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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22454, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combined therapy of Chinese herbal formula and western medicine against gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) could significantly improve the clinical effect, reduce the recurrence rate and the side effects of western medicine, and even reduce the dosage and course of treatment of western medicine. This study tried to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine in the treatment of GERD. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine for GERD patients will be systematically searched using the PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Chinese Biological and Medical database (CMB) until Aug. 28, 2020. Two researchers will perform data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently. Statistical analysis will be conducted in RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: This study will summarize the present evidence by exploring the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine in the treatment of GERD. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study will help to determine potential benefits of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine against GERD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also will not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval is not required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/RSAVF.


Assuntos
Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Antiácidos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 672-676, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878412

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common digestive disease with characteristics of a multitude of pathogenesis, a variety of clinical manifestations and a strong negative impact on physical and mental health of the patients. GERD is classified into non-erosive reflux disease and reflux esophagitis in terms of absence or presence of mucosal damage at endoscopic findings. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are widely used in the treatment of GERD, especially for patients with non-erosive reflux disease or mild reflux esophagitis. However, PPI do not affect pathophysiologic mechanisms of GERD or reduce the number of reflux events. When PPI fails to adequately control the symptoms of GERD as a result of gastroesophagel junction structural defects, the antireflux surgical procedures are indicated to create a mechanical barrier to reflux. The laparoscopic fundoplication remains the most commonly performed and is the current "gold-standard" anti-reflux procedure. The outcomes of the antireflux surgical procedures are superior to medical therapy for GERD in light of subjective symptoms, objective examinations, quality of life and patient satisfaction. As of now, enough attention has not been paid to the traditional surgical procedures of GERD in China. It is controversial about which is optimal among the three major types of procedures, selection should be tailored to classification, mechanism, age, mental status and esophageal motility. GERD is a chronic disease and either medical or surgical therapy may put the patient at different risk, therefore the patient's preferences should be considered adequately before choosing the treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , China , Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite Péptica/etiologia , Esofagite Péptica/cirurgia , Fundoplicatura , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 691-696, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878416

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the preliminary clinical efficacy of Chinese magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods: According to the enrollment criteria for the MSA developed by ShengJieKang Co. and Shanghai Chest Hospital (SS-MSA) clinical trial, a total of 19 GERD patients were treated with SS-MSA from August 2018 to January 2020 at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The majority of registered cases were male patients with age of (32.2±7.3) years (range: 22 to 50 years), height of (170.7±6.2) cm (range: 160 to 179 cm) and weight of (65.2±10.3) kg (range: 47.5 to 90.0 kg). SS-MSA was implanted via laparoscopy. The major evaluation indexs of postoperative efficacy were the total time of acid exposure within 24 hours and the total number of reflux. Secondary efficacy indicators included: (1) evaluation of the average daily dose of proton pump inhibitor medications; (2) the score of GERD health related quality of life questionnaire (GERD-Q) before and after MSA implantation. Paired design t-test was used to evaluate the efficacy of the SS-MSA. Results: A total of 19 patients underwent SS-MSA surgery successfully. The history of the GERD were 19 (54) months (M(Q(R))). The operation time was 63 (22) minutes and the in-hospital stay was 3 (2) days. No obvious surgical complications occurred. Postoperative adverse events included 14 cases with mild to moderate dysphagia exited after surgery, gradually eased within 1 to 3 months, 1 case with the removal of the device after 1 month of severe swallowing difficulties, 1 case of diarrhea. No corrosion, perforation, displacement occurred. The GERD-Q score (11.0(4.5) vs. 6(1.0), t=4.274, P=0.013), 24-hour acid exposure time (6.2(4.8)% vs. 0.1(0.9)%, t=5.814, P=0.004), and Demeester score (23.72(16.20) vs. 0.96(3.10), t=6.678, P=0.003) were significantly decreased 1 year after surgery(n=5). Proton pump inhibitor reuse rates were 6/18, 5/15, 3/10, and 1/5 in 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the operation, respectively. Conclusions: SS-MSA implantation is feasible and safe with short hospital stay and rare perioperative complications. The preliminary results is good after 1 year follow-up. It could be expected to be an ideal substitutive for future GERD treatment.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Terapia de Campo Magnético , Adulto , China , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/cirurgia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 871-889, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981623

RESUMO

Massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition that can result from numerous causes and requires skilled resuscitation to decrease patient morbidity and mortality. Successful resuscitation begins with placement of large-bore intravenous or intraosseous access; early blood product administration; and early consultation with a gastroenterologist, interventional radiologist, and/or surgeon. Activate a massive transfusion protocol when initial red blood cell transfusion does not restore effective perfusion or the patient's shock index is greater than 1.0. Promptly reverse coagulopathies secondary to oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Use thromboelastography or rotational thromboelastometry to guide further transfusions. Secure a definitive airway and minimize aspiration.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Oclusão com Balão , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Cateteres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Anamnese , Exame Físico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Ressuscitação , Tromboelastografia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 301-304, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877065

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Clinical manifestations are not specific in the course of H. pylori infection in children and in most cases the infection is asymptomatic. The initial diagnosis is based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy-based methods (culture, PCR, histology and rapid urease test). Treatment should be based on the results of the antibiotic (particularly clarithromycin) susceptibility testing of the isolated strains (antibiogram and/or PCR) with a good therapeutic adherence more than 90%. Finally, according to the last pediatric recommendations the treatment duration is 14 days for the triple therapy (proton pump inhibitor + two antibiotics).


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21758, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common and troublesome condition. This paper reports a rare case of gastroesophageal reflux disease caused by ectopic biliary drainage accompanying the absence of a pyloric channel and duodenal bulb in a female patient with multiple underlying malformations. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 24-year-old female presented with acid regurgitation and abdominal pain for one month. She was born two weeks premature and with blindness of the right eye. Cardiac murmur was detected in the physical examination. DIAGNOSIS: Gastroendoscopy was performed, and a class D reflux esophagitis and ectopic papilla complicated with the absence of a pyloric channel and duodenal bulb were found. Doppler echocardiography further confirmed the defects of atrial and ventricular septa. Trio-based whole exome sequencing was performed on the proband and her family to find the potential association of multiple variations. However, no putative pathogenic mutations were found. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received proton pump inhibitors and prokinetic treatment and underwent surgical repair of septal defects. OUTCOMES: The symptoms were quickly relieved, and the patient was kept stable upon follow-up. CONCLUSION: The combination of an absent pylorus and ectopic papilla is a rare cause of reflux esophagitis. Unusual gastrointestinal anatomical variations may be accompanied by other malformations. Though no remarkable mutation were detected in this case, sequencing is an efficient technique worth full consideration.


Assuntos
Ampola Hepatopancreática/anormalidades , Esofagite Péptica/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Cegueira/congênito , Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Gastroscopia , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21488, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies have pointed to a rising prevalence of celiac disease in recent decades. Changes in diet and use of medication that may impact the gut microbiome have been suggested as potential contributors. Exposure to protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) was recently found to be associated with an increased risk for subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. We aimed to investigate potential mechanisms for this link by examining the relationship between PPI use and gluten-related immune responses in the context of changes in gut microbiome. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of blood and fecal samples from a recent randomized trial in order to assess the potential association between PPI use and development of celiac disease serology in conjunction with alterations in gastrointestinal microbial composition. The study included 12 healthy participants who were administered a PPI (Omeprazole; 40 mg twice daily) for 4 or 8 weeks. RESULTS: The analysis did not reveal an overall significant change in levels of serologic markers of celiac disease for the study cohort in response to PPI treatment. However, one individual developed a marked increase in the celiac disease-specific autoantibody response to transglutaminase 2 in conjunction with enhanced immune reactivity to gluten during the trial. Genotyping revealed positivity for the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. Furthermore, the observed elevation in antibody responses was closely associated with a sharp increase in fecal abundance of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory analysis support further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in the contribution of PPIs to celiac disease risk through the potential enhancement of gluten immunopathology and changes in gut microbial population.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Actinomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Alelos , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genótipo , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Glutens/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DQ/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Transglutaminases/sangue , Transglutaminases/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 69-80, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978931

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common problem in the community. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Physicians of India have developed this evidence-based practice guideline for management of GERD in adults. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus containing 43 statements, which were generated by electronic voting iteration as well as face-to-face meeting, and review of the supporting literature primarily from India. These statements include 4 on epidemiology, 9 on clinical presentation, 11 on investigations, 18 on treatment (including medical, endoscopic, and surgical modalities), and one on complications of GERD. The statement was regarded as accepted when the proportion of those who voted either to accept completely or with minor reservation was 80% or higher. The prevalence of GERD in large population-based studies in India is approximately 10% and is probably increasing due to lifestyle changes and increase in obesity. The diagnosis of GERD in the community should be mainly based on presence of classical symptoms like heartburn and sour regurgitation, and empiric treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or H2 receptor antagonist should be given. All PPIs in equipotent doses are similar in their efficacy in the management of symptoms. Patients in whom symptoms do not respond adequately to PPI are regarded as having PPIrefractory GERD. Invasive investigations should be limited to patients with alarm symptoms and those with refractory GERD.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Adulto , Consenso , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
12.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(9): 706-710, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838502

RESUMO

Objective: Long-term proton pump inhibitor(PPI) therapy may increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth(SIBO). Few studies on the effect of on-demand and continuous PPI therapy are available in elderly. To investigate the prevalence of SIBO and the effect of on-demand and continuous PPI therapy on SIBO in elderly. Methods: A total of 200 elderly outpatients admitted to Department of Gastroenterology at the Second Medical Center of PLA General Hospital were enrolled and divided into 3 groups: continuous PPI group, on-demand PPI group and control group. SIBO was diagnosed according to methane and hydrogen lactulose breath test (LBT).The prevalence of SIBO in the 3 groups was analyzed. Results: The prevalence of SIBO was 71.5% in 200 elderly. PPI therapy and diabetes mellitus (DM) were independent risk factors for SIBO. The prevalence of SIBO was 77.1% (108/140) in elderly who underwent long-term PPI therapy and 58.3% (35/60) in those without PPI therapy (P<0.01).The prevalence of SIBO was significantly higher in continuous PPI therapy group than that in on-demand PPI group and control group(88.6% vs. 65.7% and 58.3%, all P<0.01).However, no significant difference was found in the prevalence of SIBO between on-demand PPI group and control group (P>0.05). In elderly who underwent long-term PPI therapy, the prevalence of SIBO increased significantly if administration time was longer than 61 months. Conclusions: SIBO usually occurs in elderly patients who receive continuous PPI rather than on-demand use. If elderly require long-term PPI therapy, on demand administration is suggested as long as primary diseases are properly treated.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes Respiratórios , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Lactulose
13.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 33(2): e1506, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acid inhibition from chronic proton pump inhibitor use and a possible increase in gastrin can lead to changes in the regulation of hydrochloric acid production. However, it has not known whether such chronic use changes the presence of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach or the relationship between gastrin and delta cells. AIM: To analyze the number of gastrin-producing gastrin cells, somatostatin-producing cells, and histamine-producing cells in patients who were chronic users of proton pump inhibitor, with or without related Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Biopsies from 105 patients, including 81 chronic proton pump inhibitor users (experimental group) and 24 controls, were processed immunohistochemically and subjected to counting of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in high-magnification microscopic fields and in 10 glands. RESULTS: Gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cells counts were similar across the groups and appeared to be unaffected by Helicobacter pylori infection. The ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells was higher in the chronic users of proton pump inhibitor group than in controls. CONCLUSION: Chronic users of proton pump inhibitor does not affect gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cell counts significantly, but may alter the ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells.


Assuntos
Celulas Tipo Enterocromafim/metabolismo , Gastrinas/sangue , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Celulas Tipo Enterocromafim/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrinas/fisiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estômago , Gastropatias/sangue
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 913-917, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the frequency of prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their indications in patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HC-UFU). METHODS This is a quantitative cross-sectional observational study that analyzes data obtained from patient records on prescriptions of PPIs for patients hospitalized at the HC-UFU and from a questionnaire applied to assistant physicians on the indications of the drug in each case and evaluates the indication based on literature data. RESULTS On a pre-determined day, of a total of 462 inpatients, there was a prescription of PPI for 183 (39.3%), with a higher frequency (73.5%) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), followed by the infirmaries and the Emergency Room. The assistant physician was located in 116 cases, and the main motivation referred to prescription was prophylaxis of digestive hemorrhage (77%). However, after reviewing medical records, it was noticed that in 50.8% of the cases, the prescription was not supported by the literature. CONCLUSION The frequency of PPI prescriptions for inpatients in the HC-UFU is among the lowest described in the literature, but there are still unnecessary prescriptions. Instruction and awareness of the assisting team can minimize these numbers.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791616

RESUMO

Objective:To evaluate the anti-reflux treatment efficacy for the chronic pharyngitis patients with the reflux finding score(RFS) from 8-10. Method:One hundred and twelve patients with clinical diagnosis of chronic pharyngitis and RFS score of 8-10 were randomly divided into control and treatment groups. The treantment group was given the proton pump inhibitors, gastrointestinal motility drugs and the traditional Chinese patent drugs(treatment group). The control group was given only the traditional Chinese patent drugs(control group). Result:The visual analogue scale(VAS) of the patients in treatment group declined significantly after treatment. The efficacy of treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group(77.36% vs 30.61%, P<0.01). Conclusion:For the patients with chronic pharyngitis with RFS 8-10, anti-reflux treatment should be used together with traditional Chinese patent drugs.


Assuntos
Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2429-2436, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839869

RESUMO

Patients receiving vinca alkaloids for hematological malignancies frequently experience constipation that is unresponsive to laxatives. Research on treatment of vinca alkaloid-induced constipation is limited. This study aimed to determine whether the chloride channel activator lubiprostone ameliorates vinca alkaloid-induced constipation in patients with hematological malignancies. In this retrospective cohort study, vinca alkaloid-induced constipation (grade ≥ 3 using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) was investigated in patients treated for hematological malignancies between July 2014 and June 2019 who had already been prescribed osmotic laxatives and additionally received either a stimulant laxative or lubiprostone. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for persistent constipation after introduction of the second laxative. A propensity score model was used to match 67 patients taking a stimulant laxative and 67 treated with lubiprostone, and the occurrence of intractable constipation was compared between groups. Overall, 203 patients were included, among whom 50 (25%) had constipation. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, opioid use, and addition of lubiprostone were independently associated with constipation. Patients treated with lubiprostone were significantly less likely to experience intractable constipation than did those treated with stimulant laxatives (10% vs. 34%, P = 0.002). Moreover, post-constipation diarrhea was significantly less frequent among patients treated with lubiprostone (42% vs. 63%, P = 0.024). Lubiprostone was more effective than stimulant laxatives at treating vinca alkaloid-induced intractable constipation in patients with hematological malignancies, and its use could enable safe vinca alkaloid chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/uso terapêutico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lubiprostona/uso terapêutico , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides de Vinca/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Famotidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Laxantes/farmacologia , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Óxido de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Pontuação de Propensão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Senosídeos/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides de Vinca/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013113, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and progressive disease characterised by chronic cough, airflow limitation and recurrent exacerbations. Since COPD exacerbations are linked to rising mortality and reduced quality of life, the condition poses a substantial burden on individuals, society and the healthcare system. Effective management of COPD exacerbations that includes treatment of related conditions in people with COPD is thus recognised as a relevant clinical question and an important research topic. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a known comorbidity of COPD, and pulmonary microaspiration of gastric acid is thought to be a possible cause of COPD exacerbations. Therefore, reducing gastric acid secretion may lead to a reduction in COPD exacerbations. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed medications and are recommended as first-line therapy for people with GERD because of their inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion. Treatment with PPIs may present a viable treatment option for people with COPD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PPI administration for people with COPD, focusing on COPD-specific outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Register of Trials and conventional clinical trial registers from inception to 22 May 2020. We also screened bibliographies of relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Parallel-group and cluster-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral PPIs versus placebo, usual care or low-dose PPIs in adults with COPD were eligible for inclusion. We excluded cross-over RCTs, as well as studies with a duration of less than two months. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent review authors screened search results, selected studies for inclusion, extracted study characteristics and outcome data, and assessed risk of bias according to standard Cochrane methodology. We resolved discrepancies by involving a third review author. Primary outcomes of interest were COPD exacerbations, pneumonia and other serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, lung function test indices, acute respiratory infections and disease-specific adverse events. We extracted data on these outcome measures and entered into them into Review Manager software for analysis. MAIN RESULTS: The search identified 99 records, and we included one multicentre RCT that randomised 103 adults with COPD. The 12-month RCT compared an oral PPI (lansoprazole) and usual care versus usual care alone. It was conducted at one tertiary care hospital and three secondary care hospitals in Japan. This study recruited participants with a mean age of 75 years, and excluded people with symptoms or history of GERD. No placebo was used in the usual care arm. Among the primary and secondary outcomes of this review, the study only reported data on COPD exacerbations and acute respiratory infections (the common cold). As we only included one study, we could not conduct a meta-analysis. The included study reported that 12 of the 50 people on lansoprazole had at least one exacerbation over a year, compared to 26 out of 50 on usual care (risk ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.81). The frequency of COPD exacerbations per person in a year was also lower in the PPI plus usual care group than in the usual care alone group(0.34 ± 0.72 vs 1.18 ± 1.40; P < 0.001). The number of people with at least one cold over the year was similar in both groups: 26 people on lansoprazole and 27 people in the usual care group. We judged the evidence to be of low to very low certainty, according to GRADE criteria. The study reported no data on pneumonia and other serious adverse events, quality of life, lung function test indices or disease-specific adverse events. The risk of bias was largely low or unclear for the majority of domains, though the performance bias was a high risk, as the study was not blinded. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence identified by this review is insufficient to determine whether treatment with PPIs is a potential option for COPD. The sample size of the included trial is small, and the evidence is low to very low-certainty. The efficacy and safety profile of PPIs for people with COPD remains uncertain. Future large-scale, high-quality studies are warranted, which investigate major clinical outcomes such as COPD exacerbation rate, serious adverse events and quality of life.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Lansoprazol/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm the association between the risk of fracture and proton pump inhibitor use and to establish evidence for defining a high-risk group of patients among proton pump inhibitor users. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed using data from the National Health Insurance Sharing Service database from the period January 2007 to December 2017. The study population included elderly women aged ≥65 years with claims for peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The cases were all incidental osteoporotic fractures, and up to two controls were matched to each case by age, osteoporosis, and Charlson comorbidity index. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 21,754 cases were identified, and 43,508 controls were matched to the cases. The adjusted odds ratio of osteoporotic fractures related to the use of proton pump inhibitors was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.11-1.20). There was a statistically significant interaction between proton pump inhibitor and bisphosphonate use (p<0.01). The risk of fracture in patients using proton pump inhibitors was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08-1.92) in bisphosphonate users and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) in bisphosphonate non-users. CONCLUSION: Concomitant use of bisphosphonates and proton pump inhibitors will likely increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures in women aged 65 and over, and caution should be exercised in this high-risk group of patients.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Intern Med ; 59(14): 1677-1685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669514

RESUMO

Objective The association between frailty and abdominal symptoms has not been evaluated. Methods We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive outpatients ≥65 years old at the Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center from 2017 to 2019. Patients were included in the study if all of the following information was available from their medical records: patient's profile, the evaluation of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, frailty, nutritional status, findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and questionnaire results for abdominal symptoms [Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG) and Constipation Scoring System (CSS)]. We divided the subjects into frailty and non-frailty groups and investigated the risk factors for frailty. Results Of the 313 eligible study subjects [134 men (42.8%) and 179 women (57.2%); mean age, 75.7±6.0 years; mean body mass index, 22.8±3.6 kg/m2], frailty was noted in 71 cases (22.7%). In a univariate analysis, an older age (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.010), successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori (p=0.049), proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (p<0.001), laxative/prokinetics use (p=0.008), sarcopenia (p<0.001), osteoporosis (p<0.001), hypozincemia (p=0.002), hypoalbuminemia (p<0.001), low lymphocytes (p=0.004), a high CONUT score (p<0.001), a high FSSG score (p=0.001), and a high CSS score (p<0.001) were significantly associated with frailty. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an older age [odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.24, p<0.001], PPI use (OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.18-4.98, p=0.016), sarcopenia (OR 7.35; 95% CI 3.30-16.40, p<0.001), hypozincemia (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.027), a high FSSG score (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p=0.021), and a high CSS score (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.03-1.23, p=0.007) were significantly associated with frailty. Conclusion Advanced age, PPI user, sarcopenia, hypozincemia, a high FSSG score, and high CSS score are associated with frailty.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Fragilidade , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Zinco/deficiência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Osteoporose/complicações , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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