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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4688, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344896

RESUMO

Internalization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in cell responsiveness. Dysregulation in receptor trafficking can lead to aberrant signaling and cell behavior. Here, using an endosomal BRET-based assay in a high-throughput screen with the prototypical GPCR angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), we sought to identify receptor trafficking inhibitors from a library of ~115,000 small molecules. We identified a novel dual Ras and ARF6 inhibitor, which we named Rasarfin, that blocks agonist-mediated internalization of AT1R and other GPCRs. Rasarfin also potently inhibits agonist-induced ERK1/2 signaling by GPCRs, and MAPK and Akt signaling by EGFR, as well as prevents cancer cell proliferation. In silico modeling and in vitro studies reveal a unique binding modality of Rasarfin within the SOS-binding domain of Ras. Our findings unveil a class of dual small G protein inhibitors for receptor trafficking and signaling, useful for the inhibition of oncogenic cellular responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/antagonistas & inibidores , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/química , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360555

RESUMO

Human cytosolic prolyl-tRNA synthetase (HcProRS) catalyses the formation of the prolyl-tRNAPro, playing an important role in protein synthesis. Inhibition of HcProRS activity has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of fibrosis, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Recently, potent pyrazinamide-based inhibitors were identified by a high-throughput screening (HTS) method, but no further elaboration was reported. The pyrazinamide core is a bioactive fragment found in numerous clinically validated drugs and has been subjected to various modifications. Therefore, we applied a virtual screening protocol to our in-house library of pyrazinamide-containing small molecules, searching for potential novel HcProRS inhibitors. We identified a series of 3-benzylaminopyrazine-2-carboxamide derivatives as positive hits. Five of them were confirmed by a thermal shift assay (TSA) with the best compounds 3b and 3c showing EC50 values of 3.77 and 7.34 µM, respectively, in the presence of 1 mM of proline (Pro) and 3.45 µM enzyme concentration. Co-crystal structures of HcProRS in complex with these compounds and Pro confirmed the initial docking studies and show how the Pro facilitates binding of the ligands that compete with ATP substrate. Modelling 3b into other human class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) indicated that the subtle differences in the ATP binding site of these enzymes likely contribute to its potential selective binding of HcProRS. Taken together, this study successfully identified novel HcProRS binders from our anti-tuberculosis in-house compound library, displaying opportunities for repurposing old drug candidates for new applications such as therapeutics in HcProRS-related diseases.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/antagonistas & inibidores , Bioensaio/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pirazinamida/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(67): 8352-8355, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337637

RESUMO

By repurposing DNICs designed for other medicinal purposes, the possibility of protease inhibition was investigated in silico using AutoDock 4.2.6 (AD4) and in vitro via a FRET protease assay. AD4 was validated as a predictive computational tool for coordinatively unsaturated DNIC binding using the only known crystal structure of a protein-bound DNIC, PDB- (calculation RMSD = 1.77). From the in silico data the dimeric DNICs TGTA-RRE, [(µ-S-TGTA)Fe(NO)2]2 (TGTA = 1-thio-ß-d-glucose tetraacetate) and TG-RRE, [(µ-S-TG)Fe(NO)2]2 (TG = 1-thio-ß-d-glucose) were identified as promising leads for inhibition via coordinative inhibition at Cys-145 of the SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (SC2Mpro). In vitro studies indicate inhibition of protease activity upon DNIC treatment, with an IC50 of 38 ± 2 µM for TGTA-RRE and 33 ± 2 µM for TG-RRE. This study presents a simple computational method for predicting DNIC-protein interactions; the in vitro study is consistent with in silico leads.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ferro/farmacologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Ferro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360977

RESUMO

Inhibition of ruminal microbial urease is of particular interest due to its crucial role in regulating urea-N utilization efficiency and nitrogen pollution in the livestock industry. Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is currently the only commercially available urease inhibitor, but it has adverse side effects. The urease accessory protein UreG, which facilitates the functional incorporation of the urease nickel metallocentre, has been proposed in developing urease inhibitor through disrupting urease maturation. The objective of this study was to screen natural compounds as potential urease inhibitors by targeting UreG in a predominant ruminal microbial urease. In silico screening and in vitro tests for potential inhibitors were performed using molecular docking and an assay for the GTPase activity of UreG. Chelerythrine chloride was selected as a potential urease inhibitor of UreG with an inhibition concentration IC50 value of 18.13 µM. It exhibited mixed inhibition, with the Ki value being 26.28 µM. We further explored its inhibition mechanism using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and we found that chelerythrine chloride inhibited the binding of nickel to UreG and induced changes in the secondary structure, especially the α-helix and ß-sheet of UreG. Chelerythrine chloride formed a pi-anion interaction with the Asp41 residue of UreG, which is an important residue in initiating the conformational changes of UreG. In conclusion, chelerythrine chloride exhibited a potential inhibitory effect on urease, which provided new evidence for strategies to develop novel urease inhibitors targeting UreG to reduce nitrogen excretion from ruminants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Rúmen/microbiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Benzofenantridinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4848, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381037

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of effective drugs to treat people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 13 (NSP13) has been identified as a target for anti-virals due to its high sequence conservation and essential role in viral replication. Structural analysis reveals two "druggable" pockets on NSP13 that are among the most conserved sites in the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Here we present crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 solved in the APO form and in the presence of both phosphate and a non-hydrolysable ATP analog. Comparisons of these structures reveal details of conformational changes that provide insights into the helicase mechanism and possible modes of inhibition. To identify starting points for drug development we have performed a crystallographic fragment screen against NSP13. The screen reveals 65 fragment hits across 52 datasets opening the way to structure guided development of novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/química , RNA Helicases/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoenzimas/química , Apoenzimas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361017

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß) is an enzyme pertinently linked to neurodegenerative diseases since it is associated with the regulation of key neuropathological features in the central nervous system. Among the different kinds of inhibitors of this kinase, the allosteric ones stand out due to their selective and subtle modulation, lowering the chance of producing side effects. The mechanism of GSK-3ß allosteric modulators may be considered still vague in terms of elucidating a well-defined binding pocket and a bioactive pose for them. In this context, we propose to reinvestigate and reinforce such knowledge by the application of an extensive set of in silico methodologies, such as cavity detection, ligand 3D shape analysis and docking (with robust validation of corresponding protocols), and molecular dynamics. The results here obtained were consensually consistent in furnishing new structural data, in particular by providing a solid bioactive pose of one of the most representative GSK-3ß allosteric modulators. We further applied this to the prospect for new compounds by ligand-based virtual screening and analyzed the potential of the two obtained virtual hits by quantum chemical calculations. All potential hits achieved will be subsequently tested by in vitro assays in order to validate our approaches as well as to unveil novel chemical entities as GSK-3ß allosteric modulators.


Assuntos
Sítio Alostérico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ligação Proteica
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443550

RESUMO

To confirm that the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated thiocarbonyl (PUSTC) scaffold, similar to the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl (PUSC) scaffold, acts as a core inhibitory structure for tyrosinase, twelve (Z)-5-(substituted benzylidene)-4-thioxothiazolidin-2-one ((Z)-BTTZ) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Seven of the twelve derivatives showed stronger inhibitory activity than kojic acid against mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 2b (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.97 µM) exerted a 141-fold higher inhibitory potency than kojic acid. Kinetic studies' results confirmed that compounds 2b and 2f are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors, which was supported by high binding affinities with the active site of tyrosinase by docking simulation. Docking results using a human tyrosinase homology model indicated that 2b and 2f might potently inhibit human tyrosinase. In vitro assays of 2b and 2f were conducted using B16F10 melanoma cells. Compounds 2b and 2f significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited intracellular melanin contents, and the anti-melanogenic effects of 2b at 10 µM and 2f at 25 µM were considerably greater than the inhibitory effect of kojic acid at 25 µM. Compounds 2b and 2f similarly inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin contents, indicating that the anti-melanogenic effects of both were due to tyrosinase inhibition. A strong binding affinity with the active site of tyrosinase and potent inhibitions of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular tyrosinase activity, and melanin generation in B16F10 cells indicates the PUSTC scaffold offers an attractive platform for the development of novel tyrosinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202711

RESUMO

Cancer is a multifactorial disease that may be tackled by targeting different signaling pathways. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and sigma receptors (σRs) are both overexpressed in different human cancers, including prostate and brain, contributing to the cancer spreading. In the present study, we investigated whether HO-1 inhibitors and σR ligands, as well a combination of the two, may influence DU145 human prostate and U87MG human glioblastoma cancer cells proliferation. In addition, we synthesized, characterized, and tested a small series of novel hybrid compounds (HO-1/σRs) 1-4 containing the chemical features needed for HO-1 inhibition and σR modulation. Herein, we report for the first time that targeting simultaneously HO-1 and σR proteins may be a good strategy to achieve increased antiproliferative activity against DU145 and U87MG cells, with respect to the mono administration of the parent compounds. The obtained outcomes provide an initial proof of concept useful to further optimize the structure of HO-1/σRs hybrids to develop novel potential anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Heme Oxigenase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias , Receptores sigma/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ratos , Receptores sigma/metabolismo
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2342: 147-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272694

RESUMO

Differential equations are used to describe time-dependent changes in enzyme kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Analytical and numerical methods can be used to solve differential equations. This chapter describes the use of numerical methods in solving differential equations and its applications in characterizing the complexities observed in enzyme kinetics. A discussion is included on the use of numerical methods to overcome limitations of explicit equations in the analysis of metabolism kinetics, reversible inhibition kinetics, and inactivation kinetics. The chapter describes the advantages of using numerical methods when Michaelis-Menten assumptions do not hold.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Enzimas/química , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2342: 257-284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272698

RESUMO

Aldehyde oxidase (AO) has emerged as an important drug metabolizing enzyme over the last decade. Several compounds have failed in the clinic because the clearance or toxicity was underestimated by preclinical species. Human AO is much more active than rodent AO, and dogs do not have functional AO. Metabolic products from AO-catalyzed oxidation are generally nonreactive and often they have much lower solubility. AO metabolism is not limited to oxidation as AO can also catalyze reduction of oxygen and nitrite. Reduction of oxygen leads to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide. Reduction of nitrite leads to the formation of nitric oxide with potential pharmacological implications. AO is also reported to catalyze the reductive metabolism of nitro-compounds, N-oxides, sulfoxides, isoxazoles, isothiazoles, nitrite, and hydroxamic acids. These reductive transformations may cause toxicity due to the formation of reactive metabolites. Moreover, the inhibition kinetics are complex, and multiple probe substrates should be used when assessing the potential for DDIs. Finally, AO appears to be amenable to computational predictions of both regioselectivity and rates of reaction, which holds promise for virtual screening.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxidase/química , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Aldeído Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Catálise , Cães , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxidos/metabolismo
11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1563-1572, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281464

RESUMO

A series of tertiary sulphonamide derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against liver cancer cell lines (SNU-475, HepG-2, and Bel-7402). Among these tertiary sulphonamides, compound 17a displayed the best anti-liver cancer activity against Bel-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 0.32 µM. Compound 17a could effectively inhibit tubulin polymerisation with an IC50 value of 1.27 µM. Meanwhile, it selectively suppressed LSD1 with an IC50 value of 63 nM. It also concentration-dependently inhibited migration against Bel-7402 cells. Importantly, tertiary sulphonamide 17a exhibited the potent antitumor activity in vivo. All these findings revealed that compound 17a might be a tertiary sulphonamide-based dual inhibitor of tubulin polymerisation and LSD1 to treat liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/química
12.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1665-1678, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309457

RESUMO

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural cosmeceutical compound with various skin beneficial activities including inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase but the anti-hyaluronidase activity and mechanisms of action of its synthetic analogues remain unclear. Herein, a series of OA derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase. Compared to OA, an induction of fluorinated (6c) and chlorinated (6g) indole moieties led to enhanced anti-hyaluronidase activity (IC50 = 80.3 vs. 9.97 and 9.57 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, spectroscopic and computational studies revealed that 6c and 6g can bind to hyaluronidase protein and alter its secondary structure leading to reduced enzyme activity. In addition, OA indole derivatives showed feasible skin permeability in a slightly acidic environment (pH = 6.5) and 6c exerted skin protective effect by reducing cellular reactive oxygen species in human skin keratinocytes. Findings from the current study support that OA indole derivatives are potential cosmeceuticals with anti-hyaluronidase activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Indóis/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/síntese química , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1500-1508, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227437

RESUMO

Enzymes AKR1C regulate the action of oestrogens, androgens, and progesterone at the pre-receptor level and are also associated with chemo-resistance. The activities of these oestrone halides were investigated on recombinant AKR1C enzymes. The oestrone halides with halogen atoms at both C-2 and C-4 positions (13ß-, 13α-methyl-17-keto halogen derivatives) were the most potent inhibitors of AKR1C1. The lowest IC50 values were for the 13α-epimers 2_2I,4Br and 2_2I,4Cl (IC50, 0.7 µM, 0.8 µM, respectively), both of which selectively inhibited the AKR1C1 isoform. The 13α-methyl-17-keto halogen derivatives 2_2Br and 2_4Cl were the most potent inhibitors of AKR1C2 (IC50, 1.5 µM, 1.8 µM, respectively), with high selectivity for the AKR1C2 isoform. Compound 1_2Cl,4Cl showed the best AKR1C3 inhibition, and it also inhibited AKR1C1 (Ki: AKR1C1, 0.69 µM; AKR1C3, 1.43 µM). These data show that halogenated derivatives of oestrone represent a new class of potent and selective AKR1C inhibitors as lead compounds for further optimisations.


Assuntos
20-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Estrona/farmacologia , 20-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Estrona/análogos & derivados , Estrona/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1509-1520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238110

RESUMO

In the present study, a series of azo derivatives (TR-1 to TR-9) have been synthesised via the diazo-coupling approach between substituted aromatic amines with phenol or naphthol derivatives. The compounds were evaluated for their therapeutic applications against alpha-glucosidase (anti-diabetic) and pathogenic bacterial strains E. coli (gram-negative), S. aureus (gram-positive), S. aureus (gram-positive) drug-resistant strain, P. aeruginosa (gram-negative), P. aeruginosa (gram-negative) drug-resistant strain and P. vulgaris (gram-negative). The IC50 (µg/mL) of TR-1 was found to be most effective (15.70 ± 1.3 µg/mL) compared to the reference drug acarbose (21.59 ± 1.5 µg/mL), hence, it was further selected for the kinetic studies in order to illustrate the mechanism of inhibition. The enzyme inhibitory kinetics and mode of binding for the most active inhibitor (TR-1) was performed which showed that the compound is a non-competitive inhibitor and effectively inhibits the target enzyme by binding to its binuclear active site reversibly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1411-1423, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256657

RESUMO

N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is an N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase that catalyses the intracellular deactivation of the endogenous analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). NAAA inhibitors counteract this process and exert marked therapeutic effects in animal models of pain, inflammation and neurodegeneration. While it is known that NAAA preferentially hydrolyses saturated fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), a detailed profile of the relationship between catalytic efficiency and fatty acid-chain length is still lacking. In this report, we combined enzymatic and molecular modelling approaches to determine the effects of acyl chain and polar head modifications on substrate recognition and hydrolysis by NAAA. The results show that, in both saturated and monounsaturated FAEs, the catalytic efficiency is strictly dependent upon fatty acyl chain length, whereas there is a wider tolerance for modifications of the polar heads. This relationship reflects the relative stability of enzyme-substrate complexes in molecular dynamics simulations.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Coelhos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299385

RESUMO

An efficient and simple protocol for the synthesis of a new class of diverse bis(indolyl)pyridines analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin has been reported. A one-pot four-component condensation of 3-cyanocarbomethylindole, various aldehyde, 3-acetylindole, and ammonium acetate in glacial acetic acid led to the formation of 2,6-bis(1H-indol-3-yl)-4-(substituted-phenyl)pyridine-5-carbonitriles. Additionally, 2,6-bis(1H-indol-3-yl)-4-(benzofuran) pyridine-5-carbonitriles were prepared via a one-pot four-component condensation of 3-cyanocarbomethylindole, various N-substituted-indole-3-aldehydes, 2-acetylbenzofuran, and ammonium acetate. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation against the Gram-positive bacterial reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and the Gram-negative strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Some of the new compounds showed a marked selectivity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Remarkably, five compounds 4b, 7a, 7c, 7d and 8e demonstrated good antibiofilm formation against S. aureus and E. coli. On the other hand, the release of reducing sugars and proteins from the treated bacterial strains over the untreated strains was considered to explain the disruption effect of the selected compound on the contact cells of S. aureus and E. coli. Out of all studied compounds, the binding energies and binding mode of bis-indole derivatives 7c and 7d were theoretically the best thymidylate kinase, DNA gyrase B and DNA topoisomerase IV subunit B inhibitors.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Indóis/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Girase/química , DNA Topoisomerase IV/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Núcleosídeo-Fosfato Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/química
17.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 147(1): 62-71, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294374

RESUMO

Owing to the urgent need for therapeutic interventions against the SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we employed an in silico approach to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory potential of newly synthesized imidazoles. The inhibitory potentials of the compounds against SARS-CoV-2 drug targets - main protease (Mpro), spike protein (Spro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were investigated through molecular docking analysis. The binding free energy of the protein-ligand complexes were estimated, pharmacophore models were generated and the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties of the compounds were determined. The compounds displayed various levels of binding affinities for the SARS-CoV-2 drug targets. Bisimidazole C2 scored highest against all the targets, with its aromatic rings including the two imidazole groups contributing to the binding. Among the phenyl-substituted 1H-imidazoles, C9 scored highest against all targets. C11 scored highest against Spro and C12 against Mpro and RdRp among the thiophene-imidazoles. The compounds interacted with HIS 41 - CYS 145 and GLU 288 - ASP 289 - GLU 290 of Mpro, ASN 501 of Spro receptor binding motif and some active site amino acids of RdRp. These novel imidazole compounds could be further developed as drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 following lead optimization and experimental studies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298950

RESUMO

More than 80% of colorectal cancer patients have adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which induce abnormal WNT/ß-catenin activation. Tankyrase (TNKS) mediates the release of active ß-catenin, which occurs regardless of the ligand that translocates into the nucleus by AXIN degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, TNKS inhibition has emerged as an attractive strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we identified pyridine derivatives by evaluating in vitro TNKS enzyme activity and investigated N-([1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3-yl)-1-(2-cyanophenyl)piperidine-4-carboxamide (TI-12403) as a novel TNKS inhibitor. TI-12403 stabilized AXIN2, reduced active ß-catenin, and downregulated ß-catenin target genes in COLO320DM and DLD-1 cells. The antitumor activities of TI-12403 were confirmed by the viability of the colorectal cancer cells and its lack of visible toxicity in DLD-1 xenograft mouse model. In addition, combined 5-FU and TI-12403 treatment synergistically inhibited proliferation to a greater extent than that in a single drug treatment. Our observations suggest that TI-12403, a novel selective TNKS1 inhibitor, may be a suitable compound for anticancer drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas , Tanquirases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tanquirases/metabolismo , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109576, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252406

RESUMO

Aldose reductase (AR) acts as a multi-disease target for the design and development of therapeutic agents for the management of diabetic complications as well as non-diabetic diseases. In the search for potent AR inhibitors, the microwave-assisted synthesis of twenty new compounds with a 1,3-diaryl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline moiety as a common fragment in their structure (1-20) was carried out efficiently. Compounds 1-20 were subjected to in vitro studies, which were conducted to assess their AR inhibitory effects and cytotoxicity towards L929 mouse fibroblast (normal) cells. Among these compounds, 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-(4-piperidinophenyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (20) was identified as the most promising AR inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.160 ± 0.005 µM exerting competitive inhibition with a Ki value of 0.019 ± 0.001 µM as compared to epalrestat (IC50 = 0.279 ± 0.001 µM; Ki = 0.801 ± 0.023 µM) and quercetin (IC50 = 4.120 ± 0.123 µM; Ki = 6.082 ± 0.272 µM). Compound 20 displayed cytotoxicity towards L929 cells with an IC50 value of 18.75 ± 1.06 µM highlighting its safety as an AR inhibitor. Molecular docking studies suggested that π-π stacking interactions occurred between the m-bromophenyl moiety of compound 20 and Trp21. Based on in silico pharmacokinetic studies, compound 20 was found to possess favorable oral bioavailability and drug-like properties. It can be concluded that compound 20 is a potential orally bioavailable AR inhibitor for the management of diabetic complications as well as non-diabetic diseases.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Fármacos , Micro-Ondas , Pirazóis/síntese química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Aldeído Redutase/química , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203179

RESUMO

In this study, a polydopamine (PDA)-modified hollow fiber-immobilized xanthine oxidase (XOD) was prepared for screening potential XOD inhibitors from flavonoids. Several parameters for the preparation of PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD, including the dopamine concentration, modification time, XOD concentration and immobilization time, were optimized. The results show that the optimal conditions for immobilized XOD activity were a dopamine concentration of 2.0 mg/mL in 10.0 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5), a modification time of 3.0 h, an XOD concentration of 1000 µg/mL in 10.0 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and an immobilization time of 3.0 h. Subsequently, the enzymatic reaction conditions such as the pH value and temperature were investigated, and the enzyme kinetics and inhibition parameters were determined. The results indicate that the optimal pH value (7.5) and temperature (37 °C) of the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD were consistent with the free enzyme. Moreover, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD could still maintain above 50% of its initial immobilized enzyme activity after seven consecutive cycles. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of allopurinol on the immobilized XOD were determined as 0.25 mM and 23.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD was successfully applied to evaluate the inhibitory activity of eight flavonoids. Quercetin, apigenin, puerarin and epigallocatechin showed a good inhibition effect, and their percentages of inhibition were (79.86 ± 3.50)%, (80.98 ± 0.64)%, (61.15 ± 6.26)% and (54.92 ± 0.41)%, respectively. Finally, molecular docking analysis further verified that these four active compounds could bind to the amino acid residues in the XOD active site. In summary, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD is an efficient method for the primary screening of XOD inhibitors from natural products.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Flavonoides/química , Indóis/química , Polímeros/química , Xantina Oxidase , Enzimas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/química
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