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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103290, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711504

RESUMO

Social-emotional evaluations of unfamiliar people are negatively impacted by ignoring or withholding motor-responses from images that depict them; an effect attributed to the propensity of inhibition to affectively devalue associated stimuli. Prior findings suggest that the social-emotional consequences of inhibition may operate on category-level representations that impact all members of a corresponding group. Here we assess whether such social-emotional consequences of motor-response action versus inaction also operate on item-level representations of specific individuals. Participants memorized individual identities of a group of fellow students before completing a Go/No-go response-inhibition task designed to associate item-level representations of each previously-memorized person with action (Go trials) or inaction (No-go trials). Social identities associated with action were consistently rated as more trustworthy in subsequent evaluations than those associated with inaction. This suggests that the social-emotional consequences of motor-response execution versus inhibition can operate on item-level stimulus representations in memory.


Assuntos
Emoções , Inibição Psicológica , Humanos , Estudantes
3.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 24, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between parent-child attachment and executive function (EF) in middle childhood remains relatively poorly studied. Very little is known about the role that the child's verbal ability might play in these relationships. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the concurrent links between perceived attachment security with parents and hot and cool inhibitory control (IC)-a core component of EF-as well as the potential mediating role of verbal ability in those links. METHODS: The participants were 160 children aged 8 to 12 (51% girls). They completed the Attachment Security Scale, the computerised version of the go/no-go task, the delay discounting task, and the vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Pearson's correlations were conducted to test relationships between the study variables. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine whether attachment security uniquely contributed to the outcomes after accounting for covariates. The indirect effects were tested using a non-parametric resampling bootstrap approach. RESULTS: The results showed that, after accounting for the child's age and sex, there was a direct relationship between attachment security with the father and cool, but not hot, IC. However, there were no significant links between attachment security with the mother and both aspects of IC. We also found that children's verbal ability played a mediating role in the associations between both child-father and child-mother attachment security and hot, but not cool, IC above and beyond the child's age. CONCLUSIONS: The current study extends previous work on executive functions in middle childhood. The results highlight the role of attachment in explaining individual differences in IC in middle childhood as well as the different mechanisms through which attachment with parents might explain cool vs. hot IC. The findings have potential implications for therapeutic interventions using the family context as a target to improve IC in middle childhood.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of interfering visual stimuli inhibition using the flanker task in a group of healthy young and healthy old participants, and in a group of participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reaction times and accuracy, as well as the diffusion model of reaction times with parameters reflecting perceptual and motor processes, stimulus processing speed, and conservativeness of response selection were analyzed. RESULTS: We found reduced speed and accuracy in older age, especially in MCI patients. The reduction was especially pronounced in patients with the incongruent distracters. For diffusion model parameters, perceptual and motor processes took longer with older age, reduced processing speed was found only in pathological aging, and specific effectiveness reduction for incongruent probes in patients was driven by increased conservativeness of responses. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the joint influence of normal and pathological aging processes on patients with MCI. The deceleration of the perceptual-motor components of the reaction time reflects the processes of normal cognitive aging, while the deceleration of the processing speed (in the presence of any distractors, including congruent ones) characterizes pathological cognitive aging. Differential diagnosis of normal and pathological cognitive changes is possible using data based on the analysis of reaction time components. It is important to take into account the conservativeness of responses as a factor slowing down the reaction time in pathological and normal cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Tempo de Reação
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24319, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530222

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Several brain structures, including the orbital prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, are considered key structures in the neural circuitry underlying emotion regulation. We report on a patient showing behavior changes and degeneration of core neural tracts for emotional regulation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 51-year-old male patient suffered an in-car accident. The patient lost consciousness for approximately 30 days, and his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3. He underwent stereotactic drainage for traumatic intraventricular and intracerebral hemorrhages. At approximately 6.5-year after onset, he began to show disinhibition behaviors such as shouting with anger, which worsened over time. At approximately 8-year after onset, he showed severe depression signs and disinhibition, including violence. DIAGNOSES: The patient who showed delayed-onset behavioral changes (disinhibition and depression). INTERVENTIONS: Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired at 3 months and 8 years after TBI onset. OUTCOMES: The patient showed degeneration of core neural tracts for emotional regulation that was associated with delayed behavioral changes following TBI. On both 3-month and 8-year diffusion tensor tractographies (DTTs), the right dorsolateral prefronto-thalamic tract, ventrolateral prefronto-thalamic tract, orbital prefronto-thalamic tract, uncinate fasciculus, and both cinguli were reconstructed whereas other neural tracts were not reconstructed. Compared with the 3-month DTT, all reconstructed neural tracts on the 8-year DTT were narrow, except for the left cingulum, which showed new transcallosal fibers between both anterior cingula. The fractional anisotropy and tract volume of all reconstructed neural tracts were lower on the 8-year DTT than the 3-month DTT, except for the tract volume of left cingulum. LESSONS: The evaluation of dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and orbital prefronto-thalamic tract, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum using follow-up DTTs is useful when a patient with TBI shows delayed-onset behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Degeneração Neural/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/etiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/lesões , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Degeneração Neural/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/lesões , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/lesões , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/lesões , /lesões
6.
Neuron ; 109(5): 869-881.e6, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482087

RESUMO

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) supports action selection by inhibiting all motor programs except the desired one. Recent evidence suggests that STN can also cancel an already selected action when goals change, a key aspect of cognitive control. However, there is little neurophysiological evidence for dissociation between selecting and cancelling actions in the human STN. We recorded single neurons in the STN of humans performing a stop-signal task. Movement-related neurons suppressed their activity during successful stopping, whereas stop-signal neurons activated at low-latencies near the stop-signal reaction time. In contrast, STN and motor-cortical beta-bursting occurred only later in the stopping process. Task-related neuronal properties varied by recording location from dorsolateral movement to ventromedial stop-signal tuning. Therefore, action selection and cancellation coexist in STN but are anatomically segregated. These results show that human ventromedial STN neurons carry fast stop-related signals suitable for implementing cognitive control.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Movimento , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação
7.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117691, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385547

RESUMO

Research on the development of response inhibition in humans has focused almost exclusively on average stopping performance. The development of intra-individual variability in stopping performance and its underlying neural circuitry has remained largely unstudied, even though understanding variability is of core importance for understanding development. In a total sample of 45 participants (19 children aged 10-12 years and 26 adults aged 18-26 years) of either sex we aimed to identify age-related changes in intra-individual response inhibition performance and its underlying brain signal variability. While there was no difference in average stopping performance between children and adults, stop signal latencies for the children were more variable. Further, brain signal variability during successful stopping was significantly higher in adults compared to children, especially in bilateral thalamus, but also across regions of the inhibition network. Finally, brain signal variability was significantly associated with stopping performance behavioral variability in adults. Together these results indicate that variability in stopping performance decreases, whereas neural variability in the inhibition network increases, from childhood to adulthood. Future work will need to assess whether developmental changes in neural variability drive those in behavioral variability. In sum, both, neural and behavioral variability indices might be a more sensitive measure of developmental differences in response inhibition compared to the standard average-based measurements.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117629, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316390

RESUMO

The neural processes that support inhibitory control in the face of stimuli with a history of reward association are not yet well understood. Yet, the ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward-contingency contexts is important for daily functioning and warrants further investigation. This study aimed to characterize neural and behavioral impacts of stimuli with a history of conditioned reward association on motor inhibitory control in healthy young adults by investigating group-level effects as well as individual variation in the ability to inhibit responses to stimuli with a reward history. Participants (N = 41) first completed a reward conditioning phase, during which responses to rewarded stimuli were associated with money and responses to unrewarded stimuli were not. Rewarded and unrewarded stimuli from training were carried forward as No-Go targets in a subsequent go/no-go task to test the effect of reward history on inhibitory control. Participants underwent functional brain imaging during the go/no-go portion of the task. On average, a history of reward conditioning disrupted inhibitory control. Compared to inhibition of responses to stimuli with no reward history, trials that required inhibition of responses to previously rewarded stimuli were associated with greater activity in frontal and striatal regions, including the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, striatum, and thalamus. Activity in the insula and thalamus during false alarms and in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during correctly withheld trials predicted behavioral performance on the task. Overall, these results suggest that reward history serves to disrupt inhibitory control and provide evidence for diverging roles of the insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex while inhibiting responses to stimuli with a reward history.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: First episode-psychosis (FEP) represents a stressful/traumatic event for patients. To our knowledge, no study to date has investigated thought suppression involved in FEP in a Romanian population. Our objective was to investigate thought suppression occurring during FEP within primary psychotic disorders (PPD) and substance/medication induced psychotic disorders (SMIPD). Further, we examined the relationship between thought suppression and negative automatic thoughts within PPD and SMIPD. METHODS: The study included 30 participants (17 females) with PPD and 25 participants (10 females) with SMIPD. Psychological scales were administered to assess psychotic symptoms and negative automatic thoughts, along a psychiatric clinical interview and a biochemical drug test. RESULTS: Participants in the PPD group reported higher thought suppression compared to SMIPD group. For the PPD group, results showed a positive correlation between thought suppression and automatic thoughts. For the SMIPD group, results also showed a positive correlation between thought suppression and automatic thoughts. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PPD rely more on thought suppression, as opposed to SMIPD patients. Thought suppression may be viewed as an unhealthy reaction to FEP, which is associated with the experience of negative automatic thoughts and might be especially problematic in patients with PPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended to decrease thought suppression and improve patients' functioning.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Pensamento , Feminino , Humanos , Negativismo , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374772

RESUMO

This study uses canonical correlation analyses to explore the relationship between multiple predictors of school readiness (i.e., academic readiness, social readiness, and teacher-child relationship) and multiple temperamental traits using data from the second wave (age 54 months, n = 1226) of the longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; NICHD ECCRN 1993). This longitudinal study collected data on a large cohort of children and their families from birth through age 15. For academic readiness, only one temperamental constellation emerged, representing the construct of effortful control (i.e., high attentional focusing, high inhibitory control). For peer interactions, two significant constellations emerged: "dysregulated" (low inhibitory control, low shyness, and high activity), and "withdrawn" (high shyness, low inhibitory control, low attentional focusing). Finally, the analyses exploring child-teacher relationships revealed two significant constellations: "highly surgent" (high activity, low inhibitory control, low shyness) and "emotionally controlled" (low anger/frustration and high inhibitory control). Results of this study form a more nuanced exploration of relationships between temperamental traits and indicators of school readiness than can be found in the extant literature, and will provide the groundwork for future research to test specific hypotheses related to the effect temperamental constellations have on children's school readiness.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/psicologia , Temperamento , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Frustração , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Timidez
11.
Brain ; 143(12): 3734-3747, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320929

RESUMO

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease have been associated with dysfunctions in the control of value- or reward-based responding (choice impulsivity) and abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic circuits. The hypothesis that dysfunctions in the control of response inhibition (action impulsivity) also play a role in Parkinson's disease ICDs has recently been raised, but the underlying neural mechanisms have not been probed directly. We used high-resolution EEG recordings from 41 patients with Parkinson's disease with and without ICDs to track the spectral and dynamical signatures of different mechanisms involved in inhibitory control in a simple visuomotor task involving no selection between competing responses and no reward to avoid potential confounds with reward-based decision. Behaviourally, patients with Parkinson's disease with ICDs proved to be more impulsive than those without ICDs. This was associated with decreased beta activity in the precuneus and in a region of the medial frontal cortex centred on the supplementary motor area. The underlying dynamical patterns pinpointed dysfunction of proactive inhibitory control, an executive mechanism intended to gate motor responses in anticipation of stimulation in uncertain contexts. The alteration of the cortical drive of proactive response inhibition in Parkinson's disease ICDs pinpoints the neglected role the precuneus might play in higher order executive functions in coordination with the supplementary motor area, specifically for switching between executive settings. Clinical perspectives are discussed in the light of the non-dopaminergic basis of this function.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/psicologia , Idoso , Ritmo beta , Mapeamento Encefálico , Comportamento de Escolha , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/complicações , Desempenho Psicomotor
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322157

RESUMO

Self-regulation (SR) in pre-schoolers is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, SR only recently has been examined concerning physical activity and its effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, 49 preschool children aged 4-5 years were submitted to classroom movement breaks (CMBs) of 15-min with different degrees of difficulty. Before beginning the intervention, SR (i.e., head, toes, knees and shoulders test, HTKS) and skill levels were assessed for tasks demand adjustment to individual resources and the counterbalanced assignment of the participants to the groups. Similarly, after the intervention, the performance on the HTKS was re-evaluated. There was a general intervention effect on the SR of pre-schoolers, regardless of the difficulty level of the task [F (3) = 11.683, p-value < 0.001, η2p = 0.438]. Nevertheless, it seems that only when CMBs stimulate the children cognitively with optimal difficulty, is it possible to obtain benefits. We recommend providing teachers with professional support when implementing physical activity breaks in their daily program to generate an individualized level of cognitive load that would allow children to reach the optimal challenge point.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Autocontrole , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica
13.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320084

RESUMO

Predictions based on learned statistical regularities in the visual world have been shown to facilitate attention and goal-directed behavior by sharpening the sensory representation of goal-relevant stimuli in advance. Yet, how the brain learns to ignore predictable goal-irrelevant or distracting information is unclear. Here, we used EEG and a visual search task in which the predictability of a distractor's location and/or spatial frequency was manipulated to determine how spatial and feature distractor expectations are neurally implemented and reduce distractor interference. We find that expected distractor features could not only be decoded pre-stimulus, but their representation differed from the representation of that same feature when part of the target. Spatial distractor expectations did not induce changes in preparatory neural activity, but a strongly reduced Pd, an ERP index of inhibition. These results demonstrate that neural effects of statistical learning critically depend on the task relevance and dimension (spatial, feature) of predictions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Inibição Psicológica , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Dissonância Cognitiva , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915814

RESUMO

Locomotion control in mammals has been hypothesized to be governed by a central pattern generator (CPG) located in the circuitry of the spinal cord. The most common model of the CPG is the half center model, where two pools of neurons generate alternating, oscillatory activity. In this model, the pools reciprocally inhibit each other ensuring alternating activity. There is experimental support for reciprocal inhibition. However another crucial part of the half center model is a self inhibitory mechanism which prevents the neurons of each individual pool from infinite firing. Self-inhibition is hence necessary to obtain alternating activity. But critical parts of the experimental bases for the proposed mechanisms for self-inhibition were obtained in vitro, in preparations of juvenile animals. The commonly used adaptation of spike firing does not appear to be present in adult animals in vivo. We therefore modeled several possible self inhibitory mechanisms for locomotor control. Based on currently published data, previously proposed hypotheses of the self inhibitory mechanism, necessary to support the CPG hypothesis, seems to be put into question by functional evaluation tests or by in vivo data. This opens for alternative explanations of how locomotion activity patterns in the adult mammal could be generated.


Assuntos
Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Modelos Neurológicos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790683

RESUMO

The behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have been proposed to relate to stable traits that predict inter-individual differences in motivation. Prior reports point dopamine (DA) pathways, mainly including ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), implicate in subserving reward-related functions associated with BAS and inhibitory functions related with BIS. However, as an important factor that affects DA releasing, it remains an open question whether the ovarian hormones may also be related to BIS/BAS. Here, to investigate effects of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG) on BIS/BAS and related DA pathways, we employed a BIS/BAS scale and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the late follicular phase (FP) and the mid-luteal phase (LP). On the behavioral level, when women had high PROG levels, their E2 levels were found positively correlated with BIS scores, but those women whose PROG levels were low, their E2 levels were negative correlation with BIS scores. On the neural level, we demonstrated BAS was related with the VTA pathway, included brain reward regions of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Meanwhile, the BIS was correlated with the SN-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) pathway. ROI-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses further revealed that, RSFC between the SN and dlPFC was modulated by ovarian hormones. With higher PROG levels, increased E2 levels among women were accompanied by stronger RSFC of the SN-dlPFC, but when PROG levels were low, E2 levels were negatively correlated with the SN-dlPFC RSFC. These findings revealed a combined enhancement effect of E2 and PROG on BIS, and the SN-dlPFC pathway was mainly involved in this process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Motivação/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 605-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744844

RESUMO

Inhibitory theory suggests that a major determinant of individual differences in cognitive performance (including differences that are typically observed with increasing age) is the ability to dampen down goal-irrelevant stimuli, thoughts, and actions. While this theory has garnered a lot of support over the years, it has also seen several challenges. This special issue of Psychology and Aging entitled "Aging and Inhibition: The View Ahead" continues with this theme and includes 14 articles by top researchers in the field of cognitive aging. While most of the articles included here lend support to the theory, some challenge it or provide limiting conditions. We organize our overview of these articles according to the different functions, or stages, of inhibition, which we refer to as access, deletion, and restraint, followed by a discussion of potential moderators, including practice, motivation, and arousal. In our view, these articles contribute to our understanding of how and when age differences in inhibitory control are observed and the wider implications (both positive and negative) for cognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Memória/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 627-638, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744846

RESUMO

Optimal performance in many tasks requires minimizing the impact of both visual distraction and mind-wandering. Yet, so far, these two types of distraction have been studied in isolation and it remains unclear whether they act in similar or dissociable ways across age groups. Here, we studied the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering on performance in a go/no-go task in young and older adults. Older adults reported higher task focus than young, which was associated with a specific age-related reduction in mind-wandering, rather than to thoughts triggered by the task. Older adults exhibited fewer no-go errors, higher mean reaction time (RT) and reduced RT variability compared to young adults. In contrast, visual distraction was associated with a disproportionate effect in older versus young adults on go accuracy, mean RT, and RT variability. Decreasing task focus was similarly associated with reduced go- and no-go accuracy and increased RT variability across age groups. In summary, our results suggest that whereas older adults are disproportionately affected by visual distraction compared to young, they exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency. Moreover, the impact of decreasing task focus on task performance is similar across age groups. Our results suggest a dissociation of the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering as a function of age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 729-743, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744854

RESUMO

Inhibitory control is proposed to involve 2 dissociable processes that feature distinct types of inhibition: a threshold adjustment process involving the global inhibition of motor output and a controlled selection process involving competitive inhibition among coactive responses. Recent research with children and young adults indicates that the functioning of these processes can be targeted by measuring participants' hand movements as they perform inhibitory control tasks by reaching to touch response options on a digital display. The current study explores (a) whether this method can be used to target the functioning of the threshold adjustment process and controlled selection process in adults 65 to 75 years of age and, if so, (b) whether the functioning of each process changes between early and late adulthood. Results from the Eriksen flanker task indicate that reach tracking can be used to target the functioning of each process in late adulthood, with older adults and young adults generating similar patterns of initiation time and curvature effects. The congruency effect observed in response times was significantly larger in older adults than in young adults, indicating that inhibitory control declines in late adulthood. Importantly, this effect was specific to initiation times, suggesting that the threshold adjustment process functions differently in early adulthood than in late adulthood. These results present a new perspective on how age-related differences in inhibitory control are conceptualized and assessed, and raise important questions concerning how the threshold adjustment and controlled selection processes function across a wider range of tasks in late adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 765-772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744856

RESUMO

This study is a follow-up to our previous work (Wilkinson & Yang, 2016a), with an intention to examine the long-term maintenance of inhibition practice benefits and the associated near-near transfer effects over a 3.5-year period in older adults. Thirty-six participants from the original multiple task inhibition practice study (Wilkinson & Yang, 2016a), 18 from the practice and 18 from the control group, returned to complete a single follow-up session on the practice and the near-near transfer tasks. The results revealed that after a 3.5-year delay, older adults were able to retain practice benefits in both deletion (i.e., 2-Back) and restraint (i.e., Go-No Go) tasks. Furthermore, 44-65% of the original near-near transfer benefits were retained across all three inhibitory subfunctions at the follow-up session over baseline performance. The findings further extend the literature on the durability of practice and transfer effects of inhibition in older adults. Specifically, the current study demonstrates the long-term practice maintenance in some inhibitory subfunctions (e.g., deletion and restraint tasks) and highlights the retention of near-near transfer gains following a 3.5-year delay in older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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