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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have suggested that there might be an association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the development of hypomagnesemia, although the conclusions were no definitive. METHODS: To provide an update on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of all observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the development of hypomagnesemia. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1970 to June 2018) to identify observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the incidence and prevalence of hypomagnesemia. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: In the absence of randomized controlled trials, we focused primarily on observational studies, including cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective, and prospective cohort studies. There was no limitation on sample size or study duration. Random-effect models meta-analyses were used to compute pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for binary variables. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies were identified, including 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, and 1 cohort study, with a total of 131,507 patients. The pooled percentage of PPI users was 43.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0%, 64.0%). Among PPI users, 19.4% (95% CI 13.8%, 26.5%) had hypomagnesemia compared to 13.5% (95% CI 7.9%, 22.2%) among nonusers. By meta-analysis, PPI use was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, with a pooled unadjusted OR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.26, 2.67; P = .002) and a pooled adjusted OR of 1.71 (95% CI 1.33, 2.19; P < .001). In subgroup analyses, high-dose PPI use was associated with higher odds for hypomagnesemia relative to low-dose PPI use (pooled adjusted OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.26, 3.59; P = .005). CONCLUSION: Our findings are in support of the results of the previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, we found a dose-response between the PPI use and development of hypomagnesemia.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Magnésio/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência de Magnésio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(661): 1551-1555, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496188

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have long been considered as devoid of any toxicity, but recent studies have uncovered significant potential side effects related to long-term use. In addition, stopping treatment with PPI may cause a symptomatic rebound effect of acid production. This article reviews the current literature on strategies for rationalizing their use, limiting potential adverse effects and progressive discontinuation.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
4.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1043-1053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498687

RESUMO

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. However, concerns are growing about the serious adverse events and mortality linked to their long-term use. Areas covered: The authors review the main approved clinical indications and adverse events associated with PPIs, including, among others, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, kidney diseases, and several nutrient deficiencies. Recent studies have reported that patients taking PPIs displayed increased mortality, linked to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal malignancies, and chronic kidney diseases. Expert opinion: PPIs represent an important advance in the medical treatment of acid-related diseases. PPIs have contributed to profound reductions in hospitalizations and mortality due to upper GI complications. However, concern is growing about the wide range of potentially serious adverse events and mortality linked to chronic PPI use. Nevertheless, the level of evidence on adverse events is low; it is based on observational studies, and most findings have not been confirmed in the limited number of clinical trials available. PPI overuse and off-label prescriptions must be eradicated, but long-term PPI use for clear indications must continue, until we have stronger evidence to support claims of serious adverse events and mortality.


Assuntos
Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
5.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(5): 539-544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefits and risks of stress ulcer prevention (SUP) using proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for critical patients. METHODS: The clinical data of adult critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients who were treated with PPI for SUP within the first 48 hours after ICU admission were enrolled in the SUP group. Those who not received PPI were enrolled in the control group. A one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for potential biases. The gender, age, underlying diseases, main diagnosis of ICU, drug use before ICU admission, sequential organ failure score (SOFA) at ICU admission, risk factors of stress ulcer (SU) and PPI usage were recorded. The end point was the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding, hospital acquired pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection and 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted, and survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test. RESULTS: 1 972 critical patients (788 in the SUP group and 1 184 in the control group) were enrolled, and each group enrolled 358 patients after PSM. Prior to PSM, compared with the control group, the SUP group had older patients, more underlying diseases, higher proportion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute cerebrovascular disease, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and poisoning in main diagnosis of ICU, more serious illness, and more risk factors of SU, indicating that ICU physicians were more likely to prescribe SUP for these patients. The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in the SUP group was significantly lower than that in the control group [1.8% (14/788) vs. 3.7% (44/1 184), P < 0.05], while the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia and 30-day mortality were significantly higher than those in the control group [6.6% (52/788) vs. 3.5% (42/1 184), 17.9% (141/788) vs. 13.1% (155/1 184), both P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection between the SUP group and the control group [2.9% (23/788) vs. 1.8% (21/1 184), P > 0.05]. After the propensity scores for age, underlying diseases, severity of illness and SU risk factors were matched, there was no significant difference in the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding or 30-day mortality between the SUP group and the control group [2.2% (8/358) vs. 3.4% (12/358), 15.9% (57/358) vs. 13.7% (49/358), both P > 0.05], but the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia in the SUP group was still significantly higher than that in the control group [6.7% (24/358) vs. 3.1% (11/358), P < 0.05]. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the 30-day cumulative survival rate of the SUP group was significantly lower than that of the control group before the PSM (log-rank test: χ2 = 9.224, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the 30-day cumulative survival rate between the two groups after PSM (log-rank test: χ2 = 0.773, P = 0.379). CONCLUSIONS: For critical patients, the use of PPI for SUP could not significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and mortality, but increase the risk of hospital acquired pneumonia.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060319

RESUMO

The number of patients with gastroesophageal problems taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing. Several studies suggested a possible association between PPIs and fracture risk, especially hip fractures, but the relationship remains contentious. This review aimed to investigate the longitudinal studies published in the last five years on the relationship between PPIs and fracture risk. The mechanism underlying this relationship was also explored. Overall, PPIs were positively associated with elevated fracture risk in multiple studies (n = 14), although some studies reported no significant relationship (n = 4). Increased gastrin production and hypochlorhydria are the two main mechanisms that affect bone remodeling, mineral absorption, and muscle strength, contributing to increased fracture risk among PPI users. As a conclusion, there is a potential relationship between PPIs and fracture risks. Therefore, patients on long-term PPI treatment should pay attention to bone health status and consider prophylaxis to decrease fracture risk.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Quadril/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência
8.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(7): 1705-1711, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capecitabine is a commonly used oral chemotherapy agent. Recent data suggest that concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors may reduce the efficacy of capecitabine by decreasing its absorption through increased gastric pH. Since proton pump inhibitors are widely used, we evaluated the supportive evidence for the probability of occurrence and potential seriousness of this drug interaction. METHODS: The probability of occurrence was evaluated based on the clinical, pharmacokinetic and in vitro evidence using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale. The possibility of seriousness was assessed based on the potential impact on the therapeutic intent of capecitabine therapy. RESULTS: The probability of occurrence of the interaction is doubtful. Clinical findings from two retrospective post hoc analyses showed inconsistent trends towards reduced survival. Pharmacokinetics studies found no significant decrease in systemic capecitabine level with concurrent gastric acid suppression with antacid or food intake. In vitro data do not support the proposed mechanism of reduced capecitabine absorption due to increased gastric pH. The possibility of seriousness varies depending on the treatment intent of capecitabine therapy. The most and least serious possible outcome would be reduced possibility of cure or survival and symptom control, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the possible outcome may be serious, the probability of interaction between capecitabine and proton pump inhibitors is doubtful. Therefore, we suggest that intervention should be limited to minimal change to existing therapy plan. This may include routinely ascertaining the need for proton pump inhibitor use. Alternate acid suppressing agents may be considered based on the therapeutic intent of capecitabine therapy.


Assuntos
Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Interações de Medicamentos , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(5): 345-351, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092056

RESUMO

Introduction: Magnesium is the third most common intracellular ion after potassium and calcium and is an important element in the functions of the body, since it participates in more than 300 enzyme systems. It also, plays a significant role in the transport of calcium and potassium across the cell membranes and protects against cardiac arrhythmias and is useful for their treatment due to hypomagnesemia induced from the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Areas covered: PPIs are used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but have been associated with hypomagnesemia with serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes (TdP). To better understand the magnitude of this problem, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to 2018 and 35 papers with pertinent information were selected. Expert commentary: The review of these papers suggests that PPIs cause hypomagnesemia, which could be associated with serious cardiac arrhythmias including TdP. However, its incidence is not very common considering the millions of people taking PPIs, but the FDA has advised the physicians to be watchful about this serious adverse effect of PPIs and check the magnesium levels before initiation of PPI treatment.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Magnésio/sangue , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente
11.
Drugs ; 79(7): 715-731, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972661

RESUMO

A substantial volume of literature exists linking proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use with a multitude of serious adverse events. There is uncertainty, however, over whether these associations are clinically important. Excessive concern about PPI-related adverse events may leave patients at risk of harm by leaving acid-related upper gastrointestinal disease untreated. Conversely, the risk of treatments may outweigh the benefits if any of the purported adverse events are directly caused by PPI use; this is of particular concern where indications for PPI use are not present. In this paper, we review the studies which have reported associations between adverse events and PPI use, discuss the proposed mechanisms of action, grade the confidence in whether these associations are truly causal, and provide advice regarding balancing the benefits of PPI use against their possible harms.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Interações de Medicamentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Mortalidade , Pneumonia/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações
12.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of patients with iron deficiency anemia have no known cause of their anemia despite a full evaluation. Optimal management and follow-up for this issue is unclear. Results of previous studies have implicated Helicobacter pylori infection as a potential cause of iron deficiency anemia. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether H pylori infection could be a cause of unexplained iron deficiency anemia. METHODS: All adult patients with both unexplained iron deficiency anemia and H pylori infection diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and April 30, 2015 were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northern California's electronic medical records database and were followed-up for up to 2 years. We employed bivariate statistics to analyze demographic and clinical characteristics between H pylori treatment groups (treated and untreated). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the odds of continued presence of anemia at follow-up. RESULTS: Of 508 subjects who fit our inclusion criteria, 408 subjects were treated for H pylori. The median initial level of hemoglobin was 10.5 g/dL and ferritin was 7.0 ng/mL. No difference existed in the continued presence of iron deficiency anemia at follow-up between those treated for H pylori and those not treated (24.3% vs 26.5%, p = 0.71). Both groups had improved levels of hemoglobin (25.4% mean increase in treated vs 27.5% mean increase in untreated) at follow-up. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the findings of previous studies, we found no evidence that H pylori is involved in causing iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia resolved in most subjects regardless of H pylori treatment status.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , California , Causalidade , Claritromicina/efeitos adversos , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(2): 593-599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945510

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may be frequently associated with asthma in children and may affect asthma control. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are commonly prescribed in asthmatic children, despite uncertain efficacy on respiratory symptoms and risk of relevant adverse effects.


Assuntos
Alginatos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/induzido quimicamente , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Alginatos/efeitos adversos , Asma/complicações , Criança , Humanos , Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos
14.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 28(1): 11-14, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Standard 10-day sequential therapy is advised as first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication by current Italian guidelines. Some data suggested that a 14-day regimen may achieve higher eradication rates. This study compared the efficacy of sequential therapy administered for either 10- or 14-days. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, open-label study enrolled patients with H. pylori infection without previous treatment. Patients were receiving a sequential therapy for either 10 or 14 days with esomeprazole 40 mg and amoxicillin 1 g (5 or 7 days) followed by esomeprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg (5 or 7 days), all given twice daily. Bacterial eradication was checked using 13C-urea breath test. Eradication cure rates were calculated at both Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS: A total of 291 patients were enrolled, including 146 patients in 10-day and 145 in the 14-day regimen. The eradication rates were 87% (95% CI = 81.5-92.4) and 90.3% (95% CI = 85.5-95.1) at ITT analysis with the 10- and 14-day regimen, respectively, and 92.7% (95% CI = 88.3-97) and 97% (95% CI = 94.2-99.9) at PP analysis (p =0.37). Among patients, who earlier had interrupted therapy, bacterial eradication was achieved in 8 out of 9 who completed the first therapy phase and performed at least >/=3 days of triple therapy in the second phase. CONCLUSION: This study found that both 10- and 14-day sequential therapies achieved a high eradication rate for first-line H. pylori therapy in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Claritromicina/administração & dosagem , Esomeprazol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Tinidazol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Carga Bacteriana , Claritromicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Esomeprazol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tinidazol/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(3)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818850

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) has shown a large range (38⁻83%) of diagnostic yield in unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and obscure-occult bleeding. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the VCE-detected spectrum and the prevalence of small bowel injuries and associated risk factors in inpatients with both of the above reported conditions. Methods: We selected inpatients with IDA (hemoglobin <12 g/dL in women, <13 g/dL in men) and obscure-occult bleeding. We excluded VCE indications other than IDA. Complete medical histories and laboratory tests were collected. All subjects underwent PillCam SB2/SB3. The VCE feature Lewis score was calculated when appropriate. We used the t-test and Fisher's exact test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively, in univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, we used binomial logistic regression. Results: We retrieved 109 patients (female:male ratio of 53:56; age 63.4 ± 18.9 years). Eighty patients (73.4%) showed ≥1 small bowel lesions. The Lewis score was calculated in 41 patients: 13 (31.7%) showed a mild (<135) and 28 (68.3%) a moderate-severe (135⁻790 and >790, respectively) score. In univariate analysis, the small bowel transit time (6.2 ± 2.9 versus 5.2 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.049) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use for at least two weeks (17.5% versus 0%; p = 0.01) were significantly higher in subjects with injuries. These associations were not confirmed at multivariate analysis. The severity of a lesion directly correlated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and duration (not confirmed in multivariate analysis). VCE can reveal the source of obscure-occult bleeding in a high percentage of unexplained IDAs. A wide spectrum of endoscopic pictures may be found. Known as well as supposed risk factors for small bowel lesions may be detected.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/patologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sangue Oculto , Prevalência , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(5): e13339, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine (type 2) receptor antagonists (H2RA) have the potential to interfere with calcium metabolism. Several authors have evaluated the effect of these medications on fracture incidence in older adults. A recent large epidemiologic study demonstrated a higher risk of fractures in young adults receiving PPI. AIM: To evaluate the effect of PPI and H2RA use on fracture incidence in a large retrospective cohort of military recruits representative of general population of young adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 254 265 male and 234 670 female non-combat military conscripts ages 18-25. Subjects were divided into three groups by PPI use (no PPI use, 1-100 tablets and more than 100 tablets) and two groups by H2RA use (no H2RA use, any H2RA use). Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust fracture risk for age, BMI, education level, socio-economic level, ethnic origin, occupation and duration of follow-up in months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At least one fracture during the study period. RESULTS: Use of PPI and H2RA was not associated with an increased risk of fractures. In men, the predictors of an increased fracture risk were higher BMI (OR = 1.007, P < 0.001), origin from a developing country (OR = 1.15, P < 0.001) and service as a driver (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001). Higher education, higher socioeconomic status and service as an officer or as an administrative worker had a protective effect on fracture incidence. In women, fractures were associated with higher BMI (OR = 1.035, P < 0.001). Origin from a developed country, as well as service as an officer or an administrative worker was associated with lower fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between the use of PPI or H2-antagonists and fracture incidence in this retrospective cohort of healthy young military recruits.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(2): 129-140, 2019 Feb 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818941

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the impact of dual antiplatelet (DAPT) therapy combining with or without proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on the main outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature and the references obtained from these sources were retrieved manually from inception till September 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established follow the Cochrane review standard. A total of 977 literatures were included, 193 duplicates were excluded, 74 reviews, case reports, letters and systematic reviews were excluded, 667 literatures were excluded after reading the title and abstract, 34 literatures were excluded due to non-randomized control studies and unrelated outcome indicators, and 9 literatures were finally included with a total of 16 589 patients. RevMan 5.3 software was used to compare the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiogenic death, recurrent myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, all-cause death, stent thrombosis, stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding and gastrointestinal events in patients with DAPT combining with or without PPI after PCI. Results: MACE was observed in 8 out of the 9 included literatures, and the results showed that MACE occurred in 561 out of 6 282 patients receiving DAPT combining with PPI therapy and in 951 out of 9 632 patients using DAPT alone (OR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.51, P>0.05). Cardiogenic death was observed in 7 out of the 9 included literatures, and the results showed that cardiogenic death occurred in 172 out of 6 453 patients receiving DAPT combining with PPI treatment and in 321 out of the 9 839 patients using DAPT alone (OR=0.97, 95%CI 0.80-1.18, P>0.05). Recurrent myocardial infarction was observed in 7 out of the 9 included literatures, the results showed 416 out of 6 282 cases in DAPT combining with PPI therapy group experienced recurrent myocardial infarction and 691 out of 9 632 cases in DAPT group experienced recurrent myocardial infarction (OR=1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.16, P>0.05). Four out of 9 literatures observed revascularization. The results showed that revascularization was performed in 64 out of 2 173 patients receiving DAPT combining with PPI therapy and in 105 out of the 2 770 patients using DAPT alone (OR=1.33, 95%CI 0.55-3.24, P>0.05). All-cause death was observed in 7 out of the 9 included literatures, and the results showed that all-cause death occurred in 172 out of the 6 453 patients in DAPT combining with PPI therapy group and in 321 out of the 9 839 patients using DAPT alone (OR=0.97, 95%CI 0.80-1.18, P>0.05). Three out of the 9 included articles observed stent thrombosis, and the results showed that stent thrombosis occurred in 99 out of 2 997 patients receiving DAPT combining with PPI therapy and in 245 out of the 6 198 patients treated with DAPT (OR=1.07, 95%CI 0.83-1.37, P>0.05). Stroke was observed in 2 out of the 9 included literatures. The results showed that stroke occurred in 5 out of 2 019 patients receiving DAPT combining with PPI therapy, and in 4 out of the 2 033 patients treated with DAPT (OR=1.00, 95%CI 0.29-3.49, P>0.05). Gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in 6 out of the 9 included literatures. The results showed that gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 26 out of 3 517 patients receiving DAPT combined with PPI therapy, and in 93 out of the 3 506 patients treated with DAPT, gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly lower in the DAPT combining with PPI group than DAPT alone group (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.41, P<0.01). Gastrointestinal events were reported in 6 out of the 9 included articles. Similarly, gastrointestinal events were observed in 51 out of 3 517 patients receiving DAPT combined with PPI therapy, and in 190 out of the 3 506 patients treated with DAPT alone, the incidence of gastrointestinal events in the DAPT combined with PPI group was significantly lower than DAPT alone group (OR=0.24, 95%CI 0.14-0.42, P<0.01). Conclusions: The incidence of MACE, cardiogenic death, recurrent myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, all-cause death, stent thrombosis and stroke are not affected by DAPT combined with PPI therapy after PCI, while the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and gastrointestinal events could be reduced by adding PPI to DAPT in patients undergoing PCI.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Trombose , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Intern Med ; 58(13): 1871-1875, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918177

RESUMO

A 51-year-old woman had been taking proton pump inhibitor since August 2008. In May, 2016, endoscopic findings showed no atrophy and no intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and multiple fundic gland polyps were identified in the stomach. A biopsy of a pedunculated polyp measuring 10 millimeters in diameter at the greater curvature of the middle gastric body demonstrated well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. In July 2016, we treated this lesion and two other semipedunculated polyps located near the first polyp and also measuring 10 mm in diameter by endoscopic mucosal resection. The final diagnosis of all lesions was a fundic gland polyp with low grade dysplasia and the cutting end was negative.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Pólipos/induzido quimicamente , Pólipos/cirurgia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(13): e15004, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921218

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) remains a persistent challenge, with substantially increased incidence and severity. The rising burden of CDAD requires urgent identification of preventable risk factors. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 77-year-old man with the symptoms of abdominal pain and watery diarrhea was readmitted to the hospital, who received cephalosporins and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) during the initial hospitalization for 12 days until discharge. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea was seriously suspected. And the stool sample was immediately sent for inspection for C difficile. He had a history of chronic bronchitis, coronary heart disease, and osteonecrosis. DIAGNOSIS: CDAD, renal insufficiency INTERVENTIONS:: Oral vancomycin was administered for 14 days. OUTCOMES: On the third day after readmission, the stool sample turned out to be positive for both C difficile toxin and its antigen. After 10-day treatment with vancomycin, diarrhea symptoms disappeared and his stools became normal. LESSONS: In elderly patients with multiple comorbidities, PPIs must be administered cautiously to minimize the risk for adverse effects including CDAD. It is important to identify the preventable risk factors of CDAD for clinicians and pharmacists. Oral vancomycin therapy seems to be effective in CDAD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clostridium difficile , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
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