indicators to evaluate the hydration status of body, including urine and blood plasma biomarkers. It is of great significance to evaluate the hydration status of body, keep the body in a suitable hydration status by replenishing water in time. The lack of drinking water in different populations in China is common, but it has not yet received enough attention and needs to carry out corresponding health education.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Água Corporal , China , Humanos
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 345-349, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982265

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the total fluids intake among college students in spring from Hebei. Methods: In March 2017, the subjects were recruited in a college in Baoding, Hebei Province. 156 students completed the investigation. Total drinking fluids was assessed by 7-day 24-hour fluid intake questionnaire, with a quantitative tool. The water from food was assessed by duplicate portion method. The sources of total fluids intake among subjects were analysed. Results: The age of subjects was (19.8±1.1) years old, including 80 male students. The median amounts of total fluids intake, total drinking fluids and water from food were 2 324, 1 135 and 1 174 ml, respectively. The proportions of total drinking fluids and water from food in total fluids intake were 51%±9% and 49%±10%. Only 19.9% (n=31) and 18.6% (n=29) of college students had adequate total fluids intake and total drinking fluids, according to the recommendation of China. The median amounts of total fluids intake, total drinking fluids and water from food were 3 210, 1 860 and 1 093 ml/d, respectively. The proportion of total drinking fluids in total fluids intake was 61%±7%, which were all higher than those who did not reach the recommended intake (2 158, 1 000, 1 149 ml/d; drinking fluids accounting for 46%±8% of total fluids intake) (P<0.05). Conclusion: The amounts of total fluids intake and total drinking fluids of college students in Hebei Province are lower than the recommended intake in China. The contributions of total drinking fluids and water from food to total fluids intake were nearly same.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Alimentos , Estudantes , Adolescente , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 421-425, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982281

RESUMO

At present, methods of water-intake survey include government, industry, sector statistics data, dietary survey (24 hours dietary recall, dietary record and food frequency questionnaire), fluid intake survey (retrospective fluid-intake questionnaire, 1-5 days 24 hours fluid-intake survey, 7 days 24 hours fluid-intake record), weighing method with the food composition table, weighing method, duplicate portion method and chemical analysis, and so on. The method of 7 days 24 hours fluid-intake record is an internationally recognized and authoritative method for fluid-intake survey with the highest accuracy, which can reflect the differences of fluid intake between working and non-working days, and can obtain detailed data on behaviors and patterns of fluid water, such as the time, types and places of fluid intake. The method of combining weighing method, duplicate portion method and chemical analysis is used to analyze water intake from food with the highest accuracy, which can be used in an extensive range of population and areas, but with high cost and complex operating steps. It is of great practical significance to compare and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different methods about water-intake survey, which will be helpful for researchers to choose appropriate methods for water-intake survey to obtain accurate and representative data in various areas, different population, and complex circumstances.


Assuntos
Dieta , Água Potável , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Registros de Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Nature ; 568(7750): 98-102, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918408

RESUMO

Satiation is the process by which eating and drinking reduce appetite. For thirst, oropharyngeal cues have a critical role in driving satiation by reporting to the brain the volume of fluid that has been ingested1-12. By contrast, the mechanisms that relay the osmolarity of ingested fluids remain poorly understood. Here we show that the water and salt content of the gastrointestinal tract are precisely measured and then rapidly communicated to the brain to control drinking behaviour in mice. We demonstrate that this osmosensory signal is necessary and sufficient for satiation during normal drinking, involves the vagus nerve and is transmitted to key forebrain neurons that control thirst and vasopressin secretion. Using microendoscopic imaging, we show that individual neurons compute homeostatic need by integrating this gastrointestinal osmosensory information with oropharyngeal and blood-borne signals. These findings reveal how the fluid homeostasis system monitors the osmolarity of ingested fluids to dynamically control drinking behaviour.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Orofaringe/inervação , Orofaringe/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 497-514, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Athletes in Olympic combat sports experience body water fluctuations resulting from training and intentional dehydration when making weight. Despite the popularity of urine specific gravity (USG) and urine osmolality (UOSM) measurement in characterizing fluid fluctuations, their utility remains questioned. This systematic review/meta-analysis examined the utility of urinary hydration indices in laboratory and field settings in Olympic combat sport athletes. METHODS: 27 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis; with USG and UOSM the main outcome variables. Meta-regression analyses evaluated the interrelationship among body mass (BM), fluid intake, and urine measures. RESULTS: Significant USG alterations were observed following different sampling time frames: dehydration (ES 0.59; 95% CI 0.46-0.72; p = 0.001), follow-up period (ES 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.50; p = 0.002) and rehydration (ES - 0.34; 95% CI - 0.56 to - 0.12; p = 0.003). Direct comparison of laboratory (ES 0.20; 95% CI - 0.19 to 0.59; p = 0.324) and field (ES 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56; p = 0.001) sampling showed marginally trivial and small effects. Small effects on UOSM were observed following dehydration (ES 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.74, p = 0.15), follow-up period (ES 0.39; 95% CI 0.08-0.70, p = 0.015) and rehydration (ES - 0.45; 95% CI - 0.60 to 0.30, p = 0.001). Meta-regression analysis suggests only fluid intake predicts USG alterations (p = 0.044) during rehydration protocols. CONCLUSIONS: There were likely small changes in both USG and UOSM readings across all experimental conditions, with moderate-to-large heterogeneity in all studies, except for USG readings during dehydration protocols. The meta-regression failed to provide conclusive evidence concerning the interrelationship among urine measures, BM fluctuations, and fluid intake.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Adulto , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Esportes , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
15.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 54(201): 5-11, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182685

RESUMO

Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar el efecto de la rehidratación en la condición física y técnica de 12 jugadores de fútbol semiprofesionales (21,14 ± 1,69 años) que se sometieron a un entrenamiento regular de fútbol (129 ± 7 min). Los participantes ingirieron agua ad libitum o se hidrataron de acuerdo con las recomendaciones estandarizadas. En cada sesión se midieron la temperatura, la altura máxima del salto vertical y la precisión en 4 lanzamientos de penalti, con estímulo visual y auditivo, antes y después de las sesiones de entrenamiento. La deshidratación lograda y la tasa de sudoración fueron mayores cuando los jugadores bebieron libremente, contra una rehidratación recomendada (1,3 ± 0,8 vs. 0,5 ± 0,6%; p = 0,01) (730,3 ± 275,6 vs. 516,9 ± 111,2 ml/h; p = 0,02). En la temperatura timpánica de un solo movimiento en la sesión donde se programó la hidratación (p = 0,06 vs. p < 0,01) hubo interacción entre el tratamiento y el tiempo (p = 0,01). La altura del salto después del entrenamiento fue mayor que la inicial (p < 0,01) y también fue más alta que la del grupo ad libitum (p = 0,04). En el caso de los lanzamientos, hubo una diferencia significativa en la relación temporal del tratamiento (p = 0,01), lo que indica que la hidratación fue efectiva para reducir el número de errores. Estos datos indican que una deshidratación moderada podría afectar a la fuerza muscular de la pierna y reducir la precisión motora durante un lanzamiento simulado del penalti de fútbol


This study aimed to determine the effect of rehydration on the physical condition and technique of twelve semi-professional soccer players (21.14 ± 1.69 years) underwent regular soccer training (129 ± 7 min). On one occasion, participants ingest water ad libitum or were hydrated according to standardized recommendations. In each session, temperature, three maximum vertical jump height and accuracy were measured in a four penalty kick with auditory and visual stimulus, before and after the training sessions. The dehydration achieved and the rate of sweating was greater when the players drank freely at will against a recommended rehydration (1.3 ± 0.8% vs. 0.5 ± 0.6%, P = .01) (730.3 ± 275.6 vs. 516.9 ± 111.2 mL/h, P = .02). The tympanic temperature of a single movement in the session where the hydration scheduled (P = .06 vs. P < .01), in this case and there was interaction between the treatment and the time (P < .01). Jump height after training was higher than the initial (P < .01) and also higher than ad libitum group (P = .04). In the case of shots there was a significant difference in the time relationship of the treatment (P = .01), indicating that hydration was effective to reduce the number of errors. These data indicate that moderate dehydration could affect muscle strength of the leg and reduce motor accuracy during a simulated football penalty kick


Aquest estudi té com a objectiu determinar l'efecte de la rehidratació en la condició física i la tècnica de 12 jugadors de futbol semiprofessionals (21,14 ± 1,69 anys) que es van sotmetre a un entrenament regular de futbol (129 ± 7 min). Els participants van ingerir aigua ad libitum, o es van hidratar d'acord amb les recomanacions estandarditzades. A cada sessió es mesurà la temperatura, l'altura màxima del salt vertical i la precisió en 4 llançaments de penal, amb estímul visual i auditiu, abans i després de les sessions d'entrenament. La deshidratació aconseguida i la taxa de sudoració foren més grans quan els jugadors bevien lliurement a voluntat, contra una rehidratació recomanada (1,3 ± 0,8% vs. 0,5 ± 0,6%; p = 0,01) (730,3 ± 275,6 vs. 516,9 ± 111,2 ml/h, p = 0,02). En la temperatura timpànica d'un sol moviment, a la sessió en què es programà la hidratació (p = 0,06 vs. p < 0,01) hi hagué interacció entre el tractament i el temps (p = 0,01). Després de l'entrenament, l'altura del salt fou major que a l'inici (p < 0,01) i també més alt que la del grup ad libitum (p = 0,04). En el cas dels xuts, hi hagué una diferència significativa en la relació temporal del tractament (p = 0,01), cosa que indica que la hidratació fou efectiva per reduir el nombre d'errors. Aquestes dades indiquen que una deshidratació moderada podria afectar la força muscular de la cama i reduir la precisió motora durant un llançament simulat de penal en el futbol


Assuntos
Humanos , Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Futebol/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 139(6): 505-511, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810219

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize upper limb motor function during a comparative analysis of electromyographic and upper limb movement analysis during drinking between healthy adults and individuals with DCP. METHOD: Fifteen healthy individuals (CG) and fifteen individuals with DCP (DG) participated in the study. Upper limb function was analyzed during drinking and consisted of a task divided into three phases: the going, the adjustment, and the return. RESULTS: Electromyographic analysis revealed a lower activity of the anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles in the DG. When comparing the interactions between groups and phases, only biceps brachii shower lower muscle activity during going and adjustment phases. The DG presented a smaller range of motion (ROM) for the shoulder, elbow, forearm and wrist movements. An interaction between groups and phases showed smaller ROM for the flexion and internal rotation of the shoulder, elbow flexion, forearm pronation, and ulnar deviation in the return phase compared to CG. INTERPRETATION: The results may contribute positively to the quantification of the level of motor impairment and may be used as a reference for the development of therapeutic interventions for patients with DCP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3495-3500, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712937

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether data from an electronic drinking system that tracks individual animal attendance with ear tag transponders could be used to detect social competition between dairy cows at the drinker. Specifically, we sought to identify the interval between one cow leaving the drinker and another cow taking her place that most accurately identified competitive replacements (when physical contact initiated by one cow causes the other to entirely remove her head from the drinker and the initiator subsequently places her head in the same drinker). The optimal interval to accurately identify replacements at the drinker was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve and by evaluating the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and confusion matrix values (true positives, true negatives, false positives, false negatives) of different thresholds identified by 3 metrics: the Youden index, the point closest to (0,1) on the curve, and the point where Se roughly equals Sp. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) were monitored for 4 consecutive 24-h periods by video recording and with an electronic drinking system. Two periods were used to identify the optimal interval (the baseline set), and the other 2 periods were used to validate the interval (the validation set). The occurrence of a replacement identified by video was paired with the interval between drinking events of 2 cows at the same electronic drinker to identify the interval that best predicted replacement events. Based on the low prevalence of replacement events compared with nonreplacement events, the interval with the lowest number of false positives was considered optimal. Of the 3 potential metrics, the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve where Se and Sp were roughly equal yielded the fewest false positives. The optimal interval to identify replacements at the drinker was ≤29 s, with 82% Se and 83% Sp in the baseline set. This interval was found to have 85% Se and 89% Sp when applied to the validation set. These results indicate that social competition between dairy cows at the drinker can be accurately measured with an electronic drinking system.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653554

RESUMO

Adequate provision of safe water, basic sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and behavior change can reduce pupil absence and infectious disease. Increased drinking water quantity may also improve educational outcomes through the effect of hydration on attention, concentration, and short-term memory. A pilot study was conducted to adapt field measures of short-term cognitive performance and hydration, to evaluate levels of hydration, and to investigate the impact of providing supplementary drinking water on the cognitive performance of pupils attending water-scarce schools in rural Mali. Using a cross-over trial design, data were collected under normal school conditions (control condition) on one visit day; on the other, participants were given a bottle of water that was refilled throughout the day (water condition). Morning and afternoon hydration was assessed using specific gravity and urine color. Cognitive performance was evaluated using six paper-based tests. Three percent of pupils were dehydrated on the morning of each visit. The prevalence of dehydration increased in the afternoon, but was lower under the water condition. Although there was a trend indicating drinking water may improve cognitive test performance, as has been shown in studies in other settings, results were not statistically significant and were masked by a "practice effect."


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , Saneamento/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Mil Med Res ; 6(1): 1, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if ad libitum water drinking, as a hydration strategy, prevents exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) during prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of EAH within the broader context of fluid regulation among soldiers performing a 40-km route-march ingesting water ad libitum. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy male soldiers participated in this observational trial. Pre- and post-exercise body mass, blood and urine samples were collected. Blood samples were assessed for serum sodium ([Na+]), glucose, creatinine, urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma osmolality, creatine kinase (CK), and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations. Plasma volume (PV) was calculated using hematocrit and hemoglobin. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality and [Na+]. Water intake was assessed by weighing bottles before, during and after the march. The mean relative humidity was 55.7% (21.9-94.3%) and the mean dry bulb temperature was 27.1 °C (19.5 °C - 37.0 °C) during the exercise. RESULTS: Twenty-five soldiers (72 ± 10 kg) (Mean ± SD) completed the march in 09:11 ± 00:43 (hr:min). Participants consumed 736 ± 259 ml/h of water and lost 2.8 ± 0.9 kg (4.0% ± 1.4%, P < 0.05) of body mass. Significant (pre-march vs. post-march; P < 0.05) decreases in serum [Na+] (141 mmol/L vs. 136 mmol/L), plasma osmolality (303 mOsmol/kg H2O vs. 298 mOsmol/kg H2O), and serum creatinine (111 µmol/L vs. 101 µmol/L) and urine [Na+] (168 mmol/L vs. 142 mmol/L), as well as significant increases in plasma AVP (2 pg/ml vs. 11 pg/ml), plasma CK (1423 U/L vs. 3894 U/L) and urine osmolality (1035 mOsmol/kg H2O vs. 1097 mOsmol/kg H2O) were found. The soldier (72 kg) with the lowest post-exercise sodium level completed the march in 08:38. He drank 800 ml/h, lost 2% body mass, and demonstrated (pre-post) increases in plasma osmolality (294-314 mOsmol/kg H2O), BUN (20-30 mg/dl), AVP (2-16 pg/ml) and PV (41%). His urine osmolality decreased from 1114 mOsmol/kg H2O to 1110 mOsmol/kg H2O. No participants finished the route-march with a serum [Na+] indicating hypernatremia (range, 134-143 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Ad libitum drinking resulted in 4% body mass loss with a 2 mmol/L serum [Na+] reduction in conjunction with high urine osmolality (> 1000 mOsmol/kg H2O) and plasma AVP. No single hydration strategy likely prevents EAH, but hypernatremia (cellular dehydration) was not seen despite > 2% body mass losses and high urine osmolality.


Assuntos
Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Exercício , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Arginina Vasopressina/sangue , Desidratação/etiologia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Masculino , Militares , Concentração Osmolar , Volume Plasmático , Sódio/sangue , Sódio/urina , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
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