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1.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1088, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aminoisoquinoline FX-9 shows pro-apoptotic and antimitotic effects against lymphoblastic leukemia cells and prostate adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, decreased cytotoxic effects against non-neoplastic blood cells, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts were observed. However, the actual FX-9 molecular mode of action is currently not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, microarray gene expression analysis comparing FX-9 exposed and unexposed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 representing castration-resistant prostate cancer), followed by pathway analysis and gene annotation to functional processes were performed. Immunocytochemistry staining was performed with selected targets. RESULTS: Expression analysis revealed 0.83% of 21,448 differential expressed genes (DEGs) after 6-h exposure of FX-9 and 0.68% DEGs after 12-h exposure thereof. Functional annotation showed that FX-9 primarily caused an activation of inflammatory response by non-canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. The 6-h samples showed activation of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A which might be involved in the secondary response in 12-h samples. This secondary response predominantly consisted of cell cycle-related changes, with further activation of CDKN1A and inhibition of the transcription factor E2F1, including downstream target genes, resulting in G1-phase arrest. Matching our previous observations on cellular level senescence signaling pathways were also found enriched. To verify these results immunocytochemical staining of p21 Waf1/Cip1 (CDKN1A), E2F1 (E2F1), PAI-1 (SERPNE1), and NFkB2/NFkB p 100 (NFKB2) was performed. Increased expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and NFkB2/NFkB p 100 after 24-h exposure to FX-9 was shown. E2F1 and PAI-1 showed no increased expression. CONCLUSIONS: FX-9 induced G1-phase arrest of PC-3 cells through activation of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A, which was initiated by an inflammatory response of noncanonical NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/antagonistas & inibidores , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células PC-3 , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular , Fatores de Tempo , Análise Serial de Tecidos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638556

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is more than a proliferative arrest in response to various stimuli. Senescent cells (SC) participate in several physiological processes, and their adequate removal is essential to maintain tissue and organism homeostasis. However, SC accumulation in aging and age-related diseases alters the tissue microenvironment leading to deterioration. The immune system clears the SC, but the specific scenarios and mechanisms related to recognizing and eliminating them are unknown. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the existence of three regulatory signals of phagocytic function, CD47, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), and calreticulin, present in the membrane of SC. Therefore, primary fibroblasts were isolated from CD1 female mice lungs, and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was induced with hydrogen peroxide. Replicative senescence (RS) was used as a second senescent model. Our results revealed a considerable increment of CD47 and MHC-I in RS and SIPS fibroblasts. At the same time, no significant changes were found in calreticulin, suggesting that those signals might be associated with evading immune system recognition and thus averting senescent cells clearance.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1/metabolismo , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Animais , Calbindina 2/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502165

RESUMO

The use of natural compounds is promising in approaches to prevent and treat cancer. The long-term application of most currently employed chemotherapy techniques has toxic side effects. Eugenol, a phenolic phytochemical extracted from certain essential oils, has an anti-cancer effect. The modulation of autophagy can promote either the survival or apoptosis of cancer cells. Triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) and HER2 positive (SK-BR-3) breast cancer cell lines were treated with different doses of eugenol. Apoptosis was detected by a flow-cytometry technique, while autophagy was detected by acridine orange. Real-time PCR and Western blot assays were applied to investigate the effect of eugenol on the gene and protein expression levels of autophagy and apoptotic genes. Treating cells with different concentrations of eugenol significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The protein levels of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT), forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a), cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (p27), and Caspase-3 and -9 increased significantly in Eugenol-treated cells. Eugenol also induced autophagy by upregulating the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and downregulating the expression of nucleoporin 62 (NU p62). Eugenol is a promising natural anti-cancer agent against triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. It appears to work by targeting the caspase pathway and by inducing autophagic cell death.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
5.
Cancer Invest ; 39(10): 854-870, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569407

RESUMO

The novel anti-neoplastic glycopeptide T11TS retards glioma both in in-vitro clinical samples and in-vivo models. This study investigates the correlation between altering the glioma microenvironment with glioma arrest and death. Flow cytometry, immunoblotting, ELISA, and co-immunoprecipitation were employed to investigate glioma cell arrest and death. Results include a decline in phosphorylation of Akt and attenuation of p21 phosphorylation (Thr145,Ser146) and disassociation of p-Akt-Mdm2 and p-Akt-BAD facilitating death by Akt>BAD. T11TS influence phosphorylation patterns in two focal axes Akt>p21 and Akt>Mdm2>p53. The current article provides crucial insight in deciphering the mechanism of T11TS induced glioma cell arrest and death.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos CD58/farmacologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Antígenos CD58/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Masculino , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/análise , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/metabolismo
6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L859-L871, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524912

RESUMO

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence is implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Mitochondrial dysfunction including release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a feature of senescence, which led us to investigate the role of the DNA-sensing guanine monophosphate-adenine monophosphate (GMP-AMP) synthase (cGAS) in IPF, with a focus on AEC senescence. cGAS expression in fibrotic tissue from lungs of patients with IPF was detected within cells immunoreactive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and p21, epithelial and senescence markers, respectively. Submerged primary cultures of AECs isolated from lung tissue of patients with IPF (IPF-AECs, n = 5) exhibited higher baseline senescence than AECs from control donors (Ctrl-AECs, n = 5-7), as assessed by increased nuclear histone 2AXγ phosphorylation, p21 mRNA, and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) cytokines. Pharmacological cGAS inhibition using RU.521 diminished IPF-AEC senescence in culture and attenuated induction of Ctrl-AEC senescence following etoposide-induced DNA damage. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of cGAS also attenuated etoposide-induced senescence of the AEC line, A549. Higher levels of mtDNA were detected in the cytosol and culture supernatants of primary IPF- and etoposide-treated Ctrl-AECs when compared with Ctrl-AECs at baseline. Furthermore, ectopic mtDNA augmented cGAS-dependent senescence of Ctrl-AECs, whereas DNAse I treatment diminished IPF-AEC senescence. This study provides evidence that a self-DNA-driven, cGAS-dependent response augments AEC senescence, identifying cGAS as a potential therapeutic target for IPF.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Células A549 , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease I/farmacologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571867

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE), a gestational hypertensive disease originating from the placenta, is characterized by an imbalance of various cellular processes. The cell cycle regulator p21Cip1/CDKN1A (p21) and its family members p27 and p57 regulate signaling pathways fundamental to placental development. The aim of the present study was to enlighten the individual roles of these cell cycle regulators in placental development and their molecular involvement in the pathogenesis of PE. The expression and localization of p21, phospho-p21 (Thr-145), p27, and p57 was immunohistochemically analyzed in placental tissues from patients with early-onset PE, early-onset PE complicated by the HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome as well as late-onset PE compared to their corresponding control tissues from well-matched women undergoing caesarean sections. The gene level was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. We demonstrate that the delivery mode strongly influenced placental gene expression, especially for CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN1B (p27), which were significantly upregulated in response to labor. Cell cycle regulators were highly expressed in first trimester placentas and impacted by hypoxic conditions. In support of these observations, p21 protein was abundant in trophoblast organoids and hypoxia reduced its gene expression. Microarray analysis of the trophoblastic BeWo cell line depleted of p21 revealed various interesting candidate genes and signaling pathways for the fusion process. The level of p21 was reduced in fusing cytotrophoblasts in early-onset PE placentas and depletion of p21 led to reduced expression of fusion-related genes such as syncytin-2 and human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG), which adversely affected the fusion capability of trophoblastic cells. These data highlight that cell cycle regulators are important for the development of the placenta. Interfering with p21 influences multiple pathways related to the pathogenesis of PE.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Placentação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4919, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389725

RESUMO

BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations predispose to breast, ovarian and other cancers. High-throughput sequencing of tumour genomes revealed that oncogene amplification and BRCA1/2 mutations are mutually exclusive in cancer, however the molecular mechanism underlying this incompatibility remains unknown. Here, we report that activation of ß-catenin, an oncogene of the WNT signalling pathway, inhibits proliferation of BRCA1/2-deficient cells. RNA-seq analyses revealed ß-catenin-induced discrete transcriptome alterations in BRCA2-deficient cells, including suppression of CDKN1A gene encoding the CDK inhibitor p21. This accelerates G1/S transition, triggering illegitimate origin firing and DNA damage. In addition, ß-catenin activation accelerates replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells, which is critically dependent on p21 downregulation. Importantly, we find that upregulated p21 expression is essential for the survival of BRCA2-deficient cells and tumours. Thus, our work demonstrates that ß-catenin toxicity in cancer cells with compromised BRCA1/2 function is driven by transcriptional alterations that cause aberrant replication and inflict DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439818

RESUMO

Inhibitor of growth 3 (ING3) is one of five members of the ING tumour suppressor family, characterized by a highly conserved plant homeodomain (PHD) as a reader of the histone mark H3K4me3. ING3 was reported to act as a tumour suppressor in many different cancer types to regulate apoptosis. On the other hand, ING3 levels positively correlate with poor survival prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. In PCa cells, ING3 acts rather as an androgen receptor (AR) co-activator and harbours oncogenic properties in PCa. Here, we show the identification of a novel ING3 splice variant in both the human PCa cell line LNCaP and in human PCa patient specimen. The novel ING3 splice variant lacks exon 11, ING3∆ex11, which results in deletion of the PHD, providing a unique opportunity to analyse functionally the PHD of ING3 by a natural splice variant. Functionally, overexpression of ING3Δex11 induced morphological changes of LNCaP-derived 3D spheroids with generation of lumen and pore-like structures within spheroids. Since these structures are an indicator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), key regulatory factors and markers for EMT were analysed. The data suggest that in contrast to ING3, ING3Δex11 specifically modulates the expression of key EMT-regulating upstream transcription factors and induces the expression of EMT markers, indicating that the PHD of ING3 inhibits EMT. In line with this, ING3 knockdown also induced the expression of EMT markers, confirming the impact of ING3 on EMT regulation. Further, ING3 knockdown induced cellular senescence via a pathway leading to cell cycle arrest, indicating an oncogenic role for ING3 in PCa. Thus, the data suggest that the ING3Δex11 splice variant lacking functional PHD exhibits oncogenic characteristics through triggering EMT in PCa cells.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Splicing de RNA , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box/genética , Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4708439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423034

RESUMO

Background: Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) converts tryptophan into kynurenine in the initial limiting step of the kynurenine pathway. During the past decade, the overexpression of TDO2 has been found in various human tumors. However, the role of TDO2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial, and we sought to clarify it in this study. Methods: Western blot analysis and immunochemistry were used to detect the expression of TDO2 in human tissue specimens. The effect of TDO2 on cell proliferation in vitro was assessed using CCK8 and colony formation assays, and a xenograft mouse model was used to detect the effect of TDO2 on tumor growth in vivo. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle status. Results: Low TDO2 expression was found in HCC and was associated with poor prognosis and adverse clinical outcomes. Conversely, TDO2 could restrain the proliferation of HCC cells in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, TDO2 upregulated the expression of p21 and p27, inducing cell-cycle arrest. Conclusions: The loss of TDO2 expression in HCC was correlated with a poor prognosis and adverse clinical outcomes. At the same time, TDO2 could restrain the growth of HCC in vivo and in vitro. The results indicate that TDO2 is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Triptofano Oxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Triptofano Oxigenase/genética
11.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359864

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence could be a critical inducing factor for aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders. However, the involvement of cellular senescence remains unclear in Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine this, we assessed the effects of α-synuclein preformed fibrils (α-syn PFF) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on changes in cellular senescence markers, employing α-syn PFF treated-dopaminergic N27 cells, primary cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia and α-syn PFF-injected mouse brain tissues, as well as human PD patient brains. Our results demonstrate that α-syn PFF-induced toxicity reduces the levels of Lamin B1 and HMGB1, both established markers of cellular senescence, in correlation with an increase in the levels of p21, a cell cycle-arrester and senescence marker, in both reactive astrocytes and microglia in mouse brains. Using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found these cellular senescence markers in reactive astrocytes as indicated by enlarged cell bodies within GFAP-positive cells and Iba1-positive activated microglia in α-syn PFF injected mouse brains. These results indicate that PFF-induced pathology could lead to astrocyte and/or microglia senescence in PD brains, which may contribute to neuropathology in this model. Targeting senescent cells using senolytics could therefore constitute a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of PD.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Lamina Tipo B/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Ratos
12.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359925

RESUMO

Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are highly suitable for regeneration therapies being easily collected and propagated in vitro. The effects of different external factors and culturing conditions are able to affect hADSC proliferation, senescence, differentiation, and migration, even at the molecular level. In the present paper, we exposed hADSCs to an exhausted medium from the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to evaluate whether the soluble factors released by these cells may be able to induce changes in stem cell behavior. In particular, we investigated the expression of stemness-related genes (OCT4; Sox 2; Nanog), the cell-cycle regulators p21 (WAF1/CIP1) p53, epigenetic markers (DNMT1 and Sirt1), and autophagy-related proteins. From our results, we can infer that the exhausted medium from MCF-7 is able to influence the hADSCs behavior increasing the expression of stemness-related genes, cell proliferation, and autophagy. Polyamines detectable in MCF-7 exhausted medium could be related to the higher proliferation capability observed in hADSCs, suggesting direct crosstalk between these molecules and the observed changes in stem cell potency.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Meios de Cultura , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101109, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425107

RESUMO

The stability of a protein is regulated by a balance between its ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation. S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an oncogenic F-box protein that recognizes tumor suppressor substrates for targeted ubiquitylation by the E3 ligase SKP1-Cullin1-F-box and degradation by proteasome. SKP2 is itself ubiquitylated by the E3 ligases APC/CCDH1 and SCFFBXW2, and deubiquitylated by deubiquitylases (DUBs) USP10 and USP13. Given the biological significance of SKP2, it is likely that the other E3s or DUBs may also regulate its stability. Here, we report the identification and characterization of USP2 as a new DUB. We first screened a panel of DUBs and found that both USP2 and USP21 bound to endogenous SKP2, but only USP2 deubiquitylated and stabilized SKP2 protein. USP2 inactivation via siRNA knockdown or small-molecule inhibitor treatment remarkably shortened SKP2 protein half-life by enhancing its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Unexpectedly, USP2-stabilized SKP2 did not destabilize its substrates p21 and p27. Mechanistically, USP2 bound to SKP2 via the leucine-rich repeat substrate-binding domain on SKP2 to disrupt the SKP2-substrate binding, leading to stabilization of both SKP2 and these substrates. Biologically, growth suppression induced by USP2 knockdown or USP2 inhibitor is partially mediated via modulation of SKP2 and its substrates. Our study revealed a new mechanism of the cross-talk among the E3-DUB substrates and its potential implication in targeting the USP2-SKP2 axis for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 862, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253820

RESUMO

Breast carcinomas commonly carry mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, although therapeutic efforts to target mutant p53 have previously been unfruitful. Here we report a selective combination therapy strategy for treatment of p53 mutant cancers. Genomic data revealed that p53 mutant cancers exhibit high replication activity and express high levels of the Base-Excision Repair (BER) pathway, whereas experimental testing showed substantial dysregulation in BER. This defect rendered accumulation of DNA damage in p53 mutant cells upon treatment with deoxyuridine analogues. Notably, inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) greatly enhanced this response, whereas normal cells responded with activation of the p53-p21 axis and cell cycle arrest. Inactivation of either p53 or p21/CDKN1A conferred the p53 mutant phenotype. Preclinical animal studies demonstrated a greater anti-neoplastic efficacy of the drug combination (deoxyuridine analogue and PARP inhibitor) than either drug alone. This work illustrates a selective combination therapy strategy for p53 mutant cancers that will improve survival rates and outcomes for thousands of breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Reparo do DNA/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Timina/administração & dosagem , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 685, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238924

RESUMO

Acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-associated pulmonary inflammation is associated with high rates of morbidity. Despite advances in the clinical management of lung disease, molecular therapeutic options for I/R-associated lung injury are limited. Zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36) is an AU-rich element-binding protein that is known to suppress the inflammatory response. A ZFP36 binding site occurs in the 3' UTR of the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CREBBP) gene, which is known to interact with apoptotic proteins to promote apoptosis. In this study, we investigate the involvement of ZFP36 and CREBBP on I/R-induced lung injury in vivo and in vitro. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) activates inflammatory responses, resulting in injury to different organs including the lung. Lung tissues from ZFP36-knockdown mice and mouse lung epithelial (MLE)-2 cells were subjected to either Intestinal I/R or hypoxia/reperfusion, respectively, and then analyzed by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR. Silico analyses, pull down and RIP assays were used to analyze the relationship between ZFP36 and CREBBP. ZFP36 deficiency upregulated CREBBP, enhanced I/R-induced lung injury, apoptosis, and inflammation, and increased I/R-induced lung fibrosis. In silico analyses indicated that ZFP36 was a strong negative regulator of CREBBP mRNA stability. Results of pull down and RIP assays confirmed that ZFP36 direct interacted with CREBBP mRNA. Our results indicated that ZFP36 can mediate the level of inflammation-associated lung damage following I/R via interactions with the CREBBP/p53/p21/Bax pathway. The downregulation of ZFP36 increased the level of fibrosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Tristetraprolina/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tristetraprolina/genética
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2431-2451, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196217

RESUMO

Objective: Arterial restenosis is the pathological narrowing of arteries after endovascular procedures, and it is an adverse event that causes patients to experience recurrent occlusive symptoms. Following angioplasty, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change their phenotype, migrate, and proliferate, resulting in neointima formation, a hallmark of arterial restenosis. SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) are a subfamily of the AMP-activated protein kinase family that play a critical role in metabolic diseases including hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Their role in vascular pathological remodeling, however, has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and regulation of SIK3 in vascular SMC migration, proliferation, and neointima formation. Approach and Results: We observed that SIK3 expression was low in contractile aortic SMCs but high in proliferating SMCs. It was also highly induced by growth medium in vitro and in neointimal lesions in vivo. Inactivation of SIKs significantly attenuated vascular SMC proliferation and up-regulated p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. SIK inhibition also suppressed SMC migration and modulated actin polymerization. Importantly, we found that inhibition of SIKs reduced neointima formation and vascular inflammation in a femoral artery wire injury model. In mechanistic studies, we demonstrated that inactivation of SIKs mainly suppressed SMC proliferation by down-regulating AKT (protein kinase B) and PKA (protein kinase A)-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) signaling. CRTC3 (CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 3) signaling likely contributed to SIK inactivation-mediated antiproliferative effects. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SIK3 may play a critical role in regulating SMC proliferation, migration, and arterial restenosis. This study provides insights into SIK inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating restenosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/enzimologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Constrição Patológica , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/enzimologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/lesões , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
17.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 3968-3977, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288819

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cell senescence plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Recent progress indicates that DPP-4 inhibitors show a wide range of cardiovascular benefits. We hypothesize that Anagliptin plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and this may imply its modulation of atherosclerosis. Here, the beneficial effect of Anagliptin against interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß)-induced cell senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells was studied to learn the promising therapeutic capacity of Anagliptin on atherosclerosis. Firstly, we found that Anagliptin treatment ameliorated the elevated secretions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Secondly, our findings indicate that exposure to IL-1ß reduced telomerase activity from 26.7 IU/L to 15.8 IU/L, which was increased to 20.3 and 24.6 IU/L by 2.5 and 5 µM Anagliptin, respectively. In contrast, IL-1ß stimulation increased senescence- associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining to 3.1- fold compared to the control group, it was then reduced to 2.3- and 1.6- fold by Anagliptin dose-dependently. Thirdly, Anagliptin dramatically reversed the upregulated p16, p21, and downregulated sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in IL-1ß-treated vascular smooth muscle cells. Lastly, the protective effect of Anagliptin against cellular senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells was abolished by silencing of SIRT1. In conclusion, Anagliptin protects vascular smooth muscle cells from cytokine-induced senescence, and the action of Anagliptin in vascular smooth muscle cells requires SIRT1 expression.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-1beta/toxicidade , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/química , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244426

RESUMO

Cancer cells acquire metabolic reprogramming to satisfy their high biogenetic demands, but little is known about how metabolic remodeling enables cancer cells to survive stress associated with genomic instability. Here, we show that the mitochondrial methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD2) is transcriptionally suppressed by p53, and its up-regulation by p53 inactivation leads to increased folate metabolism, de novo purine synthesis, and tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, MTHFD2 unexpectedly promotes nonhomologous end joining in response to DNA damage by forming a complex with PARP3 to enhance its ribosylation, and the introduction of a PARP3-binding but enzymatically inactive MTHFD2 mutant (e.g., D155A) sufficiently prevents DNA damage. Notably, MTHFD2 depletion strongly restrains p53-deficient cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to chemotherapeutic agents, indicating a potential role for MTHFD2 depletion in the treatment of p53-deficient tumors.


Assuntos
Aminoidrolases/genética , Dano ao DNA , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Enzimas Multifuncionais/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Aminoidrolases/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/farmacologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Enzimas Multifuncionais/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13113, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219128

RESUMO

We recently showed that when a low X-ray dose is used, cell death is enhanced in nucleus-irradiated compared with whole-cell-irradiated cells; however, the role of the cytoplasm remains unclear. Here, we show changes in the DNA damage responses with or without X-ray microbeam irradiation of the cytoplasm. Phosphorylated histone H2AX foci, a surrogate marker for DNA double-strand breaks, in V79 and WI-38 cells are not observed in nucleus irradiations at ≤ 2 Gy, whereas they are observed in whole-cell irradiations. Addition of an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase inhibitor to whole-cell irradiations suppresses foci formation at ≤ 2 Gy. ABL1 and p73 expression is upregulated following nucleus irradiation, suggesting the induction of p73-dependent cell death. Furthermore, CDKN1A (p21) is upregulated following whole-cell irradiation, indicating the induction of cell cycle arrest. These data reveal that cytoplasmic radioresponses modify ATM-mediated DNA damage responses and determine the fate of cells irradiated at low doses.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Citoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Humanos
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 570: 143-147, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284139

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) is known for its pleiotropic ability to regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation etc. It has recently been shown that IGFBP3 is part of the secretome of senescent human endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (MESCs) (Griukova et al., 2019) that takes part in paracrine propagation of senescence-like phenotype in MESCs (Vassilieva et al., 2020); however, mechanisms of pro-senescent IGFBP3 action in MESCs remain still unexplored. This study is aimed at elucidating the role of IGFBP3 upregulation in senescent MESCs. IGFBP3 knockdown in MESCs committed to H2O2-induced senescence led to partial abrogation of p21/Rb axis, to elevated ERK phosphorylation and to increase in SA-ß-gal activity. Additionally, MESCs derived from various donors were found to demonstrate different IGFBP3 regulation during stress-induced senescence. Obtained results suggest ambiguous role of IGFBP3 in stress-induced senescence of MESCs.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Endométrio/patologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Linhagem Celular , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
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