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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111808, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683103

RESUMO

Managing the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) concentration is a reliable approach to achieve control over the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is also an attractive way to tackle type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We showed previously that azoloazine heterocycles have the potential to prevent the formation of AGEs and in this work, we conducted docking studies with DPP-4 of 5-alkylamino-6-nitro-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines. Consequently, we have developed a synthetic approach to these structures by chlorodeoxygenation and amination reactions. Antidiabetic properties of obtained compounds were studied by evaluating DPP-4 (ex vivo/in vitro) and AGEs formation inhibition (in vitro). It was shown that the nitrothiadiazolopyrimidines exhibit a higher antiglycation activity than reference compound aminoguanidine, but only moderate inhibition of DPP-4. The most active DPP-4 inhibitor 1l had IC50 of 55.87 µM and showed the ability to inhibit serum DPP-4 activity in rats after 10 mg/kg oral administration but with the less and shorter effect than vildagliptin. At the same time, 1l was the most active antiglycating compound in the series (IC50 134.4 µM). Copper chelation properties of synthesized compounds were also investigated since the formation of AGEs is catalyzed by the transition metal cations. A noticeable correlation between antiglycation activity and metal chelation was revealed. Both activities (antiglycation and copper chelation) correlated with quantum-chemical properties (calculated with ab initio) of the tested compounds. These findings will allow us to predict both activities in the future, without the need to model multiple steps of glycation reaction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/síntese química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiadiazóis/síntese química , Tiadiazóis/química
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108842, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In view of the important role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in human pathophysiology, we studied the role of DPP-4 in stress-related vascular aging in mice, focusing on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mice were randomly divided into a non-stress group and an immobilization stress group treated for 2 weeks. Chronic stress accelerates aortic senescence and increases plasma DPP-4 levels. Stress increased the levels of gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, p53, p27, p21, p16INK4A, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cathepsin S (Cat S), and Cat K mRNAs and/or protein in the aorta of the stressed mice and decreased their levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SirTuin1 (SirT1). DPP-4 inhibitors can improve stress-induced targeting molecules and morphological changes. In vitro, the inhibition of DPP-4 also alleviated the changes in the oxidative and inflammatory molecules in response to hydrogen peroxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: DPP-4 inhibition can improve vascular aging in stressed mice, possibly by improving oxidative stress production and vascular inflammation. Our results suggest that DPP-4 may become a new therapeutic target for chronic stress-related vascular aging in metabolic cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/sangue , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1099-1108, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519110

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the signals of bullous pemphigoid (BP) with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) in VigiBase® and the potential role of their pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters in the occurrence of BP. Methods: Case/non-case analyses were performed in VigiBase® to examine the signal of BP [reporting odds ratio (ROR)] for gliptins. Secondly, the authors performed linear regression analyses to explore the association between DPP-4i signals for BP and their affinities toward different target enzymes (DPP-2, DPP-4, DPP-8, and DPP-9) and their volume of distribution (Vd). Results: A significant BP signal was found for DPP-4i. The ROR for pooled DPP-4i was 179.48 (95% CI: 166.41-193.58). The highest ROR was found for teneligliptin 975.04 (801.70-1185.87) and lowest for saxagliptin 18.9 (11.5-30.9). Linear regression analyses showed a considerable trend to significance for the linear correlation between the BP signal and gliptin affinity at DPP-4 (slope = 1.316 [-0.4385-3.21], p = 0.067, R2 = 0.40) but not the other enzyme targets, nor for Vd. Conclusion: The findings suggest a clinical relevance of gliptins selectivity for DDP-4 in the development of BP as a result of exposure to these drugs. Future preclinical and clinical studies are needed for a better understanding of this correlation.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Penfigoide Bolhoso/induzido quimicamente , Farmacovigilância , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penfigoide Bolhoso/epidemiologia , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Life Sci ; 234: 116738, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398418

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxidative stress has been linked to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study evaluated whether the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin attenuates glomerular lesions and oxidative stress evoked by chronic hyperglycemia, by a mechanism independent of insulin secretion and glycemia normalization. MAIN METHODS: A rat model of DN caused by streptozotocin injection was established and the effects of sitagliptin (5 mg/kg/day) were evaluated after two weeks of treatment. KEY FINDINGS: Sitagliptin treatment did not change body weight, glycemic and lipid profiles. However, histopathological observation revealed that sitagliptin attenuates diabetes-induced glomerular lesions on diabetic rats. Sitagliptin also ameliorated the increase in DPP-4 content and promoted the stabilization of GLP-1 in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, sitagliptin treatment significantly attenuated the increase of free-radical formation and the decrease of antioxidant defenses, attenuating therefore the oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic animals. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that sitagliptin treatment alleviates kidney oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic rats, which could play a key role in reducing the progression of DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394858

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) rapidly breaks down the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Thus, the use of DPP-IV inhibitors to retard the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 is a possible mode of therapy correcting the defect in incretin-related physiology. The aim of this study is to find a new small molecule and explore the inhibition activity to the DPP-IV enzyme using a computer aided simulation. In this study, the predicted compounds were suggested as potent anti-diabetic candidates. Chosen structures were applied following computational strategies: The generation of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) pharmacophore models, virtual screening, molecular docking, and de novo Evolution. The method also validated by performing re-docking and cross-docking studies of seven protein systems for which crystal structures were available for all bound ligands. The molecular docking experiments of predicted compounds within the binding pocket of DPP-IV were conducted. By using 25 training set inhibitors, ten pharmacophore models were generated, among which hypo1 was the best pharmacophore model with the best predictive power on account of the highest cost difference (352.03), the lowest root mean squared deviation (RMSD) (2.234), and the best correlation coefficient (0.925). Hypo1 pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening. A total of 161 compounds including 120 from the databases, 25 from the training set, 16 from the test set were selected for molecular docking. Analyzing the amino acid residues of the ligand-receptor interaction, it can be concluded that Arg125, Glu205, Glu206, Tyr547, Tyr662, and Tyr666 are the main amino acid residues. The last step in this study was de novo Evolution that generated 11 novel compounds. The derivative dpp4_45_Evo_1 by all scores CDOCKER_ENERGY (CDOCKER, -41.79), LigScore1 (LScore1, 5.86), LigScore2 (LScore2, 7.07), PLP1 (-112.01), PLP2 (-105.77), PMF (-162.5)-have exceeded the control compound. Thus the most active compound among 11 derivative compounds is dpp4_45_Evo_1. Additionally, for derivatives dpp4_42_Evo_1, dpp4_43_Evo2, dpp4_46_Evo_4, and dpp4_47_Evo_2, significant upward shifts were recorded. The consensus score for the derivatives of dpp4_45_Evo_1 from 1 to 6, dpp4_43_Evo2 from 4 to 6, dpp4_46_Evo_4 from 1 to 6, and dpp4_47_Evo_2 from 0 to 6 were increased. Generally, predicted candidates can act as potent occurring DPP-IV inhibitors given their ability to bind directly to the active sites of DPP-IV. Our result described that the 6 re-docked and 27 cross-docked protein-ligand complexes showed RMSD values of less than 2 Å. Further investigation will result in the development of novel and potential antidiabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Life Sci ; 234: 116776, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425698

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a peptide of incretin family which is used in the management of diabetes as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme metabolizes glucagon-like peptide-1 and various dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitors (DPP-4i) are also used in the management of diabetes. These antidiabetic agents provide anti-hyperglycemic effects via several molecular mechanisms including promoting insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion and slowing the gastric emptying. There is some research suggesting that they can induce insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In this study, we review the possible molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RA and DPP-4i can improve insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent peripheral tissues.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 180: 509-523, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336309

RESUMO

A series of novel xanthine derivatives 2a-l incorporating benzoic acid moieties were rapidly generated by using strategy of scaffold-hopping from our previously reported scaffold uracil to xanthine, a scaffold of approved drug linagliptin. After systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) study around benzoic acid moieties, 5 novel DPP-4 inhibitors with low picomolar potency range (IC50 < 1 nM) and excellent selectivity against various DPP-4 homologues were identified, in which the best one, compound 2f, with the IC50 value of 0.1 nM for DPP-4, showed 22-fold improvement in inhibitory activity compared to lead compound uracil 1, its activity was 45-fold more potent than alogliptin. 2e, 2f, 2i and 2k were selected for pharmacokinetic evaluation, and 2f and 2i showed the better pharmacokinetic profiles after iv administration, but poor oral bioavailability. To improve the oral pharmacokinetic profile, prodrug design approach was performed around 2f and 2i. Esters of 2f and 2i were synthesized and evaluated for stability, toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Compound 3e, the methyl ester of compound 2f, was identified to demonstrate good stability, low toxicity and improved oral bioavailability, with 3-fold higher blood concentration compared to 2f in rats. The following in vivo evaluations revealed 3e provided a sustained pharmacodynamics effect for 48h, and robustly improved glucose tolerance in normal ICR and db/db mice in dose-dependent manner. Chronic treatments investigations demonstrated that 3e achieved more beneficial effects on fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance than alogliptin in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The overall results have shown that compound 3e has the potential to efficacious, safety and long-acting treatment for T2DM.


Assuntos
Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Xantina/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Benzoico/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/síntese química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantina/síntese química , Xantina/química
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172521, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276666

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors prevent the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and improve glycemic control. The GLP-1 insulinotropic effect involves a pathway through vagus nerve GLP-1 receptors in the gut, in addition to a direct effect on the pancreas. Therefore, this study verified whether DPP-4 inhibition in the gut contributed to the improvement of glycemic control. Anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, was administered orally or subcutaneously (with or without passing through the gastrointestinal tract, respectively) to mice. The association between blood glucose suppression following oral glucose challenge and DPP-4 inhibition in the small intestine and plasma was assessed. Oral administration of anagliptin (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) in normal mice significantly suppressed blood glucose, which was associated with an increase in insulin secretion at a dose of ≥0.1 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Subcutaneous administration of anagliptin (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) produced similar results. However, plasma DPP-4 inhibition following oral administration was weaker than that following subcutaneous administration; blood glucose suppression was significantly correlated with small intestinal DPP-4 inhibition (r = 0.949, P < 0.01), but not with plasma DPP-4 inhibition. Additionally, similar results were observed in a type 2 diabetes model (r = 0.975, P < 0.001). Thus, these results demonstrated that an improvement in glycemic control was dependent upon small intestinal DPP-4 inhibition. As these effects were accompanied by the elevation of intact GLP-1 in the portal, this suggests that improvement in glucose tolerance after anagliptin treatment might be related to an increase in GLP-1 receptor signaling in the small intestine and portal vein.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Incretinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Incretinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 41-48, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150724

RESUMO

AIMS: The changes in patients' satisfaction with the treatment, medication adherence and unused drugs before and after switching from daily DPP-4 inhibitors to once-weekly trelagliptin administration were prospectively investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: After excluding 46 patients who declined to switch from daily DPP-4 inhibitors, 79 subjects were included in the present study. The clinical parameters and results of questionnaire surveys regarding satisfaction with treatment as well as impressions of the amount of medicine/number of doses, medication adherence, and unused drug were examined at the baseline and 3 months after switching from daily DPP-4 inhibitors to trelagliptin in 75 patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Although the value of HbA1c did not change (7.0% ±â€¯0.5% to 7.0% ±â€¯0.6%), the scores representing satisfaction with the treatment (25.2 ±â€¯6.4 to 26.4 ±â€¯6.0), impression of the amount of medicine (-0.3 ±â€¯1.0 to 0.3 ±â€¯1.0) and number of doses (0.3 ±â€¯1.0 to 0.8 ±â€¯0.6), and medication adherence (0.8 ±â€¯0.4 to 0.9 ±â€¯0.3) as assessed by the questionnaire surveys were significantly improved after switching from DPP-4 inhibitors. The self-reported amount of unused drugs was significantly reduced after switching. CONCLUSIONS: Switching from daily DPP-4 inhibitors to once-weekly trelagliptin improved the satisfaction with the treatment, impression of the prescribed medicine and medication adherence in the type 2 diabetic patients who expresses a desire to reduce their prescription medicines. In such patients, improvements in the glycemic control and long-term prognosis might be expected through the reduction of unused drugs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Uracila/farmacologia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
10.
J Mol Neurosci ; 69(1): 157-165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197641

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neural inflammation and oxidative stress. In the current study, the protective effects of klotho and linagliptin treatment on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AD patients and healthy controls (HCs) are assessed through measurement of inflammatory cytokines, signaling proteins, and miRNA expression. Sixteen diagnosed AD patients and sixteen HCs were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were obtained and PBMCs were isolated. PBMCs were treated with klotho at different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 nM) and linagliptin (50 µM). The concentration of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCε), phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding (pCREB), and Wnt1 were measured by ELISA. The expression of miR-29a and miR-195 was detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that klotho significantly reduced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in both groups of the experiment. Linagliptin also remarkably reduced TNF-α levels in the AD group. Moreover, klotho caused the downregulation of Wnt1 in the PBMCs of both groups and the upregulation of the pCREB in HCs. Meanwhile, klotho induced miR-29a expression in the PBMCs of HCs, while miR-29a expression was induced in the AD group by klotho and linagliptin. The current findings revealed that klotho alleviates inflammation in human PBMCs, probably through the suppression of inflammatory cytokines and the upregulation of miR-29a, and part of its beneficial effect is mediated through appropriate modulation of the Wnt1/pCREB signaling cascade. In addition, linagliptin exerts protective effects by reducing TNF-α and inducing miR-29a expression in PBMCs.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Células Cultivadas , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linagliptina/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína Wnt1/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 231: 116538, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176776

RESUMO

Apoptosis is a complicated process that involves activation of a series of intracellular signaling. Tissue injuries from diabetes mellitus mostly occur as a consequence of higher rate of apoptosis process due to activation of a series of molecular mechanisms. Several classes of anti-hyperglycaemic agents have been developed which could potentially modulate the apoptotic process resulting in fewer tissue damages. Novel types of anti-hyperglycaemic medications such as sodium glucose cotransporters-2 inhibitors, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors have shown to provide potent anti-hyperglycaemic effects, but their influences on diabetes-induced apoptotic injuries is largely unknown. Therefore, in the current study, we reviewed the published data about the possible effects of these anti-hyperglycaemic agents on apoptosis in diabetic milieu as well as in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Surdez/tratamento farmacológico , Surdez/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
12.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(7): 535-553, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) belongs to the family of serine proteases and is involved in the degradation of GLP-1 and GIP hormones, which enhance the production and release of insulin. Targeting DPP-4 inhibitors is increasingly being considered as promising paradigms to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore DPP-4 inhibitors are being considered as promising antidiabetic drugs. AREAS COVERE: This review provides an overview of published patents describing natural and synthetic DPP-4 inhibitors from January 2015 to December 2018. EXPERT OPINION: A fair number of new synthetic and natural DPP-4 inhibitors have been reported in the last four years which describe the progress in the development of various heterocyclic scaffolds or heterocyclic hybrid compounds. As a result of this, many marketed DPP-4 inhibitors that have been approved by the appropriate governing bodies during the past decade, have been introduced as inhibitors. Molecular hybridization is an emerging idea in medicinal chemistry and therefore hybrid compounds of DPP-4 inhibitors with other DPP-4 inhibitors or with antidiabetic drugs should be formulated for a comprehensive evaluation. More detailed pharmacovigilance of DPP-4 inhibitors is required because this will address the pancreas-related adverse events as well as their impact on cardiovascular outcomes via long-term studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Drogas , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/metabolismo , Patentes como Assunto
13.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4062-4070, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225553

RESUMO

Herein, the potential of hydrolysates of chicken feet proteins as natural dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors was investigated; moreover, three hydrolysates were selected due to their high DPP-IV inhibitory capacity (>80% inhibition), showing the IC50 values of around 300 µg estimated protein per mL; one of them (named p4H) was selected for the posterior analysis. In addition, its effect on glucose tolerance was investigated in two rat models (diet and age-induced) of glucose-intolerance and healthy animals; the amount of 300 mg estimated peptide per kg body weight improved the plasma glucose profile in both glucose-intolerance models. Moreover, it stimulated active GLP-1 release in the enteroendocrine STC-1 cells and rat ileum tissue. In conclusion, our results indicate that chicken feet proteins are a good source of bioactive peptides as DPP-IV inhibitors. Moreover, our results highlight the potential of the selected hydrolysate p4H in the management of type 2 diabetes due to its dual function of inhibition of the DPP-IV activity and induction of the GLP-1 release.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Incretinas/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(4): 721-731, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to investigate the effects of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor (Vildagliptin-VG) on DDR-1 as a marker for endocrine progenitor cells, ß-cell regeneration, and apoptosis in neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ) diabetics. METHODS: Neonatal rats were divided into two main groups as short- and long-term treatment, each consisted of four groups; (1) Control, (2) n2-STZ diabetic (single dose of 100 mg/kg STZ at 2nd day of birth), (3) n2-STZ + VG (60 mg/kg/day VG orally; for 8 and 28 days), (4) VG (60 mg/kg/day orally; for 8 and 28 days). Blood glucose levels and body weights were measured, and the tissue sections were immunostained using insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, PCNA, Pdx-1 and DDR-1 antibodies. The TUNEL method was used for apoptosis. RESULTS: The number of ß cells in islets of the n2-STZ + VG group increased compared to the n2-STZ group; insulin (+) cells were observed individually or as small clusters in exocrine tissue, between pancreatic duct epithelial cells, and around the ducts. The number of Pdx-1 and DDR-1 positive cells in islet and extra-islet pancreas tissue was elevated as a result of VG application compared to the STZ diabetic group; the number of double positive cells for DDR-1 and insulin increased in n2-STZ + VG rats. CONCLUSION: We showed that vildagliptin promotes ß cell neogenesis and regeneration, stimulates DDR-1 expression as an endocrine cell progenitor marker, suppresses apoptosis, induces islet cell proliferation and rearranges islet morphology in the n2-STZ diabetes model.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Vildagliptina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 30-40, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121272

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of glucose-lowering agent for type 2 diabetes (T2D) that are commonly used in clinical practice. With the recent disclosure of data from the CARMELINA cardiovascular outcomes trial (CVOT), which investigated linagliptin, CV and renal outcomes data are now available for four agents in the DPP-4 inhibitor class that are approved in most markets. To consider how the CARMELINA study may be interpreted, and the relevance for our clinical practice, we convened as an expert group of diabetes specialists from the Central and Eastern Europe region to discuss the new disclosures. Our discussions revealed a general confidence in safety across the class that is further supported by CARMELINA. However, we also concluded that there are important differences in the available evidence level between agents in the setting of heart failure and data on renal outcomes. Here, we noted the clinical relevance to our practice of the study population in CARMELINA, which is unique among CVOTs in including a majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Given the risk for future development of renal impairment that is associated with T2D even in patients without current overt CKD, we believe that the CARMELINA study provides important new insights that are clinically relevant for a broad range of patients. Finally, we discuss how these insights can be integrated into the approach to the pharmacotherapeutic management of hyperglycaemia that is recommended in newly updated guidelines.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010001

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors are antidiabetic agents that exert renoprotective actions independently of glucose lowering. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the main outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the effects of DPPIV inhibition on cardiac impairment during CKD progression remain elusive. This study investigated whether DPPIV inhibition mitigates cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in rats with a 5/6 renal ablation and evaluated if these effects are associated with changes in the cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To this end, male Wistar rats underwent a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation, followed by an 8-week treatment period with the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin (IDPPIV) or vehicle. Nx rats had lower glomerular filtration rate, overt albuminuria and higher blood pressure compared to sham rats, whereas CKD progression was attenuated in Nx + IDPPIV rats. Additionally, Nx rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, which were associated with higher cardiac DPPIV activity and expression. The sitagliptin treatment prevented cardiac fibrosis and mitigated cardiac hypertrophy. The isovolumic relaxation time (IRVT) was higher in Nx than in sham rats, which was suggestive of CKD-associated-diastolic dysfunction. Sitagliptin significantly attenuated the increase in IRVT. Levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the heart tissue from Nx rats were higher while those of angiotensin-(1-7) Ang-(1-7) were lower than that in sham rats. This cardiac hormonal imbalance was completely prevented by sitagliptin. Collectively, these results suggest that DPPIV inhibition may delay the onset of cardiovascular impairment in CKD. Furthermore, these findings strengthen the hypothesis that a crosstalk between DPPIV and the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndromes.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Angiotensina I/sangue , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 65-73, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954510

RESUMO

AIMS: To directly compare the effectiveness and safety between two distinct sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and dapagliflozin, as part of a quadruple oral antidiabetic agents (OADs) in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This study was an open-labeled, prospective, 52-week study conducted in T2D patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ranging 7.5-12.0% with metformin, glimepiride and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Patients were divided into either empagliflozin (25 mg/day) or dapagliflozin (10 mg/day). The outcome measures included changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and cardiometabolic variables and the safety profiles. RESULTS: In total, 350 patients were enrolled with empagliflozin (n = 176) and dapagliflozin (n = 174), respectively. After 52 weeks, both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1c and FPG, but the reduction was greater in the empagliflozin group (P < 0.001). Both groups showed significantly decreased blood pressure and body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased in the empagliflozin (between groups, P = 0.035). Both groups showed similar safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors can be effectively used as a fourth OAD in T2D patients who are treated with three other OADs. More specifically, empagliflozin was more effective in reducing HbA1c and improving other cardiometabolic parameters than dapagliflozin. Clinical Trial Number NCT03748810 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pharmazie ; 74(4): 239-242, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940309

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) all over the world. Sitagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-IV plays a beneficial role in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of sitagliptin on renal injury in type 1 diabetic mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic mice were treated with oral administration of sitagliptin (15 mg/kg/ day) for 4 weeks. The results showed that sitagliptin treatment did not change the levels of blood glucose in STZ induced type 1 diabetic mice. Sitagliptin attenuates diabetic nephropathy by significantly inhibiting 24 h proteinuria, renal injury and fibrosis. Sitagliptin can inhibit the expression level of TGF-ß1 and the other related fibrosis factors in renal tissue of type 1 diabetic mice while delaying the progression of type 1 diabetic nephropathy. These results indicated that sitagliptin treatment is potentially a new strategy for treating type 1 diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteinúria/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Estreptozocina , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0205477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889182

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS), overlapping type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and/or hypertension, owing to high-fat diet, poses risk for cardiovascular disease. A critical feature associated with such risk is the functional impairment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 i) not only inhibit degradation of incretins to control blood glucose levels, but also improve EPC bioactivity and induce anti-inflammatory effects in tissues. In the present study, we investigated the effects of such an inhibitor, MK-06266, in an ischemia model of MS using diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. EPC bioactivity was examined in MK-0626-administered DIO mice and a non-treated control group, using an EPC colony-forming assay and bone marrow cKit+ Sca-1+ lineage-cells, and peripheral blood-mononuclear cells. Our results showed that, in vitro, the effect of MK-0626 treatment on EPC bioactivities and differentiation was superior compared to the control. Furthermore, microvascular density and pericyte-recruited arteriole number increased in MK-0626-administered mice, but not in the control group. Lineage profiling of isolated cells from ischemic tissues revealed that MK-0626 administration has an inhibitory effect on unproductive inflammation. This occurred via a decrease in the influx of total blood cells and pro-inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, total macrophages, M1, total T-cells, cytotoxic T-cells, and B-cells, with a concomitant increase in number of regeneration-associated cells, such as M2/M ratio and Treg/T-helper. Laser Doppler analysis revealed that at day 14 after ischemic injury, blood perfusion in hindlimb was greater in MK-0626-treated DIO mice, but not in control. In conclusion, the DPP-4 i had a positive effect on EPC differentiation in MS model of DIO mice. Following ischemic injury, DPP-4 i sharply reduced recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells into ischemic tissue and triggered regeneration and reparation, making it a promising therapeutic agent for MS treatment.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 665-674, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota contributes to the occurrence and development of metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the effects of commonly used antidiabetic agents on the gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the roles of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) and α-glucosidase inhibitor in modulating the gut microbiota. METHODS: 16S-rDNA sequencing was performed to analyse the effects of DPP-4i and acarbose on the gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from type 2 diabetes patients to germ-free mice was performed to investigate the contribution of the altered microbiome to antidiabetic effects of the drugs. Fecal metabolomics was also analysed by untargeted and targeted GC-MS systems. FINDINGS: Although DPP-4i and α-glucosidase inhibitor both altered the gut microbial composition, only the microbiome modulation of DPP-4i contributed to its hypoglycemic effect. Specifically, the changes of 68.6% genera induced by HFD were rescued by DPP-4i. FMT showed that the DPP-4i-altered microbiome improved glucose tolerance in colonized mice, while acarbose did not. Moreover, DPP-4i increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes, and also promoted a functional shift in the gut microbiome, especially increasing the production of succinate. INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate an important effect of DPP-4i on the gut microbiota, revealing a new hypoglycemic mechanism and an additional benefit of it. Furthermore, modulating the microbial composition, and the functional shift arising from changes in the microbiome, might be a potential strategy for improving glucose homeostasis. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81700757, No. 81471039, No. 81700714 and No. 81770434), the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1309602, No. 2016YFC1101100, No. 2017YFD0500503 and No. 2017YFD0501001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (No. cstc2014jcyjjq10006, No. cstc2016jcyjA0093 and No. cstc2016jcyjA0518).


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Camundongos
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