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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 211-226, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760822

RESUMO

Pursuing the widespread interest on multi-target drugs to combat Alzheimer´s disease (AD), a new series of hybrids was designed and developed based on the repositioning of the well-known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, tacrine (TAC), by its coupling to benzofuran (BF) derivatives. The BF framework aims to endow the conjugate molecules with ability for inhibition of AChE (bimodal way) and of amyloid-beta peptide aggregation, besides providing metal (Fe, Cu) chelating ability and concomitant extra anti-oxidant activity, for the hybrids with hydroxyl substitution. The new TAC-BF conjugates showed very good activity for AChE inhibition (sub-micromolar range) and good capacity for the inhibition of self- and Cu-mediated Aß aggregation, with dependence on the linker size and substituent groups of each main moiety. Neuroprotective effects were also found for the compounds through viability assays of neuroblastoma cells, after Aß1-42 induced toxicity. Structure-activity relationship analysis provides insights on the best structural parameters, to take in consideration for future studies in view of potential applications in AD therapy.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Tacrina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Benzofuranos/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Electrophorus , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tacrina/química
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12182-12190, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609606

RESUMO

In continuation of our program to develop natural-product-based pesticidal candidates, matrinic/oxymatrinic amides were obtained through structural optimization of matrine. N'-(4-Fluoro)phenyl-N-(4-bromo)phenylsulfonyloxymatrinic amide (IIm) showed potent insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata. N-(Un)substituted phenylsulfonylmatrinic acids (3a-c) exhibited promising acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus. By qRT-PCR analysis of nAChR subunits and AChE genes and determination of AChE activity of (un)treated T. cinnabarinus, it suggested that the open lactam ring of matrine and carboxyl group and (4-methyl)phenylsulfonyl of N-(4-methyl)phenylsulfonylmatrinic acid (3b) were necessary for action with α2, α4, α5, and ß3 nAChR subunits; compound 3b was an inhibitor of AChE in T. cinnabarinus, and AChE was one possible target of action in T. cinnabarinus against 3b; and compound 3b may be an antagonist of nAChR and AChE in T. cinnabarinus.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Alcaloides/química , Amidas/química , Inseticidas/química , Quinolizinas/química , Acaricidas/síntese química , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetranychidae/genética , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tetranychidae/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9210-9219, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390203

RESUMO

The insecticidal and antifeedant activities of five 7-chloro-4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinoline derivatives were evaluated against the maize armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). These hybrids were prepared through a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC, known as a click reaction) and displayed larvicidal properties with LD50 values below 3 mg/g insect, and triazolyl-quinoline hybrid 6 showed an LD50 of 0.65 mg/g insect, making it 2-fold less potent than methomyl, which was used as a reference insecticide (LD50 = 0.34 mg/g insect). Compound 4 was the most active antifeedant derivative (CE50 = 162.1 µg/mL) with a good antifeedant index (56-79%) at concentrations of 250-1000 µg/mL. Additionally, triazolyl-quinoline hybrids 4-8 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against commercial acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (electric-eel AChE) (IC50 = 27.7 µg/mL) as well as low anti-ChE activity on S. frugiperda larvae homogenate (IC50 = 68.4 µg/mL). Finally, molecular docking simulations suggested that hybrid 7 binds to the catalytic active site (CAS) of this enzyme and around the rim of the enzyme cavity, acting as a mixed (competitive and noncompetitive) inhibitor like methomyl. Triazolyl-quinolines 4-6 and 8 inhibit AChE by binding over the perimeter of the enzyme cavity, functioning as noncompetitive inhibitors. The results described in this work can help to identify lead triazole structures from click chemistry for the development of insecticide and deterrent products against S. frugiperda and related insect pests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Química Click , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111598, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415981

RESUMO

A class of novel δ-sulfonolactone-fused pyrazole scaffold was prepared via sulfur (VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) chemistry using aryl sulfonyl fluorides and pyrazolones. Enzyme screening revealed their cholinesterase inhibitory activity, among them, compounds 4a, 5a and 5d were identified as highly selective submicromolar BuChE inhibitors (IC50 = 0.20, 0.46 and 0.42 µM, respectively), which exhibited nontoxicity, lipophilicity and remarkable neuroprotective activity. Kinetic studies showed that BuChE inhibition of compounds 5a and 5d was reversible, mixed-type and non-competitive inhibition against BuChE (Ki = 145 nM and 60 nM, respectively). Compound 5d can be accommodated into hBuChE via π-S interaction and hydrophobic interactions. The title compounds are potentially symptomatic treatment in progressive Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Naftalenossulfonatos/síntese química , Naftalenossulfonatos/química , Naftalenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 680-693, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280020

RESUMO

A series of fifteen acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were designed and synthesised based upon the previously identified lead compound 5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl 1-benzylpiperidine-4-carboxylate (5) which showed good inhibitory activity (IC50 0.03 ±â€¯0.07 µM) against acetylcholinesterase. A series of compounds were prepared wherein the ester linker in the original lead compound was exchanged for a more metabolically stable amide linker and the indanone moiety was exchanged for a range of aryl and aromatic heterocycles. The two most active analogues 1-benzyl-N-(5,6-dimethoxy-8H-indeno[1,2-d]thiazol-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide (28) and 1-benzyl-N-(1-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) piperidine-4-carboxamide (20) afforded in vitro IC50 values of 0.41 ±â€¯1.25 and 5.94 ±â€¯1.08 µM, respectively. In silico screening predicts that 20 will be a blood brain-barrier permeant, and molecular dynamic simulations are indicative of a close correlation between the binding of 20 and the Food and Drug Administration-approved cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (1).


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enguias , Cavalos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 180: 238-252, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310916

RESUMO

A series of novel chalcone derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional agents for the treatment of AD. Among of these synthesized compounds, compound TM-2 was a selective BuChE inhibitor (IC50 = 2.6 µM) and selective MAO-B inhibitor (IC50 = 5.3 µM), which were supported by docking study. Compound TM-2 also showed good antioxidant activity, and was a selective metal chelator, as well as a neuroprotectant. Moreover, compound TM-2 could significantly inhibit self-induced and Cu2+-induced Aß1-42 aggregation with 70.2% and 80.7% inhibition rate, respectively, and could disaggregate Cu2+-induced Aß1-42 aggregation (73.5%), the further TEM images observed provided rational explanation. Besides, compound TM-2 displayed good PAMPA-BBB permeability and conformed to the Lipinski's rule of five. Further, compound TM-2 presented precognitive effect on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo assay. Therefore, compound TM-2 might be a promising multifunctional hit compound for the treatment of AD, and the further structure optimization are in progress.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Chalcona/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Chalcona/síntese química , Chalcona/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Enguias , Cavalos , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1373-1379, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347933

RESUMO

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) plays an important role in the progression of the Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used a structure-based virtual screening (VS) approach to discover new BChE inhibitors. A ligand database was filtered and docked to the BChE protein using Glide program. The outcome from VS was filtered and the top ranked hits were thoroughly examined for their fitting into the protein active site. Consequently, the best 38 hits were selected for in vitro testing using Ellman's method, and six of which showed inhibition activity for BChE. Interestingly, the most potent hit (Compound 4) exhibited inhibitory activity against the BChE enzyme in the low micromolar level with an IC50 value of 8.3 µM. Hits obtained from this work can act as a starting point for future SAR studies to discover new BChE inhibitors as anti-Alzheimer agents.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234400

RESUMO

A new series of thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine bromide salt derivatives 7a-d were synthesized from 3,4-dihydropyrimidinethione precursors. The target compounds were fully characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR, high resolution ESI-MS/MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, which confirmed a regioselective 5H cyclization of the dihydropyrimidinethiones. All target compounds were evaluated in vitro as human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) inhibitors via an Ellman-based colorimetric assay and showed good inhibition activities (better than 70% at 10 µM and IC50 values in the 1 µM range). Molecular docking simulations for all target products into hAChE were performed and confirmed strong binding to the enzyme. These results provide a promising and new starting point to improve acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and explore novel treatment options against Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 122-137, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153459

RESUMO

Novel phospho guanidine and phospho pyrazine derivatives were synthesized and characterized by 31P, 13C, 1HNMR and IR spectroscopy to obtain novel and human-safe insecticides. Compound 35 [(C4H4N2NH)2P(O)(C6H6)] was investigated by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitory effects of synthesized compounds were evaluated on human and insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using in vitro Ellman method. A few of these compounds, which had low human toxicity, were selected for assessing the killing effects (in vivo) on the elm leaf beetle (X.luteola). The in vitro and in vivo results indicated that compounds bearing both phosphoryl groups and aromatic systems were found to possess a good selectivity for the inhibition of insect AChE over human AChE; up to 550-fold selectivity was achieved for compound 19. Docking studies were performed to explain reasons for the selective behavior of AChE inhibitors. Additionally, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and density functional theory (DFT) results of AChEs demonstrated that the size, shape, dipole moment, and ability to form hydrogen bond played the main role in both models. In addition, the aromatic π - π interactions and charge of the amide nitrogen had a major effect on insecticidal activity of the compounds. The present research can be helpful to gain a better understanding of the interactions between the insect AChE and its inhibitors and introduces compounds which are capable of becoming human-safe insecticides.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Guanidinas/química , Pirazinas/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(7): e1900144, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155827

RESUMO

A new series of coumarin-3-carboxamide-N-morpholine hybrids 5a-5l was designed and synthesized as cholinesterases inhibitors. The synthetic approach for title compounds was started from the reaction between 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives and Meldrum's acid to afford corresponding coumarin-3-carboxylic acids. Then, amidation of the latter compounds with 2-morpholinoethylamine or N-(3-aminopropyl)morpholine led to the formation of the compounds 5a-5l. The in vitro inhibition screen against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) revealed that most of the synthesized compounds had potent AChE inhibitory while their BuChE inhibitions are moderate to weak. Among them, propylmorpholine derivative 5g (N-[3-(morpholin-4-yl)propyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) bearing an unsubstituted coumarin moiety and ethylmorpholine derivative 5d (6-bromo-N-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) bearing a 6-bromocoumarin moiety showed the most activity against AChE and BuChE, respectively. The inhibitory activity of compound 5g against AChE was 1.78 times more than that of rivastigmine and anti-BuChE activity of compound 5d is approximately same as rivastigmine. Kinetic and docking studies confirmed the dual binding site ability of compound 5g to inhibit AChE.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Electrophorus , Cavalos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Morfolinas/síntese química , Morfolinas/química
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 726-739, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229875

RESUMO

To discover multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a series of chalcone-O-carbamate derivatives was designed and synthesized based on the multitarget-directed ligands strategy. The in vitro biological activities were evaluated including AChE/BChE inhibition, MAO-A/MAO-B inhibition, antioxidant activities, Aß1-42 aggregation inhibition, metal-chelating properties and neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced PC12 cell injury. The results showed compounds 5b and 5h indicated highly selective BChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 3.1 µM and 1.2 µM, respectively and showed highly selective MAO-B inhibitory potency with IC50 values of 1.3 µM and 3.7 µM, respectively. In addition, compounds 5b and 5h could inhibit self-induced Aß1-42 aggregation with 63.9% and 53.1% inhibition percent rate, respectively. Particularly, compound 5b was a potent antioxidant agent and neuroprotectant, as well as a selective metal chelator by chelating Cu2+ and Al3+. Moreover, compound 5b could inhibit and disaggregate Cu2+-induced Aß1-42 aggregation, which was further supported by the TEM images. Furthermore, compounds 5b and 5h could cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and conformed to the Lipinski's rule of five. Finally, the in vivo assay exhibited that compound 5b could improve scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. Taken together, these results revealed that compound 5b might be a potential multifunctional agent for the treatment of AD, and deserved to do further structure optimization.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Chalconas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Chalconas/síntese química , Chalconas/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enguias , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 243-258, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185414

RESUMO

To address the multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a multi-target-directed ligand approach was herein developed. As a follow-up of our previous studies, a small library of newly designed 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives was evaluated towards cholinesterases and cannabinoid receptors. The two most promising compounds, 8 and 10, were then assessed for their neuroprotective activity and for their ability to modulate the microglial phenotype. Compound 8 emerged as able to fight AD from several directions: it restored the cholinergic system by inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase, showed neuroprotective activity against Aß1-42 oligomers, was a potent and selective CB2 ligand and had immunomodulatory effects, switching microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the neuroprotective M2 phenotype. Derivative 10 was a potent CB2 inverse agonist with promising immunomodulatory properties and could be considered as a tool for investigating the role of CB2 receptors and for developing potential immunomodulating drugs addressing the endocannabinoid system.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Células CHO , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/síntese química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligação Proteica , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 221-234, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151057

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder involving complex pathogenesis. Single target directed drugs proved ineffective and since last few years' different pharmacological strategies including multi-targeting agents are being explored for the effective drug development for AD. A total of 19 dipropargyl substituted diphenylpyrimidines have been synthesized and evaluated for the monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition potential. All the compounds were found to be selective and reversible inhibitors of MAO-B isoform. These compounds also displayed good AChE inhibition potential with IC50 values in low micromolar range. AVB4 was found to be the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with IC50 value of 1.49 ±â€¯0.09 µM and AVB1 was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor with IC50 value of 1.35 ±â€¯0.03 µM. In the ROS protection inhibition studies, AVB1 and AVB4 displayed weak but interesting activity in SH-SY5Y cells. In the cytotoxicity studies involving SH-SY5Y cells, both AVB1 and AVB4 were found to be non-toxic to the tissue cells. In the molecular dynamic simulation studies of 30 ns, the potent compounds were found to be quite stable in the active site of MAO-B and AChE. The results suggested that AVB1 and AVB4 are promising dual inhibitors and have the potential to be developed as anti-Alzheimer's drug.


Assuntos
Alquinos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Alquinos/síntese química , Alquinos/química , Alquinos/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 247-258, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158742

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, fatal and complex neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by cholinergic system dysregulation, metal dyshomeostasis, amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregation, etc. Therefore in most cases, single-target or single-functional agents are insufficient to achieve the desirable effect against AD. Multi-Target-Directed Ligand (MTDL), which is rationally designed to simultaneously hit multiple targets to improve the pharmacological profiles, has been developed as a promising approach for drug discovery against AD. To identify the multifunctional agents for AD, we developed an innovative method to successfully conceal the metal chelator into acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Briefly, the "hidden" agents first cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to inhibit the function of AChE, and the metal chelator will then be released via the enzymatic hydrolysis by AChE. Therefore, the AChE inhibitor, in this case, is not only a single-target agent against AD, but also a carrier of the metal chelator. In this study a total of 14 quinoline derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that compound 9b could cross the BBB efficiently, then release 8a, the metabolite of 9b, into brain. In vitro, 9b had a potent AChE inhibitory activity, while 8a displayed a significant metal ion chelating function, therefore in combination, both 9b and 8a exhibited a considerable inhibition of Aß aggregation, one of the observations that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. The efficacy of 9b against AD was further investigated in both a zebrafish model and two different mice models.


Assuntos
Quelantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Quelantes/síntese química , Quelantes/farmacocinética , Quelantes/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Desenho de Drogas , Canal de Potássio ERG1/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Nootrópicos/síntese química , Nootrópicos/farmacocinética , Nootrópicos/toxicidade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 259-268, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158743

RESUMO

Unexpected inhibitory effects against eeAChE could be found for a newly synthesized class of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives. Thus, phenethyl-(E)-3-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-phenethoxyphenyl)-acrylate (Ki = 1.97 ±â€¯0.38 µM, Ki´â€¯= 2.44 ±â€¯0.07 µM) and 4-(2-(((E)-3-(3,4-bis(benzyloxy)phenyl)acryloyl)oxy)ethyl)-1,2-phenylene (2E,2'E)-bis(3-(3,4-bis(benzyloxy)phenyl)acrylate) (Ki = 0.72 ±â€¯0.31 µM, Ki´â€¯= 1.80 ±â€¯0.21 µM) showed very good inhibition of eeAChE, while being non cytotoxic for malignant human cancer cells and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts. Also, they are weak inhibitors for BChE (from equine serum).


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos/síntese química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/toxicidade , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Electrophorus , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células NIH 3T3 , Álcool Feniletílico/síntese química , Álcool Feniletílico/toxicidade
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 414-424, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158754

RESUMO

Due to the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in acetylcholine hydrolysis in the late stages of the Alzheimer's disease (AD), inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been recently envisaged, besides acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, as candidates for treating mild-to-moderate AD. Herein, synthesis and AChE/BChE inhibition activity of some twenty derivatives of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroazepino[4,3-b]indole (HHAI) is reported. Most of the newly synthesized HHAI derivatives achieved the inhibition of both ChE isoforms with IC50s in the micromolar range, with a structure-dependent selectivity toward BChE. Apparently, molecular volume and lipophilicity do increase selectivity toward BChE, and indeed the N2-(4-phenylbutyl) HHAI derivative 15d, which behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor, resulted the most potent (IC50 0.17 µM) and selective (>100-fold) inhibitor toward either horse serum and human BChE. Moreover, 15d inhibited in vitro self-induced aggregation of neurotoxic amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide and displayed neuroprotective effects in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, significantly recovering (P < 0.001) cell viability when impaired by Aß1-42 and hydrogen peroxide insults. Overall, this study highlighted HHAI as useful and versatile scaffold for developing new small molecules targeting some enzymes and biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Azepinas/síntese química , Azepinas/química , Azepinas/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/síntese química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Indóis/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1018-1029, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074292

RESUMO

7-methoxytacrine-4-pyridinealdoxime (7-MEOTA-4-PA, named hybrid 5C) is a compound formerly synthesized and evaluated in vitro, together with 4-pyridine aldoxime (4-PA) and commercial reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This compound was designed with the purpose of being a prophylactic reactivator, capable of interacting with different subdomains of the active site of AChE. To investigate these interactions, theoretical results from docking were first compared with experimental data of hybrid 5C, 4-PA, and two commercial oximes, on the reactivation of human AChE (HssAChE) inhibited by VX. Then, further docking studies, molecular dynamics simulations, and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations, were carried out to investigate reactivation performances, considering the near attack conformation (NAC) approach, prior to the nucleophilic substitution mechanism. Our results helped to elucidate the interactions of such molecules with the different subdomains of the active site of HssAChE. Additionally, NAC poses of each oxime were suggested for further theoretical studies on the reactivation reaction.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cloreto de Obidoxima/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Compostos de Pralidoxima/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Cloreto de Obidoxima/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Oximas/química , Compostos de Pralidoxima/química , Piridinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 352(6): e1800359, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125504

RESUMO

In this study, synthesis of ethyl 2-((4-bromophenyl)diazenyl)-3-oxo-phenylpropanoate 1 was carried out and a series of new 3H-pyrazol-3-ones (P1-7) were synthesized from 1 as well as various hydrazines. The obtained yields of the synthesized compounds were moderate (40-70%) and these compounds were confirmed by spectral data. These novel pyrazoline derivatives were effective inhibitor compounds of the human carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes (hCAs I and II) and of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, with Ki values in the range of 17.4-40.7 nM for hCA I, 16.1-55.2 nM for hCA II, and 48.2-84.1 nM for AChE. In silico studies were performed on the compounds inhibiting hCA I, hCA II, and AChE receptors. On the basis of the findings, the inhibition profile of the new pyrazoline compounds at the receptors was determined.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , Pirazóis/síntese química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 198-211, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136894

RESUMO

A series of 3-amino-substituted rutacecarpine derivatives were synthesized to identify novel multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biological evaluation showed that most of the synthesized compounds inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and exerted antioxidant effects. Among the synthesized compounds, 6n was subjected to further biological evaluation. Lineweaver-Burk plotting and molecular modeling illustrated that 6n bound simultaneously to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic sites (CAS) of BuChE. Furthermore, 6n modulated Aß aggregation; chelated biometals; presented good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties; and showed remarkable neuroprotective activity. Previous research has shown that the optimized compound 6n has considerable potential for development as an MTDL for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quelantes/síntese química , Quelantes/química , Quelantes/farmacocinética , Quelantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacocinética , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Substâncias Protetoras/síntese química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 174: 216-225, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042617

RESUMO

The identification of a valid therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents nowadays an urgent and still unmet medical need, since currently available anti-AD drugs only relieve symptoms and show a modest efficacy. Recent evidence indicates that multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) can potentially provide an effective strategy to develop innovative therapies directed towards the onset and progression of this multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. In this work we designed, synthesized and evaluated a new series of MTDLs bearing the rivastigmine skeleton (ChE-inhibitor) linked to known metal-chelating moieties with linkers of different length. For all the novel derivatives, AChE/BuChE inhibitory activity, ROS scavenging activity and potential cytotoxicity have been assessed. For the best compound (4), copper chelating properties and neuroprotective effects were also evaluated. Our data demonstrated that hybrid derivative 4 is able to effectively inhibit AChE and BuChE and to chelate copper, showing a protective action on neurons. These results, although preliminary, indicate that compound 4 can be considered as a possible hit molecule for the development of new anti-AD MTDLs.


Assuntos
Quelantes/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Rivastigmina/análogos & derivados , Rivastigmina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Quelantes/síntese química , Quelantes/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/síntese química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/toxicidade , Rivastigmina/síntese química , Rivastigmina/toxicidade
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