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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048772, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic social restriction measures on people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) and to explore how people adapted to these measures over time. DESIGN: Mixed-methods investigation comprising a national online longitudinal survey and embedded qualitative study. SETTING: UK online survey and interviews with community-dwelling individuals in the East of England. PARTICIPANTS: People in the UK with RMDs were invited to participate in an online survey. A subsection of respondents were invited to participate in the embedded qualitative study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The online survey, completed fortnightly over 10 weeks from April 2020 to August 2020, investigated changes in symptoms, social isolation and loneliness, resilience and optimism. Qualitative interviews were undertaken assessing participant's perspectives on changes in symptoms, exercising, managing instrumental tasks such a shopping, medication and treatment regimens and how they experienced changes in their social networks. RESULTS: 703 people with RMDs completed the online survey. These people frequently reported a deterioration in symptoms as a result of COVID-19 pandemic social restrictions (52% reported increase vs 6% reported a decrease). This was significantly worse for those aged 18-60 years compared with older participants (p=0.017). The qualitative findings from 26 individuals with RMDs suggest that the greatest change in daily life was experienced by those in employment. Although some retired people reported reduced opportunity for exercise outside their homes, they did not face the many competing demands experienced by employed people and people with children at home. CONCLUSIONS: People with RMDs reported a deterioration in symptoms when COVID-19 pandemic social restriction measures were enforced. This was worse for working-aged people. Consideration of this at-risk group, specifically for the promotion of physical activity, changing home-working practices and awareness of healthcare provision is important, as social restrictions continue in the UK.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046931, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on cardiovascular disease (CVD) related mortality and hospitalisation. DESIGN: Community-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: The UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 421 372 UK Biobank participants who were registered in England and alive as of 1 January 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of interest was CVD-related death, which was defined as death with CVD as a cause in the death register. We retrieved information on hospitalisations with CVD as the primary diagnosis from the UK Biobank hospital inpatient data. The study period was 1 January 2020 to June 30 2020, and we used the same calendar period of the three preceding years as the reference period. In order to control for seasonal variations and ageing of the study population, standardised mortality/incidence ratios (SMRs/SIRs) with 95% CIs were used to estimate the relative risk of CVD outcomes during the study period, compared with the reference period. RESULTS: We observed a distinct increase in CVD-related deaths in March and April 2020, compared with the corresponding months of the three preceding years. The observed number of CVD-related deaths (n=218) was almost double in April, compared with the expected number (n=120) (SMR=1.82, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.07). In addition, we observed a significant decline in CVD-related hospitalisations from March onwards, with the lowest SIR observed in April (0.45, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: There was a distinct increase in the number of CVD-related deaths in the UK Biobank population at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. The shortage of medical resources for hospital care and stress reactions to the pandemic might have partially contributed to the excess CVD-related mortality, underscoring the need of sufficient healthcare resources and improved instructions to the public about seeking healthcare in a timely way.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Surtos de Doenças , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1067, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2020, Public Health England with NHS Test and Trace initiated a pilot study in which close contacts of people with confirmed COVID-19 were given the option to carryout lateral flow device antigen tests at home, as an alternative to self-isolation for 10-14 days. In this study, we evaluated engagement with daily testing, and assessed levels of adherence to the rules relating to behaviour following positive or negative test results. METHODS: We conducted a service evaluation of the pilot study, examining survey responses from a subset of those who responded to an evaluation questionnaire. We used an online cross-sectional survey offered to adult contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases who consented to daily testing. We used a comparison group of contacts who were not offered testing and instead self-isolated. RESULTS: Acceptability of daily testing was lower among survey respondents who were not offered the option of testing and among people from ethnic minority groups. Overall, 52% of respondents reported being more likely to share details of people that they had been in contact with following a positive test result, if they knew that their contacts would be offered the option of daily testing. Only 2% reported that they would be less likely to provide details of their contacts. On the days that they were trying to self-isolate, 19% of participants reported that they left the house, with no significant group differences. Following a negative test, 13% of respondents reported that they increased their contacts, but most (58%) reported having fewer risky contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that daily testing is potentially acceptable, may facilitate sharing contact details of close contacts among those who test positive for COVID-19, and promote adherence to self-isolation. A better understanding is needed of how to make this option more acceptable for all households. The impact of receiving a negative test on behaviour remains a risk that needs to be monitored and mitigated by appropriate messaging. Future research should examine attitudes and behaviour in a context where infection levels are lower, testing is more familiar, and restrictions on activity have been reduced.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Projetos Piloto
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062769

RESUMO

Nearly a year after the classification of the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic, it is clear that different factors have contributed to an increase in psychological disorders, including public health measures that infringe on personal freedoms, growing financial losses, and conflicting messages. This study examined the evolution of psychosocial impacts with the progression of the pandemic in adult populations from different countries and continents, and identified, among a wide range of individual and country-level factors, which ones are contributing to this evolving psychological response. An online survey was conducted in May/June 2020 and in November 2020, among a sample of 17,833 adults (Phase 1: 8806; Phase 2: 9027) from eight countries/regions (Canada, the United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, the Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD or MDE was indicated by 30.1% and 32.5% of the respondents during phases 1 and 2, respectively (a 7.9% increase over time), with an important variation according to countries/regions (range from 22.3% in Switzerland to 38.8% in the Philippines). This proportion exceeded 50% among young adults (18-24 years old) in all countries except for Switzerland. Beyond young age, several factors negatively influenced mental health in times of pandemic; important factors were found, including weak sense of coherence (adjusted odds ratio aOR = 3.89), false beliefs (aOR = 2.33), and self-isolation/quarantine (aOR = 2.01). The world has entered a new era dominated by psychological suffering and rising demand for mental health interventions, along a continuum from health promotion to specialized healthcare. More than ever, we need to innovate and build interventions aimed at strengthening key protective factors, such as sense of coherence, in the fight against the adversity caused by the concurrent pandemic and infodemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bélgica , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Inglaterra , Hong Kong , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filipinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 35-50, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137375

RESUMO

Few investigations have examined the pathology of grey seals Halichoerus grypus in southwest England, where it is the most abundant marine mammal. Here, primary pathological findings are presented from 107 post-mortem examinations of grey seals in southwest England between 2013 and 2020. Over three-quarters were pups in their first year of life; the origins of the carcasses reflected the known breeding season and breeding sites of grey seals in the region. Trauma was the most common primary pathological finding (n = 49), followed by infectious disease (n = 36). Traumatic findings included fisheries-related trauma (n = 15), other acute physical traumas (n = 15) and other chronic traumas (n = 19). Infectious disease findings included respiratory infections (n = 21) and gastrointestinal infections (n = 9). There was no difference in the primary pathological findings for seals found dead or that died or were euthanased on the day they were found compared to those dying in early rehabilitation, suggesting that it is appropriate to include findings from seals in early rehabilitation in studies of wild grey seal pathology. Seals that had not been frozen before post-mortem examination were nearly twice as likely to have a primary pathological finding of infectious disease or trauma than those that had been frozen, highlighting the need, wherever possible, to avoid freezing seals prior to post-mortem examination.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Inglaterra , Pesqueiros , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11555, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078992

RESUMO

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) populations are at an increased risk of developing COVID-19 and consequentially more severe outcomes compared to White populations. The aim of this study was to quantify how much of the disproportionate disease burden can be attributed to ethnicity and deprivation as well as its interaction. An ecological study was conducted using data derived from the Office for National Statistics data at a Local Authority District (LAD) level in England between 1st March and 17th April 2020. The primary analysis examined how age adjusted COVID-19 mortality depends on ethnicity, deprivation, and the interaction between the two using linear regression. The secondary analysis using spatial regression methods allowed for the quantification of the extent of LAD spillover effect of COVID-19 mortality. We find that in LADs with the highest deprivation quartile, where there is a 1 percentage point increase in "Black-African (regression coefficient 2.86; 95% CI 1.08-4.64)", "Black-Caribbean (9.66: 95% CI 5.25-14.06)" and "Bangladeshi (1.95: 95% CI 1.14-2.76)" communities, there is a significantly higher age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality compared to respective control populations. In addition, the spatial regression results indicated positive significant correlation between the age-adjusted mortality in one LAD and the age-adjusted mortality in a neighbouring LAD, suggesting a spillover effect. Our results suggest targeted public health measures to support those who are deprived and belong to BAME communities as well as to encourage restricted movement between different localities to limit disease propagation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 588254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095040

RESUMO

During the school summer holidays, pressures on the already tight budgets of low-income families are compounded, particularly when the safety net of free school meals is removed. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how low-income parents and carers feed their families during term time when children receive free school meals and if, and how, strategies differ during the school summer holidays. A secondary aim was to investigate the role of holiday activity and food programmes in supporting parents and carers to feed their children during the school summer holidays. We used purposive sampling to recruit a total of 21 parents (N = 20 Female, N = 1 Male) whose children attended free summer holiday clubs in Scotland and England during summer 2017. Participants were asked about their food and shopping habits during the school term and if, and how they differed during the school summer holidays when free school meals were not available. The findings suggest that food insecurity is a constant factor in the lives of low-income parents in England and Scotland, and that the stages of food insecurity and the strategies employed to mitigate its effects appear to be cyclical, aligning with the Food and Agriculture Organisation's (FAO) food insecurity continuum and the school academic year. During term time, parents and carers worried about food, suggesting they were experiencing mild food insecurity, despite their children being in receipt of free school meals. As the school holidays approached, moderate food insecurity was experienced as parents reported that they began "provisioning," storing food and reducing household expenditure. During the summer holidays, food did not last, and parental food acquisition habits became more intense. Parents downgraded food brands and bought reduced price items of food. Ultimately, parents self-sacrificed their own nutritional intake by only buying food their children would eat and parents often skipped meals or only ate their children's leftovers. However, children's attendance at holiday club helped make the food at home last longer and once school resumed, parents returned to their less intense, but constantly coping approach to food shopping. The findings of this study suggest that food insecurity is a constant factor in the lives of low-income families who simply do not have enough household income to prevent them from experiencing food insecurity, even when initiatives such as free school meals and access to holiday club provision with food and activities are in place.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Pobreza , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Escócia
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 673321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109149

RESUMO

Background: There is increased interest in early intervention and prevention of mental health difficulties during adolescence; thus, we are seeing increased efforts to optimize well-being during this epoch. Positive emotional experiences are a central component of overall well-being. However, research exploring what adolescents perceive to be the cause(s) of their emotional difficulties is lacking. Improving understanding of this issue within non-clinical adolescent groups may provide useful insight into how to develop strategies to support young people as they navigate emotional difficulties. Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore if meaningful categories of perceived cause(s) for emotional distress exist for non-clinical adolescent groups. Methods: The data for this study were drawn from interviews across 6 sites in England conducted as part of the 5-year national evaluation of the HeadStart Learning Programme. The sample comprised of 32 young people aged 11-12 years from the first annual wave of qualitative data collection in 2017. Ideal type analysis-a qualitative form of person-centered analysis-was used to construct a typology of adolescents perceived cause(s) for emotional distress. Findings: We identified five distinct categories of perceived cause: (1) perceived lack of control; (2) unfair treatment; (3) others, their actions and judgements as the catalyst; (4) concerns for self and others; and, (5) self as cause. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate that distinct categories for perceived cause of emotional distress exist among adolescents considered to be "at risk" of developing mental health difficulties, which provides a foundation for future necessary work seeking to investigate the possible link between perceived cause for emotional distress and help-seeking behavior among sub-clinical groups.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Emoções , Inglaterra , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044634, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceived reasons underlying high mortality rates among people with multiple and complex needs. DESIGN: Qualitative study using peer research. SETTING: North East of England. PARTICIPANTS: Three focus group discussions were held involving (1) people with lived experience of multiple and complex needs (n=5); (2) front-line staff from health, social care and voluntary organisations that support multiple and complex needs groups (n=7); and (3) managers and commissioners of these organisations (n=9). RESULTS: Findings from this study provide valuable perspectives of people with multiple complex needs and those that provide them with support on what may be perceived factors underlying premature mortality. Mental ill health and substance misuse (often co-occurring dual diagnosis) were perceived as influencing premature mortality among multiple and complex needs groups. Perceptions of opportunities to identify people at risk included critical life events (eg, bereavement, relationship breakdown) and transitions (eg, release from prison, completion of drug treatment). Early prevention, particularly supporting young people experiencing adverse childhood experiences, was also highlighted as a priority. CONCLUSION: High mortality in multiple and complex needs groups may be reduced by addressing dual diagnosis, providing more support at critical life events and investing in early prevention efforts. Future interventions could take into consideration the intricate nature of multiple and complex needs and improve service access and navigation.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1070, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine women's perceptions of factors that influence their food shopping choices, particularly in relation to store layout, and their views on ways that supermarkets could support healthier choices. DESIGN: This qualitative cross-sectional study used semi-structured telephone interviews to ask participants the reasons for their choice of supermarket and factors in-store that prompted their food selections. The actions supermarkets, governments and customers could take to encourage healthier food choices were explored with women. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. SETTING: Six supermarkets across England. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty women customers aged 18-45 years. RESULTS: Participants had a median age of 39.5 years (IQR: 35.1, 42.3), a median weekly grocery spend of £70 (IQR: 50, 88), and 44% had left school aged 16 years. Women reported that achieving value for money, feeling hungry, tired, or stressed, and meeting family members' food preferences influenced their food shopping choices. The physical environment was important, including product quality and variety, plus ease of accessing the store or products in-store. Many participants described how they made unintended food selections as a result of prominent placement of unhealthy products in supermarkets, even if they adopted more conscious approaches to food shopping (i.e. written or mental lists). Participants described healthy eating as a personal responsibility, but some stated that governments and supermarkets could be more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that in-store environments can undermine intentions to purchase and consume healthy foods. Creating healthier supermarket environments could reduce the burden of personal responsibility for healthy eating, by making healthier choices easier. Future research could explore the interplay of personal, societal and commercial responsibility for food choices and health status.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Supermercados , Adulto , Criança , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045353, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tourniquet use in total knee replacement (TKR) is believed to improve the bone-cement interface by reducing bleeding, potentially prolonging implant survival. This study aimed to compare the risk of revision for primary cemented TKR performed with or without a tourniquet. DESIGN: We analysed data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for all primary cemented TKRs performed in England and Wales between April 2003 and December 2003. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression were used to assess the influence of tourniquet use, age at time of surgery, sex and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification on risk of revision for all-causes. RESULTS: Data were available for 16 974 cases of primary cemented TKR, of which 16 132 had surgery with a tourniquet and 842 had surgery without a tourniquet. At 10 years, 3.8% had undergone revision (95% CI 2.6% to 5.5%) in the no-tourniquet group and 3.1% in the tourniquet group (95% CI 2.8% to 3.4%). After adjusting for age at primary surgery, gender and primary ASA score, the HR for all-cause revision for cemented TKR without a tourniquet was 0.82 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that using a tourniquet for primary cemented TKR offers a clinically important or statistically significant reduction in the risk of all-cause revision up to 13 years after surgery. Surgeons should consider this evidence when deciding whether to use a tourniquet for cemented TKR.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação , Torniquetes , País de Gales
12.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1111-1118, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058866

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the trajectories of patient reported pain and functional disability over five years following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort sub-study within the National Joint Registry (NJR) was undertaken. In all, 20,089 patients who underwent primary THA and 22,489 who underwent primary TKA between 2009 and 2010 were sent Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires at six months, and one, three, and five years postoperatively. OHS and OKS were disaggregated into pain and function subscales. A k-means clustering procedure assigned each patient to a longitudinal trajectory group for pain and function. Ordinal regression was used to predict trajectory group membership using baseline OHS and OKS score, age, BMI, index of multiple deprivation, sex, ethnicity, geographical location, and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade. RESULTS: Data described two discrete trajectories for pain and function: 'level 1' responders (around 70% of cases) in whom a high level of improvement is sustained over five years, and 'level 2' responders who had sustained improvement, but at a lower level. Baseline patient variables were only weak predictors of pain trajectory and modest predictors of function trajectory. Those with worse baseline pain and function tended to show a greater likelihood of following a 'level 2' trajectory. Six-month patient-reported outcome measures data reliably predicted the class of five-year outcome trajectory for both pain and function. CONCLUSION: The available preoperative patient variables were not reliable predictors of postoperative pain and function after THA and TKA. Reviewing patient outcomes at six months postoperatively is a reliable indicator of outcome at five years. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1111-1118.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
13.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1160-1167, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058876

RESUMO

AIMS: Open tibial fractures are limb-threatening injuries. While limb loss is rare in children, deep infection and nonunion rates of up to 15% and 8% are reported, respectively. We manage these injuries in a similar manner to those in adults, with a combined orthoplastic approach, often involving the use of vascularised free flaps. We report the orthopaedic and plastic surgical outcomes of a consecutive series of patients over a five-year period, which includes the largest cohort of free flaps for trauma in children to date. METHODS: Data were extracted from medical records and databases for patients with an open tibial fracture aged < 16 years who presented between 1 May 2014 and 30 April 2019. Patients who were transferred from elsewhere were excluded, yielding 44 open fractures in 43 patients, with a minimum follow-up of one year. Management was reviewed from the time of injury to discharge. Primary outcome measures were the rate of deep infection, time to union, and the Modified Enneking score. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 9.9 years (2.8 to 15.8), and 28 were male (64%). A total of 30 fractures (68%) involved a motor vehicle collision, and 34 (77%) were classified as Gustilo Anderson (GA) grade 3B. There were 17 (50%) GA grade 3B fractures, which were treated with a definitive hexapod fixator, and 33 fractures (75%) were treated with a free flap, of which 30 (91%) were scapular/parascapular or anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps. All fractures united at a median of 12.3 weeks (interquartile range (IQR) 9.6 to 18.1), with increasing age being significantly associated with a longer time to union (p = 0.005). There were no deep infections, one superficial wound infection, and the use of 20 fixators (20%) was associated with a pin site infection. The median Enneking score was 90% (IQR 87.5% to 95%). Three patients had a bony complication requiring further surgery. There were no flap failures, and eight patients underwent further plastic surgery. CONCLUSION: The timely and comprehensive orthoplastic care of open tibial fractures in this series of patiemts aged < 16 years resulted in 100% union and 0% deep infection, with excellent patient-reported functional outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1160-1167.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Redução Aberta/métodos , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049214, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify ethical values guiding decision making in resetting non-COVID-19 paediatric surgery and maternity services in the National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: A rapid review of academic and grey literature sources from 29 April to 31 December 2020, covering non-urgent, non-COVID-19 healthcare. Sources were thematically synthesised against an adapted version of the UK Government's Pandemic Flu Ethical Framework to identify underpinning ethical principles. The strength of normative engagement and the quality of the sources were also assessed. SETTING: NHS maternity and paediatric surgery services in England. RESULTS: Searches conducted 8 September-12 October 2020, and updated in March 2021, identified 48 sources meeting the inclusion criteria. Themes that arose include: staff safety; collaborative working - including mutual dependencies across the healthcare system; reciprocity; and inclusivity in service recovery, for example, by addressing inequalities in service access. Embedded in the theme of staff and patient safety is embracing new ways of working, such as the rapid roll out of telemedicine. On assessment, many sources did not explicitly consider how ethical principles might be applied or balanced against one another. Weaknesses in the policy sources included a lack of public and user involvement and the absence of monitoring and evaluation criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that relationality is a prominent ethical principle informing resetting NHS non-COVID-19 paediatric surgery and maternity services. Sources explicitly highlight the ethical importance of seeking to minimise disruption to caring and dependent relationships, while simultaneously attending to public safety. Engagement with ethical principles was ethics-lite, with sources mentioning principles in passing rather than explicitly applying them. This leaves decision makers and healthcare professionals without an operationalisable ethical framework to apply to difficult reset decisions and risks inconsistencies in decision making. We recommend further research to confirm or refine the usefulness of the reset phase ethical framework developed through our analysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Estatal , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 533, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NHS pledges to give all patients access to clinical research. In England, 32% of General Practices are research active and only 14% of patients engage in research. This project aimed to evaluate consent-for-contact and communication in primary care patients. METHODS: An explanatory mixed methods study of patients and staff within a single general practice. The study included all patients over the age of 18 years, and excluded those on the palliative care register and those unable to give informed consent. The questionnaire asked recipients to indicate their preferred contact method and data-sharing permissions with three organisations: NHS, Universities and Commercial Companies. Survey recipients and staff were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Interviews explored project acceptability, feasibility and reasoning behind choices made. Statistical data were triangulated with interview data. RESULTS: The target patient population was 4678, 24% (n = 1148) responded. Seven hundred and three gave permission for at least one of the organisations to contact them. Older people were more likely to respond than young people, (p < 0.001). There was a trend for more women than men to give permissions however, in the 70 years plus age group this was reversed. Short message service was the preferred method of communication (48% n = 330), but those aged 70 years and over, preferred letter (p = 0.001). Interviews suggested patients felt the project was primarily about improving communication and secondly access to research. Patients trusted the NHS and university researchers. Staff interviewees found the project was less onerous than expected. Barriers to wider rollout included workload and the fragmented nature of NHS digital systems. CONCLUSIONS: A registry of patients was established; however, the response rate of 24% needs increasing before wider adoption. Health promotion and chronic disease-based research may recruit better when based in primary health care. Older demographics would be more likely to volunteer for research. NHS and academic researchers are trusted, commercial organisations less so. The move to digitalise communication methods has the potential to marginalise older women. Findings were used to drive forward two novel developments: a consent registry (Research+Me) and a federation-wide participant identification process.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 566, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting bed occupancy for hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requires understanding of length of stay (LoS) in particular bed types. LoS can vary depending on the patient's "bed pathway" - the sequence of transfers of individual patients between bed types during a hospital stay. In this study, we characterise these pathways, and their impact on predicted hospital bed occupancy. METHODS: We obtained data from University College Hospital (UCH) and the ISARIC4C COVID-19 Clinical Information Network (CO-CIN) on hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who required care in general ward or critical care (CC) beds to determine possible bed pathways and LoS. We developed a discrete-time model to examine the implications of using either bed pathways or only average LoS by bed type to forecast bed occupancy. We compared model-predicted bed occupancy to publicly available bed occupancy data on COVID-19 in England between March and August 2020. RESULTS: In both the UCH and CO-CIN datasets, 82% of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 only received care in general ward beds. We identified four other bed pathways, present in both datasets: "Ward, CC, Ward", "Ward, CC", "CC" and "CC, Ward". Mean LoS varied by bed type, pathway, and dataset, between 1.78 and 13.53 days. For UCH, we found that using bed pathways improved the accuracy of bed occupancy predictions, while only using an average LoS for each bed type underestimated true bed occupancy. However, using the CO-CIN LoS dataset we were not able to replicate past data on bed occupancy in England, suggesting regional LoS heterogeneities. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five bed pathways, with substantial variation in LoS by bed type, pathway, and geography. This might be caused by local differences in patient characteristics, clinical care strategies, or resource availability, and suggests that national LoS averages may not be appropriate for local forecasts of bed occupancy for COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ISARIC WHO CCP-UK study ISRCTN66726260 was retrospectively registered on 21/04/2020 and designated an Urgent Public Health Research Study by NIHR.


Assuntos
Ocupação de Leitos , COVID-19 , Inglaterra , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2684, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976138

RESUMO

Shigella sonnei is the most common agent of shigellosis in high-income countries, and causes a significant disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Antimicrobial resistance is increasingly common in all settings. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly utilised for S. sonnei outbreak investigation and surveillance, but comparison of data between studies and labs is challenging. Here, we present a genomic framework and genotyping scheme for S. sonnei to efficiently identify genotype and resistance determinants from WGS data. The scheme is implemented in the software package Mykrobe and tested on thousands of genomes. Applying this approach to analyse >4,000 S. sonnei isolates sequenced in public health labs in three countries identified several common genotypes associated with increased rates of ciprofloxacin resistance and azithromycin resistance, confirming intercontinental spread of highly-resistant S. sonnei clones and demonstrating the genomic framework can facilitate monitoring the spread of resistant clones, including those that have recently emerged, at local and global scales.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Shigella sonnei/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Inglaterra , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Geografia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Shigella sonnei/classificação , Shigella sonnei/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e049763, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantial variation in the delivery of hip fracture care, and patient outcomes persists between hospitals, despite established UK national standards and guidelines. Patients' outcomes are partly explained by patient-level risk factors, but it is hypothesised that organisational-level factors account for the persistence of unwarranted variation in outcomes. The mixed-methods REducing unwarranted variation in the Delivery of high qUality hip fraCture services in England and Wales (REDUCE) study, aims to determine key organisational factors to target to improve patient care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Quantitative analysis will assess the outcomes of patients treated at 172 hospitals in England and Wales (2016-2019) using National Hip Fracture Database data combined with English Hospital Episodes Statistics; Patient Episode Database for Wales; Civil Registration (deaths) and multiple organisational-level audits to characterise each service provider. Statistical analyses will identify which organisational factors explain variation in patient outcomes, and typify care pathways with high-quality consistent patient outcomes. Documentary analysis of 20 anonymised British Orthopaedic Association hospital-initiated peer-review reports, and qualitative interviews with staff from four diverse UK hospitals providing hip fracture care, will identify barriers and facilitators to care delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a major challenge to the resilience of services and interviews will explore strategies used to adapt and innovate. This system-wide understanding will inform the development, in partnership with key national stakeholders, of an 'Implementation Toolkit' to inform and improve commissioning and delivery of hip fracture services. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved: quantitative study by London, City and East Research Ethics Committee (20/LO/0101); and qualitative study by Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bristol Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 108284), National Health Service (NHS) Health Research Authority (20/HRA/71) and each NHS Trust provided Research and Development approval. Findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals and online workshops.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Estatal , Inglaterra , Humanos , Londres , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , País de Gales
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