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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension in Korea. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects risk factors in hypertensive Korean COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We selected patients from the database of the project #OpenData4Covid19. This information was linked to their 3-year historical healthcare data. The severity of the disease was classified into five levels. We also clustered the levels into two grades. RESULTS: The risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity were old age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and renal replacement therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) both before and after a diagnosis of COVID-19 were not associated with COVID-19 severity. A multivariate analysis revealed that old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in hypertensive patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for a severe clinical course. In addition, the use of ARBs and ACEIs before or after COVID-19 infection did not affect a patient's risk of contracting COVID-19 nor did it contribute to a worse prognosis for the disease. These results highlighted that precautions should be considered for hypertensive patients with those risk factors and do not support discontinuation of ARBs and ACEIs during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , /patologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , /fisiologia
3.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 833-842, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423528

RESUMO

After initially hypothesizing a positive relationship between use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more recent evidence suggests negative associations. We examined whether COVID-19 risk differs according to antihypertensive drug class in patients treated by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Three exclusive cohorts of prevalent ACE inhibitors, ARB and CCB users, aged 18 to 80 years, from the French National Health Insurance databases were followed from February 15, 2020 to June 7, 2020. We excluded patients with a history of diabetes, known cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, or chronic respiratory disease during the previous 5 years, to only consider patients treated for uncomplicated hypertension and to limit indication bias. The primary end point was time to hospitalization for COVID-19. The secondary end point was time to intubation/death during a hospital stay for COVID-19. In a population of almost 2 million hypertensive patients (ACE inhibitors: 566 023; ARB: 958 227; CCB: 358 306) followed for 16 weeks, 2338 were hospitalized and 526 died or were intubated for COVID-19. ACE inhibitors and ARBs were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization compared with CCBs (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.65-0.83] and 0.84 [0.76-0.93], respectively) and a lower risk of intubation/death. Risks were slightly lower for ACE inhibitor users than for ARB users. This large observational study may suggest a lower COVID-19 risk in hypertensive patients treated over a long period with ACE inhibitors or ARBs compared with CCBs. These results, if confirmed, tend to contradict previous hypotheses and raise new hypotheses.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , /fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 523-526, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people have been infected with thousands of deaths. Few data regarding factors that increase the risk of infection are available. Our study aimed to evaluate all people living in retirement homes (PLRNH) and identify factors that could increase infection risk in a close community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all PLRNH, where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on the infection. RESULTS: We included 452 PLRNH; 144 (31.7%) were male, with a mean age of 82.2±8.6 years. People with a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 were 306 (67.4%). A significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected and not infected was observed in the percentage of those receiving chronic treatment with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (18.6% vs. 9.5%, p=0.012). On the contrary, there was no difference in the proportion of those receiving ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (21.2% vs. 23.6%, p=0.562). At multivariate analysis, people with mental illness and cancer had an increased risk of being infected. Furthermore, receiving ARBs as a chronic treatment was an independent predictor of infection risk [OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.03-3.72) p=0.041]. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in close communities, such as retirement nursing homes, the receipt of ARBs increased the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, before changing an important chronic treatment in a fragile population, such as the elderly living in retirement nursing homes, clinicians should carefully evaluate the risk-benefit ratio.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(2): e25452, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The country of Spain has one of the highest incidences of COVID-19, with more than 1,000,000 cases as of the end of October 2020. Patients with a history of chronic conditions, obesity, and cancer are at greater risk from COVID-19; moreover, concerns surrounding the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin type II receptor blockers (ARBs) and its relationship to COVID-19 susceptibility have increased since the beginning of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 to those of patients without COVID-19 in primary care; to determine the risk factors associated with the outcome of mortality; and to determine the potential influence of certain medications, such as ACEIs and ARBs, on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: An observational retrospective study of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Catalan Central Region of Spain between March 1 and August 17, 2020, was conducted. The data were obtained from the Primary Care Services Information Technologies System of the Catalan Institute of Health in Barcelona, Spain. RESULTS: The study population included 348,596 patients (aged >15 years) registered in the Primary Care Services Information Technologies System of the Catalan Central Region. The mean age of the patients was 49.53 years (SD 19.42), and 31.17% of the patients were aged ≥60 years. 175,484/348,596 patients (50.34%) were women. A total of 23,844/348,596 patients (6.84%) in the population studied were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period, and the most common clinical conditions of these patients were hypertension (5267 patients, 22.1%) and obesity (5181 patients, 21.7%). Overall, 2680/348,596 patients in the study population (0.77%) died during the study period. The number of deaths among patients without COVID-19 was 1825/324,752 (0.56%; mean age 80.6 years, SD 13.3), while among patients diagnosed with COVID-19, the number of deaths was 855/23,844 (3.58%; mean age 83.0 years, SD 10.80) with an OR of 6.58 (95% CI 6.06-7.15). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that women were more likely to contract COVID-19 than men. In addition, our study did not show that hypertension, obesity, or being treated with ACEIs or ARBs was linked to an increase in mortality in patients with COVID-19. Age is the main factor associated with mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , /mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520979151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) use with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the impact of ACEI/ARB use on all-cause mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. METHODS: We enrolled 650 COVID-19 patients from Changsha and Wuhan city between 17 January 2020 and 8 March 2020. Demographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were collected. Multivariable analysis and propensity-score matching were performed to assess the impact of ACEI/ARB therapy on mortality. RESULTS: Among the 650 patients, 126 who had severe COVID-19 concomitant with hypertension were analyzed. The average age was 66 years and 56 (44.4%) were men. There were 37 ACEI/ARB users and 21 in-hospital deaths (mortality rate, 16.7%). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 5.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 17.8), but not ACEI/ARB use (OR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.31 to 3.43), was an independent risk factor for mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. After propensity-score matching, 60 severe COVID-19 patients were included and no significant correlation between use of ACEI/ARB and mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association of ACEI/ARB use with mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. These findings support the continuation of ACEI/ARB therapy for such patients.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , /complicações , /virologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , /patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(1): 35-46, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the national level and worldwide show a higher rate of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) due to COVID-19, which determines the high relevance of risk factor analysis for outcomes in DM patients to substantiate the strategy for this category of patients. AIM: To assess the effect of clinical and demographic parameters (age, gender, body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (HbA1c), and antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs) on clinical outcomes (recovery or death) in patients with type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Russian Register of Diabetes database was performed, including patients with type 2 DM (n=309) who suffered pneumonia/COVID-19 in the period from 01.02.2020 to 27.04.2020 and the indicated outcome of the disease (recovery or death) RESULTS: The percentage of lethality was determined to be 15.2% (47 of 309 people). The degree of lethality was found to be significantly higher in males (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.1–3.9; p=0.022) and in patients on insulin therapy (OR=2.67; 95% CI; 1.42–5.02; p=0.002), while it was significantly lower in patients with an age <65 years (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.18–0.67; p=0.001) and in patients receiving metformin (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14–0,5; p<0.0001), antihypertensive therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.82; p=0.009), β-blockers (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.08–0.86; p=0.018), diuretics (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.17–0.93; p=0.028) and renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACE inhibitors or ARBs) (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.18–0.74; p=0.004). A tendency to an increase in lethality at higher rates of HbA1c and BMI was present, but it did not reach a statistical significance. Differences between patients receiving insulin therapy and those who were not receiving the insulin therapy were observed as follows: a significantly longer duration of type 2 DM (13.4 vs. 6.8 years, respectively; p<0.0001), worse overall glyacemic control (HbA1c: 8.1% vs. 7.0%, resp.; p<0.0001), and three times more frequent failure to achieve the HbA1c goal by more than 2.5% (14.7% vs. 5.9%, resp.; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The identified risk factors for lethality in patients with type 2 DM indicate that good glycemic control and previous treatment with metformin and antihypertensive drugs (including RAS blockers) could reduce the frequency of deaths. In patients on insulin therapy, a higher lethality degree was associated with worse glycemic control.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/virologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , /patogenicidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is the receptor that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses for entry into lung cells. Because ACE-2 may be modulated by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), there is concern that patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs are at higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. AIM: This study sought to analyze the association of COVID-19 pneumonia with previous treatment with ACEIs and ARBs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 684 consecutive patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia and tested by polymerase chain reaction assay. Patients were split into two groups, according to whether (group 1, n = 484) or not (group 2, n = 250) COVID-19 was confirmed. Multivariable adjusted comparisons included a propensity score analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.6 ± 18.7 years, and 302 patients (44%) were female. Hypertension was present in 42.6% and 38.4% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.28). Treatment with ARBs was more frequent in group 1 than group 2 (20.7% vs. 12.0%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.98; P = 0.004). No difference was found for treatment with ACEIs (12.7% vs. 15.7%, respectively; OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52-1.26; P = 0.35). Propensity score-matched multivariable logistic regression confirmed a significant association between COVID-19 and previous treatment with ARBs (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.38-4.04; P = 0.002). Significant interaction between ARBs and ACEIs for the risk of COVID-19 was observed in patients aged > 60 years, women, and hypertensive patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that ACEIs and ARBs are not similarly associated with COVID-19. In this retrospective series, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia more frequently had previous treatment with ARBs compared with patients without COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012569, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin inhibitors (RIs) reduce blood pressure more than placebo, with the magnitude of this effect thought to be similar to that for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, a drug's efficacy in lowering blood pressure cannot be considered as a definitive indicator of its effectiveness in reducing mortality and morbidity. The effectiveness and safety of RIs compared to ACE inhibitors in treating hypertension is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors in people with primary hypertension. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Group Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to August 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. The searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized, active-controlled, double-blinded studies (RCTs) with at least four weeks follow-up in people with primary hypertension, which compared renin inhibitors with ACE inhibitors and reported morbidity, mortality, adverse events or blood pressure outcomes. We excluded people with proven secondary hypertension. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the included trials, evaluated the risks of bias and entered the data for analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We include 11 RCTs involving 13,627 participants, with a mean baseline age from 51.5 to 74.2 years. Follow-up duration ranged from four weeks to 36.6 months. There was no difference between RIs and ACE inhibitors for the outcomes: all-cause mortality: risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.18; 5 RCTs, 5962 participants; low-certainty evidence; total myocardial infarction: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.39; 2 RCTs, 957 participants; very low-certainty evidence; adverse events: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.03; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants;  moderate-certainty evidence; serious adverse events: RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.64; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants; low-certainty evidence; and withdrawal due to adverse effects: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.06; 10 RTCs, 6008 participants; low-certainty evidence. No data were available for total cardiovascular events, heart failure, stroke, end-stage renal disease or change in heart rate. Low-certainty evidence suggested that RIs reduced systolic blood pressure: mean difference (MD) -1.72, 95% CI -2.47 to -0.97; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants;  and diastolic blood pressure: MD -1.18, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.72; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants,  to a greater extent than ACE inhibitors, but we judged this to be more likely due to bias than a true effect.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of hypertension, we have low certainty that renin inhibitors (RI) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do not differ for all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction. We have low to moderate certainty that they do not differ for adverse events. Small reductions in blood pressure with renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors are of low certainty.  More independent, large, long-term trials are needed to compare RIs with ACE inhibitors, particularly assessing morbidity and mortality outcomes, but also on blood pressure-lowering effect.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Renina/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Fumaratos/efeitos adversos , Fumaratos/uso terapêutico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Irbesartana/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ramipril/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 3119-3123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121220

RESUMO

The present Perspective examined the latest evidence on the association between the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the incidence/mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our critical appraisal from existing literature does not support discontinuation of ACEIs/ARBs in clinical practice as there is absence of solid evidence. However, we do recommend future research perspective in formulation and implementation of practice-changing guidelines.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(6): e00666, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084232

RESUMO

Conflicting evidence exists about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on COVID-19 clinical outcomes. We aimed to provide a comprehensive/updated evaluation of the effect of ACEIs/ARBs on COVID-19-related clinical outcomes, including exploration of interclass differences between ACEIs and ARBs, using a systematic review/meta-analysis approach conducted in Medline (OVID), Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library, and medRxiv from inception to 22 May 2020. English studies that evaluated the effect of ACEIs/ARBs among patients with COVID-19 were included. Studies' quality was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were analyzed using the random-effects modeling stratified by exposure (ACEIs/ARBs, ACEIs, and ARBs). Heterogeneiity was assessed using I2 statistic. Several subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the impact of potential confounders. Overall, 27 studies were eligible. The pooled analyses showed nonsignificant associations between ACEIs/ARBs and death (OR:0.97, 95%CI:0.75,1.27), ICU admission (OR:1.09;95%CI:0.65,1.81), death/ICU admission (OR:0.67; 95%CI:0.52,0.86), risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:1.01; 95%CI:0.93,1.10), severe infection (OR:0.78; 95%CI:0.53,1.15), and hospitalization (OR:1.15; 95%CI:0.81,1.65). However, the subgroup analyses indicated significant association between ACEIs/ARBs and hospitalization among USA studies (OR:1.59; 95%CI:1.03,2.44), peer-reviewed (OR:1.93, 95%CI:1.38,2.71), good quality and studies which reported adjusted measure of effect (OR:1.30, 95%CI:1.10,1.50). Significant differences were found between ACEIs and ARBs with the latter being significantly associated with lower risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection (OR:0.24; 95%CI: 0.17,0.34). In conclusion, high-quality evidence exists for the effect of ACEIs/ARBs on some COVID-19 clinical outcomes. For the first time, we provided evidence, albeit of low quality, on interclass differences between ACEIs and ARBs for some of the reported clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 69(5): 247-254, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 is the receptor of SARSCoV-2 for cell entry into lung cells. Because ACE-2 may be modulated by ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), there are concern that patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection or severity. This study sought to analyse the association of severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality with hypertension and a previous treatment with ACEI and ARB. METHODS: Prospective follow-up of 433 consecutive patients hospitalised for COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by PCR or highly probable on clinical, biological, and radiological findings, and included in the COVHYP study. Mortality and severe COVID-19 (criteria: death, intensive care unit, or hospitalisation >30 days) were compared in patients receiving or not ACEIs and ARBs. Follow-up was 100% at hospital discharge, and 96.5% at >1month. RESULTS: Age was 63.6±18.7 years, and 40%) were female. At follow-up (mean 78±50 days), 136 (31%) patients had severity criteria (death, 64 ; intensive care unit, 73; hospital stay >30 days, 49). Hypertension (55.1% vs 36.7%, P<0.001) and antihypertensive treatment were associated with severe COVID-19 and mortality. The association between ACEI/ARB treatment and COVID-19 severity criteria found in univariate analysis (Odds Ratio 1.74, 95%CI [1.14-2.64], P=0.01) was not confirmed when adjusted on age, gender, and hypertension (adjusted OR1.13 [0.59-2.15], P=0.72). Diabetes and hypothyroidism were associated with severe COVID-19, whereas history of asthma was not. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that previous treatment with ACEI and ARB is not associated with hospital mortality, 1- and 2-month mortality, and severity criteria in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. No protective effect of ACEIs and ARBs on severe pneumonia related to COVID-19 was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1563-1571, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869673

RESUMO

The viral spike coat protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engages the human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients taking ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]). We systematically assessed case-population and cohort studies from MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews PubMed, Embase, medRXIV, the World Health Organization database of COVID-19 publications, and ClinicalTrials.gov through June 1, 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. After pooling the adjusted odds ratios from the included studies, no significant increase was noted in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by the use of ACE inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.86-1.05]) or ARBs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.97-1.14]). However, the random-effects meta-regression revealed that age may modify the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in subjects with the use of ARBs (coefficient, -0.006 [95% CI, -0.016 to 0.004]), that is, the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects (<60 years old). The use of ACE inhibitors might not increase the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of disease, and mortality in case-population and cohort studies. Additionally, we discovered for the first time that the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects, without obvious effects on COVID-19 outcomes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 4349612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983258

RESUMO

Background: Central aortic blood pressure (CABP) indices, central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness are better predictors of cardiovascular events as compared with brachial cuff pressure measurements alone. The present study is aimed at assessing the effects of different antihypertensive drug combination regimens involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on CABP indices in Indian patients with hypertension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, single-center study conducted in patients treated for hypertension for >6 weeks using different treatment regimens involving the combination of RAAS inhibitors with drugs from other classes. CABP indices, vascular age, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics were measured in patients using the noninvasive Agedio B900 device (IEM, Stolberg, Germany) and compared between different treatment regimens. Results: A total of 199 patients with a mean age of 54.22 ± 10.15 years were enrolled, where 68.8% had hypertension for over three years and 50.25% had their systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg. Combination treatment with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) was given to 77.9% and to 20.1% patients, respectively. The mean vascular age was higher than the actual age (58.13 ± 12.43 vs. 54.22 ± 10.15, p = 0.001). The SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels in patients treated with ACEI-based combinations were lower than those in patients treated with ARB-based combinations (p < 0.05). The mean central pulse pressure amplification, augmentation pressure, and augmentation index were lower in patients treated with ACEI-based combinations than those treated with other treatments (p = 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, patients given perindopril and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or diuretics had significantly lower CABP and pulse wave velocity than those given other treatments (p < 0.05). A total of 6.5% patients experienced any side effects. Conclusion: The majority of central hemodynamic parameters, including vascular age, were found to improve more effectively in patients treated with ACEIs than with ARBs. Our results indicate a gap between routine clinical practice and evidence-based guidelines in Indian settings and identify a need to reevaluate the current antihypertensive prescription strategy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926651, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients lacks evidence and is still controversial. This study was designed to investigate effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients and to assess the safety of ACEIs/ARBs medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS COVID-19 patients with hypertension from 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 17 Feb to 18 Mar 2020 were retrospectively screened and grouped according to in-hospital medication. We performed 1: 1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS We included 210 patients and allocated them to ACEIs/ARBs (n=81; 46.91% males) or non-ACEIs/ARBs (n=129; 48.06% males) groups. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 61.5-76] and 66 (IQR 59-72.5) years, respectively. General comparison showed mortality in the ACEIs/ARBs group was higher (8.64% vs. 3.88%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.148). ACEIs/ARBs was associated with significantly more cases 7-categorical ordinal scale >2 at discharge, more cases requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and increased values and ratio of days that blood pressure (BP) was above normal range (P<0.05). PSM analysis showed no significant difference in mortality, cumulative survival rate, or other clinical outcomes such as length of in-hospital/ICU stay, BP fluctuations, or ratio of adverse events between groups after adjustment for confounding parameters on admission. CONCLUSIONS We found no association between ACEIs/ARBs and clinical outcomes or adverse events, thus indicating no evidence for discontinuing use of ACEIs/ARBs in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , China , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(6): 1477-1480, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920716

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a correspondence, published at the Lancet Respiratory Medicine, that linked angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and ibuprofen to a higher risk of SARS CoV-2 infection and complications, has influenced, when adopted by official health authorities, the practical management of COVID-19 with regard to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that were avoided in all COVID-19 management protocols all over the world. This manuscript discusses, from a pharmacological point of view, the points of weakness in the mentioned correspondence and it also lists some important contradictory review articles as well as clinical results that refuted its claims. The author chose to argue against each claim represented in the mentioned correspondence to confirm that ACEIs, ARBs and NSAIDs including ibuprofen should not be considered hazardous to be administered for COVID-19 patients and to warn against any future adoption of such unproved claims.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Pandemias
18.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(11): 90, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910274

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the COVID-19 pandemic is constantly evolving, it remains unclear whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) affects the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this meta-analysis, PubMed, CENTRAL, and grey literature were searched from their inception to 19 May 2020 for randomized, controlled trials or observational studies that evaluate the association between the use of either ACE inhibitors or ARBs and the risk for major clinical endpoints (infection, hospitalization, admission to ICU, death) in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a subgroup geographical analysis of outcomes was performed. Studies including less than 100 subjects were excluded from our analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: In total, 25 observational studies were included. ACE inhibitors and ARBs were not associated with increased odds for SARS-CoV-2 infection, admission to hospital, severe or critical illness, admission to ICU, and SARS-CoV-2-related death. In Asian countries, the use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs decreased the odds for severe or critical illness and death (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.89, I2 = 83%, and OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99, I2 = 0%, respectively), whereas they increased the odds for ICU admission in North America and death in Europe (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.37-2.23, I2 = 0%, and OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.05-2.70, I2 = 82%, respectively). ACE inhibitors might be marginally protective regarding SARS-CoV-2-related death compared with ARBs (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00, I2 = 0%). Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the aforementioned associations between ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Ásia , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América do Norte , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912894

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, binds to the ACE2 receptors. ACE2 is thought to counterbalance ACE in the renin-angiotensin system. While presently it is advised that patients should continue to use ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, questions still remain as to whether adverse effects are potentiated by the virus. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old man, unknowingly with COVID-19, who presented to the emergency department with tongue swelling, shortness of breath and difficulty in speaking following 4 months taking benazepril, an ACE inhibitor. Finally, we also describe possible pathways that exist for SARS-CoV-2 to interact with the mechanism behind angioedema.


Assuntos
Angioedema/induzido quimicamente , Angioedema/complicações , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Benzazepinas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Angioedema/tratamento farmacológico , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Difenidramina/uso terapêutico , Famotidina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 161-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908071

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is found to be associated with various comorbidities which include cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. The impaired regulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been seen in COVID-19 patients, but whether RAAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are responsible for worsening of clinical conditions remains unknown. Herein, we review the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in disease progression, its association with comorbidities and COVID-19, and summarize the clinical evidence for several potential directions for future research work on ACEIs/ARBs in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Internalização do Vírus , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
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