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1.
Br J Nurs ; 31(11): 572-577, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS), when devising their curriculum for surgical care practitioners (SCPs), aimed to provide a level of training to produce a practitioner able to work across the surgical patient's journey, providing care to, arguably, an advanced level. This audit planned to examine the reality of this. METHOD: SCPs from a closed group, on the Facebook social media platform were invited to complete an online questionnaire about their role as an SCP. RESULTS: A total of 92 responses were gathered from across the surgical specialty SCP community and from around the UK. Data were collected on the breakdown of the SCP's role and working practices. CONCLUSION: The data collected demonstrated the multifunctional nature of the SCP and their ability to work at a level as envisioned by the RCS curriculum.


Assuntos
Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Cirurgiões , Currículo , Inglaterra , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682163

RESUMO

Perinatal anxiety affects an estimated 15% of women globally and is associated with poor maternal and infant outcomes. Identifying women with anxiety is essential to prevent these adverse associations, but there are a number of challenges around measurement. We used data from England's 2020 National Maternity Survey to compare the prevalence of anxiety symptoms at six months postpartum using three different measures: the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorders Scale (GAD-2), the anxiety subscales of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-3A) and a direct question. The concordance between each pair of measures was calculated using two-by-two tables. Survey weights were applied to increase the representativeness of the sample and reduce the risk of non-response bias. The prevalence of postnatal anxiety among a total of 4611 women was 15.0% on the GAD-2, 28.8% on the EPDS-3A and 17.1% on the direct question. Concordance between measures ranged between 78.6% (95% CI 77.4-79.8; Kappa 0.40) and 85.2% (95% CI 84.1-86.2; Kappa 0.44). Antenatal anxiety was the strongest predictor of postnatal anxiety across all three measures. Women of Black, Asian or other minority ethnicity were less likely to report self-identified anxiety compared with women of White ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 0.44; 95% CI 0.30-0.64). Despite some overlap, different anxiety measures identify different groups of women. Certain population characteristics such as women's ethnicity may determine which type of measure is most likely to identify women experiencing anxiety.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682186

RESUMO

Health needs are common in people living with intellectual disabilities, but we do not know how they contribute to life expectancy. We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked with hospital/mortality data in England (2017-2019) to explore life expectancy among people with or without intellectual disabilities, indicated by the presence or absence, respectively, of: epilepsy; incontinence; severe visual loss; severe visual impairment; severe mobility difficulties; cerebral palsy and PEG feeding. Life expectancy and 95% confidence intervals were compared using flexible parametric methods. At baseline, 46.4% (total n = 7794) of individuals with intellectual disabilities compared with 9.7% (total n = 176,807) in the comparison group had ≥1 health need. Epilepsy was the most common health need (18.7% vs. 1.1%). All health needs except hearing impairment were associated with shorter life expectancy: PEG feeding and mobility difficulties were associated with the greatest loss in life years (65-68% and 41-44%, respectively). Differential life expectancy attenuated but remained (≈12% life years lost) even after restricting the population to those without health needs (additional years expected to live at 10 years: 65.5 [60.3, 71.1] vs. 74.3 [73.8, 74.7]). We conclude that health needs play a significant role but do not explain all of the differential life expectancy experienced by people with intellectual disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Epilepsia , Deficiência Intelectual , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682250

RESUMO

Spatio-temporal models need to address specific features of spatio-temporal infection data, such as periods of stable infection levels (endemicity), followed by epidemic phases, as well as infection spread from neighbouring areas. In this paper, we consider a mixture-link model for infection counts that allows alternation between epidemic phases (possibly multiple) and stable endemicity, with higher AR1 coefficients in epidemic phases. This is a form of regime-switching, allowing for non-stationarity in infection levels. We adopt a generalised Poisson model appropriate to the infection count data and avoid transformations (e.g., differencing) to alternative metrics, which have been adopted in many studies. We allow for neighbourhood spillover in infection, which is also governed by adaptive regime-switching. Compared to existing models, the observational (in-sample) model is expected to better reflect the balance between epidemic and endemic tendencies, and short-term extrapolations are likely to be improved. Two case study applications involve COVID area-time data, one for 32 London boroughs (and 96 weeks) since the start of the COVID epidemic, the other for a shorter time span focusing on the epidemic phase in 144 areas of Southeast England associated with the Alpha variant. In both applications, the proposed methods produce a better in-sample fit and out-of-sample short term predictions. The spatial dynamic implications are highlighted in the case studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inglaterra , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682285

RESUMO

It is well established that there is a socioeconomic gradient in adult mental health. However, little is known about whether and how this gradient has been exacerbated or mitigated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to identify the modifiable pathways involved in the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis included 5107 adults aged 50+ living in England and participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave nine (2018-2019) and the COVID-19 study (June 2020). Mental health was measured using a shortened version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Path analysis with multiple mediator models was used to estimate the direct effect of SEP (measured by educational qualification and household wealth) on mental health (measured by depression), along with the indirect effects of SEP via three mediators: COVID-19 infection symptoms, service accessibility and social contact. The results show that the prevalence of depression for the same cohort increased from 12.6% pre-pandemic to 19.7% during the first wave of the pandemic. The risk of depression increased amongst older people who experienced COVID-19 infection, difficulties accessing services and less frequent social contact. The total effects of education and wealth on depression were negatively significant. Through mediators, wealth and education were indirectly associated with depression. Wealth also directly affected the outcome. The findings suggest that the socioeconomic gradient in depression among older people may have deteriorated during the initial phase of the pandemic and that this could in part be explained by increased financial hardship, difficulties in accessing services and reduced social contact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058411, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if measured inequalities in cancer survival differ when using individual-based ('person') compared with area-based ('place') measures of deprivation for three socioeconomic dimensions: income, deprivation and occupation. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study of England and Wales, UK, linked to the National Cancer Registration Database. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with cancers of the colorectum, breast, prostate, bladder or with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma during the period 2008-2016. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Differentials in net survival between groups defined by individual wage, occupation and education compared with those obtained from corresponding area-level metrics using the English and Welsh Indices of Multiple Deprivation. RESULTS: Survival was negatively associated with area-based deprivation irrespective of the type analysed, although a trend from least to most deprived was not always observed. Socioeconomic differences were present according to individually-measured socioeconomic groups although there was an absence of a consistent 'gradient' in survival. The magnitude of differentials was similar for area-based and individually-derived measures of deprivation, which was unexpected. CONCLUSION: These unique data suggest that the socioeconomic influence of 'person' is different to that of 'place' with respect to cancer outcomes. This has implications for health policy aimed at reducing inequalities. Further research could consider the separate and additional influence of area-based deprivation over individual-level characteristics (contextual effects) as well as investigate the geographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related characteristics of areas with poor outcomes in order to inform policy intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , País de Gales/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 461, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal characteristics like medical history and health-related risk factors can influence the incidence of pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related events of interest (EIs). Data on the incidence of these endpoints in low-risk pregnant women are needed for appropriate external safety comparisons in maternal immunization trials. To address this need, this study estimated the incidence proportions of pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related EIs in different pregnancy cohorts (including low-risk pregnancies) in England, contained in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Pregnancy Register linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) between 2005 and 2017. METHODS: The incidence proportions of 7 pregnancy outcomes and 15 EIs were calculated for: (1) all pregnancies (AP) represented in the CPRD Pregnancy Register linked to HES (AP cohort; N = 298 155), (2) all pregnancies with a gestational age (GA) ≥ 24 weeks (AP24+ cohort; N = 208 328), and (3) low-risk pregnancies (LR cohort; N = 137 932) with a GA ≥ 24 weeks and no diagnosis of predefined high-risk medical conditions until 24 weeks GA. RESULTS: Miscarriage was the most common adverse pregnancy outcome in the AP cohort (1 379.5 per 10 000 pregnancies) but could not be assessed in the other cohorts because these only included pregnancies with a GA ≥ 24 weeks, and miscarriages with GA ≥ 24 weeks were reclassified as stillbirths. Preterm delivery (< 37 weeks GA) was the most common adverse pregnancy outcome in the AP24+ and LR cohorts (742.9 and 680.0 per 10 000 pregnancies, respectively). Focusing on the cohorts with a GA ≥ 24 weeks, the most common pregnancy-related EIs in the AP24+ and LR cohorts were fetal/perinatal distress or asphyxia (1 824.3 and 1 833.0 per 10 000 pregnancies), vaginal/intrauterine hemorrhage (799.2 and 729.0 per 10 000 pregnancies), and labor protraction/arrest disorders (752.4 and 774.5 per 10 000 pregnancies). CONCLUSIONS: This study generated incidence proportions of pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related EIs from the CPRD for different pregnancy cohorts, including low-risk pregnancies. The reported incidence proportions of pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related EIs are largely consistent with external estimates. These results may facilitate the interpretation of safety data from maternal immunization trials and the safety monitoring of maternal vaccines. They may also be of interest for any intervention studied in populations of pregnant women.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Uterina , Vacinação
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269064, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that vitamin D supplementation may decrease respiratory tract infections, but the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between vitamin D status and infections, hospitalisation, and mortality due to COVID-19. METHODS: We used UK Biobank, a nationwide cohort of 500,000 individuals aged between 40 and 69 years at recruitment between 2006 and 2010. We included people with at least one serum vitamin D test, living in England with linked primary care and inpatient records. The primary exposure was serum vitamin D status measured at recruitment, defined as deficiency at <25 nmol/L, insufficiency at 25-49 nmol/L and sufficiency at ≥ 50 nmol/L. Secondary exposures were self-reported or prescribed vitamin D supplements. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed or clinically diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. The secondary outcomes included hospitalisation and mortality due to COVID-19. We used multivariable Cox regression models stratified by summertime months and non-summertime months, adjusting for demographic factors and underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: We included 307,512 participants (54.9% female, 55.9% over 70 years old) in our analysis. During summertime months, weak evidence existed that the vitamin D deficiency group had a lower hazard of being diagnosed with COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-0.95). During non-summertime, the vitamin D deficiency group had a higher hazard of COVID-19 compared with the vitamin D sufficient group (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.30). No evidence was found that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was associated with either hospitalisation or mortality due to COVID-19 in any time strata. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of an association between historical vitamin D status and hospitalisation or mortality due to COVID-19, along with inconsistent results for any association between vitamin D and diagnosis of COVID-19. However, studies using more recent vitamin D measurements and systematic COVID-19 testing are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas
10.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268837, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While there has been significant research on the pressures facing acute hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been less interest in downstream community services which have also been challenged in meeting demand. This study aimed to estimate the theoretical cost-optimal capacity requirement for 'step down' intermediate care services within a major healthcare system in England, at a time when considerable uncertainty remained regarding vaccination uptake and the easing of societal restrictions. METHODS: Demand for intermediate care was projected using an epidemiological model (for COVID-19 demand) and regressing upon public mobility (for non-COVID-19 demand). These were inputted to a computer simulation model of patient flow from acute discharge readiness to bedded and home-based Discharge to Assess (D2A) intermediate care services. Cost-optimal capacity was defined as that which yielded the lowest total cost of intermediate care provision and corresponding acute discharge delays. RESULTS: Increased intermediate care capacity is likely to bring about lower system-level costs, with the additional D2A investment more than offset by substantial reductions in costly acute discharge delays (leading also to improved patient outcome and experience). Results suggest that completely eliminating acute 'bed blocking' is unlikely economical (requiring large amounts of downstream capacity), and that health systems should instead target an appropriate tolerance based upon the specific characteristics of the pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Computer modelling can be a valuable asset for determining optimal capacity allocation along the complex care pathway. With results supporting a Business Case for increased downstream capacity, this study demonstrates how modelling can be applied in practice and provides a blueprint for use alongside the freely-available model code.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Computadores , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 744-747, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673116

RESUMO

Most data collected by hospitals as a consequence of the delivery of routine care is not utilised for analytics or organisational intelligence. This project aims to develop tools to enhance the utilisation of routinely collected cancer data within hospitals across England. This was achieved by developing a web application using open source tools to provide health care professionals and hospital managers with easy to use, interactive analytics for cancer data. The application uses data items hospitals in England are mandated to collect as part of the Cancer Outcomes and Services Dataset (COSD), to provide clinical insight into survival outcomes, population distributions, service demands, waiting times, geographical case distributions and treatment information in real-time or near real-time. Development was guided by end user needs through the use of panels of clinical and non-clinical end users.


Assuntos
Dados de Saúde Coletados Rotineiramente , Software , Inglaterra , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos
12.
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(6): e496-e503, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in care face adverse health outcomes throughout their life course compared with their peers. In England, over the past decade, the stark rise in the number of cared-for children has coincided with rising child poverty, a key risk factor for children entering care. We aimed to assess the contribution of recent trends in child poverty to trends in care entry. METHODS: In this longitudinal, ecological study of 147 local authorities in England, we linked data from the Department for Work and Pensions and HM Revenue & Customs on the proportion of children younger than 16 years living in families with income less than 60% of the contemporary national median income, before housing costs, with Department for Education data on rates of children younger than 16 years entering care. Using within-between regression models, and controlling for employment trends, we estimated the association of changing child poverty rates with changing care entry rates within different areas. Our primary outcome was the annual rate of children younger than 16 years starting to be looked after by local authorities in England. FINDINGS: Between 2015 and 2020, controlling for employment rates, a 1 percentage point increase in child poverty was associated with an additional five children entering care per 100 000 children (95% CI 2-8). We estimate that, over the study period, 8·1% of the total number of children under the age of 16 entering care (5·0-11·3) were linked to rising child poverty, equivalent to 10 351 (6447-14 567) additional children. INTERPRETATION: We report evidence that rising child poverty rates might be contributing to an increase in children entering care. Children's exposure to poverty creates and compounds adversity, driving poor health and social outcomes in later life. National anti-poverty policies are key to tackling adverse trends in children's care entry in England. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School for Public Health Research, NIHR Public Health Policy Research Unit, Swedish Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, and NIHR Applied Research Collaboration North West Coast.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058316, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the 'Getting it Right First Time' (GIRFT) national improvement programme in orthopaedics, which started in 2012. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study comprising statistical analysis of linked national datasets (National Joint Registry; Hospital Episode Statistics; Patient-Reported Outcomes); economic analysis and qualitative case studies in six National Health Service (NHS) Trusts. SETTING: NHS elective orthopaedic surgery in England. PARTICIPANTS: 736 088 patients who underwent primary hip or knee replacement at 126 NHS Trusts between 1 April 2009 and 31 March 2018, plus 50 NHS staff. INTERVENTION: Improvement bundle including 'deep dive' visits by senior clinician to NHS Trusts, informed by bespoke set of routine performance data, to discuss how improvements could be made locally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of procedures conducted by low volume surgeons; use of uncemented hip implants in patients >65; arthroscopy in year prior to knee replacement; hospital length of stay; emergency readmissions within 30 days; revision surgery within 1 year; health-related quality of life and functional status. RESULTS: National trends demonstrated substantial improvements beginning prior to GIRFT. Between 2012 and 2018, there were reductions in procedures by low volume surgeons (ORs (95% CI) hips 0.58 (0.53 to 0.63), knees 0.77 (0.72 to 0.83)); uncemented hip prostheses in >65 s (OR 0.56 (0.51 to 0.61)); knee arthroscopies before surgery (OR 0.48 (0.41 to 0.56)) and mean length of stay (hips -0.90 (-1.00 to -0.81), knees -0.74 days (-0.82 to -0.66)). The additional impact of visits was mixed and comprised an overall economic saving of £431 848 between 2012 and 2018, but this was offset by the costs of the visits. Staff reported that GIRFT's influence ranged from procurement changes to improved regional collaboration. CONCLUSION: Nationally, we found substantial improvements in care, but the specific contribution of GIRFT cannot be reliably estimated due to other concurrent initiatives. Our approach enabled additional analysis of the discrete impact of GIRFT visits.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Ortopedia , Inglaterra , Hospitais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Medicina Estatal
16.
BMJ ; 377: o1458, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700985
17.
BMJ ; 377: o1455, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700998
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e050994, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The QCOVID algorithm is a risk prediction tool for infection and subsequent hospitalisation/death due to SARS-CoV-2. At the time of writing, it is being used in important policy-making decisions by the UK and devolved governments for combatting the COVID-19 pandemic, including deliberations on shielding and vaccine prioritisation. There are four statistical validations exercises currently planned for the QCOVID algorithm, using data pertaining to England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, respectively. This paper presents a common procedure for conducting and reporting on validation exercises for the QCOVID algorithm. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use open, retrospective cohort studies to assess the performance of the QCOVID risk prediction tool in each of the four UK nations. Linked datasets comprising of primary and secondary care records, virological testing data and death registrations will be assembled in trusted research environments in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. We will seek to have population level coverage as far as possible within each nation. The following performance metrics will be calculated by strata: Harrell's C, Brier Score, R2 and Royston's D. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approvals have been obtained from relevant ethics bodies in each UK nation. Findings will be made available to national policy-makers, presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Algoritmos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
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