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1.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429580

RESUMO

Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug that is currently undergoing extensive clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. The prodrug is metabolized to its active triphosphate form and interferes with the action of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-COV-2. Herein, we report the antiviral activity of remdesivir against human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) compared to known anti-HIV agents. These agents included tenofovir (TFV), 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA), alovudine (FLT), lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitabine (FTC), known as nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and a number of 5'-O-fatty acylated anti-HIV nucleoside conjugates. The anti-HIV nucleosides interfere with HIV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and/or act as chain terminators. Normal human fibroblast lung cells (MRC-5) were used to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds. The study revealed that remdesivir exhibited an EC50 value of 0.07 µM against HCoV-229E with TC50 of > 2.00 µM against MRC-5 cells. Parent NRTIs were found to be inactive against (HCoV-229E) at tested concentrations. Among all the NRTIs and 5'-O-fatty acyl conjugates of NRTIs, 5'-O-tetradecanoyl ester conjugate of FTC showed modest activity with EC50 and TC50 values of 72.8 µM and 87.5 µM, respectively. These data can be used for the design of potential compounds against other coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus Humano 229E/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química
2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111864, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767136

RESUMO

A series of indazolyl-substituted piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidines (IPAPYs) were designed from two potent HIV-1 NNRTIs piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine 3c and diaryl ether 4 as the lead compounds by molecular hybridization strategy. The target molecules 5a-q were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities and cytotoxicities in MT-4 cells. 5a-q displayed moderate to excellent activities against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 with EC50 values ranging from 1.5 to 0.0064 µM. Among them, 5q was regarded as the most excellent compound against WT HIV-1 (EC50 = 6.4 nM, SI = 2500). And also, it displayed potent activities against K103 N (EC50 = 0.077 µM), Y181C (EC50 = 0.11 µM), E138K (EC50 = 0.057 µM), and moderate activity against double mutants RES056 (EC50 = 8.7 µM). Moreover, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were summarized, and the molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding mode of IPAPYs and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Indazóis/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111900, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771827

RESUMO

Since dual inhibitors may yield lower toxicity and reduce the likelihood of drug resistance, as well as inhibitors of HIV-1 PR and RT constitute the core of chemotherapy for AIDS treatment, we herein designed and synthesized new coumarin derivatives characterized by various linkers that exhibited excellent potency against PR and a weak inhibition of RT. Among which, compounds 6f and 7c inhibited PR with IC50 values of 15.5 and 62.1 nM, respectively, and weakly affected also RT with IC50 values of 241.8 and 188.7 µM, respectively, showing the possibility in the future of developing dual HIV-1 PR/RT inhibitors. Creative stimulation for further research of more potent dual HIV-1 inhibitors was got according to the molecular docking studies.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Protease de HIV/metabolismo , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Linhagem Celular , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/síntese química , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111874, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735575

RESUMO

The fragment hopping approach is widely applied in drug development. A series of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) were obtained by hopping the thioacetamide scaffold to novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) to address the cytotoxicity issue of Etravirine and Rilpivirine. Although the new compounds (11a-l) in the first-round optimization possessed less potent anti-viral activity, they showed much lower cytotoxicity. Further optimization on the sulfur led to the sulfinylacetamide-DAPYs exhibiting improved anti-viral activity and a higher selectivity index especially toward the K103N mutant strain. The most potent compound 12a displayed EC50 values of 0.0249 µM against WT and 0.0104 µM against the K103N mutant strain, low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 221 µM) and a high selectivity index (SI WT > 8873, SI K103N > 21186). In addition, this compound showed a favorable in vitro microsomal stability across species. Computational study predicted the binding models of these potent compounds with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase thus providing further insights for new developments.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Acetamidas/síntese química , Acetamidas/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Science ; 366(6470): 1255-1259, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806816

RESUMO

Enzyme-catalyzed reactions have begun to transform pharmaceutical manufacturing, offering levels of selectivity and tunability that can dramatically improve chemical synthesis. Combining enzymatic reactions into multistep biocatalytic cascades brings additional benefits. Cascades avoid the waste generated by purification of intermediates. They also allow reactions to be linked together to overcome an unfavorable equilibrium or avoid the accumulation of unstable or inhibitory intermediates. We report an in vitro biocatalytic cascade synthesis of the investigational HIV treatment islatravir. Five enzymes were engineered through directed evolution to act on non-natural substrates. These were combined with four auxiliary enzymes to construct islatravir from simple building blocks in a three-step biocatalytic cascade. The overall synthesis requires fewer than half the number of steps of the previously reported routes.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Desoxiadenosinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Biotecnologia/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/síntese química , Estereoisomerismo
6.
Commun Biol ; 2: 469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872074

RESUMO

Emtricitabine (FTC) and lamivudine (3TC), containing an oxathiolane ring with unnatural (-)-stereochemistry, are widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in anti-HIV therapy. Treatment with FTC or 3TC primarily selects for the HIV-1 RT M184V/I resistance mutations. Here we provide a comprehensive kinetic and structural basis for inhibiting HIV-1 RT by (-)-FTC-TP and (-)-3TC-TP and drug resistance by M184V. (-)-FTC-TP and (-)-3TC-TP have higher binding affinities (1/K d) for wild-type RT but slower incorporation rates than dCTP. HIV-1 RT ternary crystal structures with (-)-FTC-TP and (-)-3TC-TP corroborate kinetic results demonstrating that their oxathiolane sulfur orients toward the DNA primer 3'-terminus and their triphosphate exists in two different binding conformations. M184V RT displays greater (>200-fold) K d for the L-nucleotides and moderately higher (>9-fold) K d for the D-isomers compared to dCTP. The M184V RT structure illustrates how the mutation repositions the oxathiolane of (-)-FTC-TP and shifts its triphosphate into a non-productive conformation.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Nucleotídeos/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia
7.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 69(12): 671-682, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698495

RESUMO

In this study, amino-oxy-diarylquinolines were designed using structure-guided molecular hybridization strategy and fusing of the pharmacophore templates of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), etravirine (ETV, TMC125) and rilpivirine (RPV, TMC278). The anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was evaluated using standard ELISA method, and the cytotoxic activity was performed using MTT and XTT assays. The primary bioassay results indicated that 2-amino-4-oxy-diarylquinolines possess moderate inhibitory properties against HIV-1 RT. Molecular docking results showed that 2-amino-4-oxy-diarylquinolines 8(A-D): interacted with the Lys101 and His235 residue though hydrogen bonding and interacted with Tyr318 residue though π-π stacking in HIV-1 RT. Furthermore, 8A: and 8D: were the most potent anti-HIV agents among the designed and synthesized compounds, and their inhibition rates were 34.0% and 39.7% at 1 µM concentration. Interestingly, 8A: was highly cytotoxicity against MOLT-3 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), with an IC50 of 4.63±0.62 µg/mL, which was similar with that in EFV and TMC278 (IC50 7.76±0.37 and 1.57±0.20 µg/ml, respectively). Therefore, these analogs of the synthesized compounds can serve as excellent bases for the development of new anti-HIV-1 agents in the near future.


Assuntos
Diarilquinolinas/química , Diarilquinolinas/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Benzoxazinas/química , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nevirapina/química , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Piridazinas/química , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Rilpivirina/química , Rilpivirina/farmacologia
8.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV is the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an infectious disease with increasing incidence worldwide. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) play an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Although, many compounds are already being used as anti-HIV drugs, research for the development of new inhibitors continues as the virus develops resistant strains. METHODS: The best features of available NNRTIs were taken into account for the design of novel inhibitors. PASS (Prediction of activity spectra for substances) prediction program and molecular docking studies for the selection of designed compounds were used for the synthesis. Compounds were synthesized using conventional and microwave irradiation methods and HIV RT inhibitory action was evaluated by colorimetric photometric immunoassay. RESULTS: The evaluation of HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity revealed that seven compounds have significantly lower ΙC50 values than nevirapine (0.3 µΜ). It was observed that the activity of compounds depends not only on the nature of substituent and it position in benzothiazole ring but also on the nature and position of substituents in benzene ring. CONCLUSION: Twenty four of the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory action lower than 4 µΜ. Seven of them showed better activity than nevirapine, while three of the compounds exhibited IC50 values lower than 5 nM. Two compounds 9 and 10 exhibited very good inhibitory activity with IC50 1 nM.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-HIV , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/enzimologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa , Tiazóis , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/enzimologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111619, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434039

RESUMO

For more in-depth exploration of the chemical space around the entrance channel of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), a series of novel indolylarylsulfones (IASs) bearing different chiral N-substituted pyrrolidine, azetidine or substituted sulfonamide groups at indole-2-carboxamide were designed and synthesized as potent HIV NNRTIs by structure-guided scaffold morphing approach. All the IASs exhibited moderate to excellent potency against wild-type HIV-1 with EC50 values ranging from 0.0043 µM to 4.42 µM. Notably, compound 27 (EC50 = 4.7 nM, SI = 5183) and 33 (EC50 = 4.3 nM, SI = 7083) were identified as the most potent compounds, which were more active than nevirapine, lamivudine and efavirenz, and also reached the same order of etravirine. Furthermore, some compounds maintained excellent activity against various single HIV-1 mutants (L100I, K103 N, E138K, Y181C) as well as one double mutant (F227L/V106A) with EC50 values in low-micromolar concentration ranges. Notably, 34 displayed outstanding potency against F227L/V106A (EC50 = 0.094 µM), and also showed exceptional activity against E138K (EC50 = 0.014 µM), L100I (EC50 = 0.011 µM) and K103 N (EC50 = 0.025 µM). Additionally, most compounds showed markedly reduced cytotoxicity (CC50) compared to lead compounds, especially 36 (CC50 > 234.91 µM, SI > 18727) and 37 (CC50 > 252.49 µM, SI > 15152). Preliminary SARs and molecular modeling studies were also discussed in detail, which may provide valuable insights for further optimization.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonas/síntese química , Sulfonas/química
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111603, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421633

RESUMO

Conformational restriction is a promising strategy in the development of DAPY-type non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Herein, eighteen thiophene-biphenyl-DAPY derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs in which halogen and methyl groups were introduced to explore the conformationally constrained effects. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation analysis indicated that substituents on different positions of the biphenyl ring induced different dihedral angles and binding conformations, further explaining their anti-viral activities. The 2'-fluoro and 3'-chloro substitutions could form electrostatic or halogen-bonding interactions with adjacent residues of the RT enzyme. The 2'-methyl group contributed to enlarge the dihedral angle of biphenyl ring and was positioned to a space-filling hydrophobic pocket. Notably, compounds 22 and 23 with two methyl groups exhibited potent biological activity against WT HIV-1-infected MT-4 cells (EC50 = 14 and 17 nM, respectively) and RT enzyme (EC50 = 27 and 42 nM, respectively). In particular, 23 exhibited much lower cytotoxicity (CC50 = 264.19 µM) and higher selectivity index (SI = 18,564) than etravirine. Taken together, a rational conformational model for further design of DAPYs is proposed, providing a new guidance for the development of NNRTIs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/enzimologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/química
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111617, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442684

RESUMO

A number of compounds targeting different processes of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle have been developed in the continuing fight against AIDS. Coumarin-based molecules already proved to act as HIV-1 Protease (PR) or Integrase (IN) inhibitors and also to target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), blocking the DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity or the RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity working as common NNRTIs. In the present study, with the aim to exploit a coumarin-based scaffold to achieve the inhibition of multiple viral coded enzymatic functions, novel 4-hydroxy-2H, 5H-pyrano (3, 2-c) chromene-2, 5-dione derivatives were synthesized. The modeling studies calculated the theoretical binding affinity of the synthesized compounds on both HIV-1 IN and RT-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) active sites, which was confirmed by biological assays. Our results provide a basis for the identification of dual HIV-1 IN and RT RNase H inhibitors compounds.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Ribonuclease H do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/antagonistas & inibidores , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/síntese química , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/química , HIV-1/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Ribonuclease H do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 286, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410664

RESUMO

5-Chloro-3-phenylsulfonylindole-2-carboxamide (CSIC) is a highly potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with potential for use in topical prophylaxis against HIV transmission. However, the hydrophobic nature of CSIC limits its administration through vaginal route. In this study, we developed nanocrystals of CSIC to potentially improve the aqueous solubility and intracellular uptake of CSIC in vitro and in vivo. CSIC nanocrystals were manufactured and stabilized with Pluronic F98 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5. Transmission electron microscopy showed CSIC nanocrystals to be needle-like. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed a hydrodynamic size of 243 nm (polydispersity index < 0.3) and near neutral surface charge (- 7.8 mV). Particle size was maintained for at least 7 days in the liquid state and for at least 5 months after lyophilization. Drug content in the CSIC nanocrystal formulation (nanosuspension) was 0.8 mg/mL, which is 1000 times higher than the aqueous solubility of CSIC. In vitro release study showed that over 90% of CSIC was released from the nanocrystal formulation in a linear fashion over a period of 4 days. Importantly, CSIC nanocrystals showed equivalent cell-based anti-HIV activity (EC50 ~ 1 nM) as that of non-formulated drug. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid macrophage uptake of CSIC nanocrystals via both energy-dependent (endocytosis) and independent processes. In vivo studies in Swiss Webster female mice showed that the nanocrystal formulation significantly improved CSIC delivery to mouse cervicovaginal tissues following intravaginal instillation. In summary, nanocrystals are a promising formulation approach for topical delivery of CSIC for protection against HIV sexual transmission.


Assuntos
Indóis/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Indóis/química , Camundongos , Gravidez , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Solubilidade
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 423-448, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265935

RESUMO

HIV infection is a major challenge to mankind and a definitive cure or a viable vaccine for HIV is still elusive. HIV-1 is constantly evolving and developing resistant against clinically used anti-HIV drugs thus posing serious hurdles in the treatment of HIV infection. This prompts the need to developed new anti-HIV drugs; preferentially adopting intelligent ways to counteract an evolving virus. Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART): a strategy involving multiple targeting through various drugs has proven beneficial in the management of AIDS. However, it is a complex regimen with high drug load, increased risk of drug interactions and adverse effects, which lead to poor patient compliance. Reverse transcriptase (RT) and Integrase (IN) are two pivotal enzymes in HIV-1 lifecycle with high structural and functional analogy to be perceived as drug-able targets for novel dual-purpose inhibitors. Designed multi-functional ligand (DML) is a modern strategy by which multiple targets can be exploited using a single chemical entity. A single chemical entity acting on multiple targets can be much more effective than a complex multi-drug regimen. The development of such multifunctional ligands is highly valued in anti-HIV drug discovery with the proposed advantage of being able to stop two or more stages of viral replication cycle. This review will encompass the evolution of the RT-IN dual inhibitory scaffolds reported so far and the contribution made by the leading research groups over the years in this field.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química
14.
Protein Sci ; 28(9): 1664-1675, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301259

RESUMO

The retrovirus HIV-1 has been a major health issue since its discovery in the early 80s. In 2017, over 37 million people were infected with HIV-1, of which 1.8 million were new infections that year. Currently, the most successful treatment regimen is the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which consists of a combination of three to four of the current 26 FDA-approved HIV-1 drugs. Half of these drugs target the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme that is essential for viral replication. One class of RT inhibitors is nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), a crucial component of the HAART. Once incorporated into DNA, NRTIs function as a chain terminator to stop viral DNA replication. Unfortunately, treatment with NRTIs is sometimes linked to toxicity caused by off-target side effects. NRTIs may also target the replicative human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (Pol γ), causing long-term severe drug toxicity. The goal of this work is to understand the discrimination mechanism of different NRTI analogues by RT. Crystal structures and kinetic experiments are essential for the rational design of new molecules that are able to bind selectively to RT and not Pol γ. Structural comparison of NRTI-binding modes with both RT and Pol γ enzymes highlights key amino acids that are responsible for the difference in affinity of these drugs to their targets. Therefore, the long-term goal of this research is to develop safer, next generation therapeutics that can overcome off-target toxicity.


Assuntos
Polimerase do DNA Mitocondrial/química , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/química , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Polimerase do DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Emtricitabina/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 239, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243640

RESUMO

Polymeric films are safe and effective and can be used for vaginal administration of microbicide drug candidates. Dapivirine (DPV), an investigational and clinically advanced antiretroviral drug, was selected as a model compound for this study. We have previously developed and clinically tested a quick-dissolving DPV film using solvent cast (SC) manufacturing technique. As an alternative to current pharmaceutical film manufacturing techniques, we investigated hot melt extrusion (HME) process in this study because it has several benefits, including its capacity as a continuous manufacturing process, lack of solvents, smaller footprint, and ease of scalability. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of using HME for DPV vaginal film manufacturing and to develop a robust manufacturing process using HME by evaluating the effect of process parameters on film quality and performance. DPV was successfully incorporated into a vaginal film using HME and maintained acceptable characteristics. Three process parameters (zone temperature, screw speed, and feed rate) had an impact on film quality and performance. Of these, the zone temperature was found to most significantly affect weight, thickness, puncture strength, and dissolution of films. Additionally, film manufacturing using HME was highly reproducible. Finally, the DPV HME film was comparable to films manufactured using SC in terms of physicochemical, biological, and safety characteristics including in vitro drug release, mechanical strength, tissue permeability, compatibility with commensal vaginal Lactobacilli, and in vitro bioactivity. These results demonstrate that HME is an effective, robust, and viable manufacturing method to produce vaginal films.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Administração Intravaginal , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Congelamento , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polímeros/química , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 174: 277-291, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051402

RESUMO

Since the entrance channel was proposed as a new binding site in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor binding pocket (NNIBP) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in 2012, a huge number of HIV-1 inhibitors acting on this target have sprung up, aiming to discover promising inhibitors with excellent antiviral activities, physicochemical properties, and so on. From 2012 to 2018, many noteworthy compounds have been continuously discovered. In this review, the recent progress in HIV-1 inhibitors targeting the entrance channel of HIV-1 NNIBP was summarized and reviewed, which would provide useful clues and inspiration for further design of HIV-1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química
17.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052607

RESUMO

The pyrimidine nucleus is a versatile core in the development of antiretroviral agents. On this basis, a series of pyrimidine-2,4-diones linked to an isoxazolidine nucleus have been synthesized and tested as nucleoside analogs, endowed with potential anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activity. Compounds 6a-c, characterized by the presence of an ethereal group at C-3, show HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor activity in the nanomolar range as well as HIV-infection inhibitor activity in the low micromolar with no toxicity. In the same context, compound 7b shows only a negligible inhibition of RT HIV.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Técnicas de Química Sintética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química
18.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(12): 3202-3217, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839042

RESUMO

Enlightened by our previous efforts to modify diarylpyrimidines as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reported crystallographic studies, we designed and synthesized novel 1,2,3-triazole-derived diarylpyrimidine derivatives via the CuAAC "click reaction", to make additional interactions with the hydrophobic channel in the NNRTI binding pocket. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV potency in MT-4 cells. All the compounds showed favorable activity against the wild-type HIV-1 strain with an EC50 of 0.013-5.62 µM. Interestingly, some compounds displayed remarkable potency in inhibiting K103N mutant virus, a key drug-resistant mutant to NNRTIs. Among them, meta-methylbenzoate (ZL2, EC50(IIIB) = 0.020 µM, EC50(K103N) = 0.043 µM, CC50 > 241.52 µM), para-methylbenzoate (ZL3, EC50(IIIB) = 0.013 µM, EC50 (K103N) = 0.022 µM, CC50 > 241.52 µM) and para-phenol (ZL7, EC50(IIIB) = 0.014 µM, EC50 (K103N) = 0.054 µM, CC50 = 2.1 µM) derivatives are the three most promising compounds which are superior to the first-line antiretroviral drug efavirenz (EC50(IIIB) = 0.003 µM, EC50 (K103N) = 0.11 µM, CC50 > 6.34 µM) against the K103N mutant strain. More encouragingly, ZL2 and ZL3 exhibited much lower cytotoxicity and a high selection index of >10 000 compared with all the control drugs (AZT, 3TC, NVP, EFV, and ETV). The detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR), enzymatic inhibitory activity and docking study of the representative compounds are also discussed. Furthermore, the preliminary physicochemical properties and the early metabolic stability of representative compounds were examined to evaluate their drug-like properties.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/genética , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química
19.
Antivir Chem Chemother ; 27: 2040206619826265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788976

RESUMO

With the worldwide number of human immunodeficiency virus positive patients stagnant and the increasing emergence of viral strains resistant to current treatment, the development of novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug candidates is a perpetual quest of medicinal chemists. Herein, we report a novel group of diarylpyrimidines, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which represents an important class of current anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy. Series of diarylpyrimidines containing o, o-difluorophenyl (A-arm), 4-cyanophenylamino (B-arm), and a small substituent (e.g. NH2, OMe) at positions 2, 4, and 6 of the pyrimidine ring were prepared. The A-arm was modified in the para position (F or OMe) and linked to the central pyrimidine core with a variable spacer (CO, O, NH). Antiviral activities of 20 compounds were measured against wild type human immunodeficiency virus-1 and mutant reverse transcriptase strains (K103N, Y181C) using a cytoprotection assay. To the most promising structural motives belong the o, o-difluoro- p-methoxy A-arm in position 4, and the amino group in position 6 of pyrimidine. Single digit nanomolar activities with no significant toxicity (CC50 > 17,000 nM) were found for compounds 35 (EC50 = 2 nM), 37 (EC50 = 3 nM), and 13 (EC50 = 4 nM) having O, NH, and CO linkers, respectively.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química
20.
Bioorg Chem ; 86: 437-444, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771690

RESUMO

A series of pyrazolo[3.4,d]thiazole hybrids 6 were synthesized from 5-arylidene-2-imino-3-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-ones 5. The 5-arylidene-2-imino-3-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-ones 5 were synthesized from 2-amino-4-arylthiazoles 1 and 2-chloro-acetamido-4-arylthiazoles 2 via the formation of 2-imino-3-(4-substituted-arylthiazol-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-ones 3 using substituted aldehydes 4. The 5-acrylidene derivative 5 on cyclisation with phenyl hydrazine give the pyrazolo [3, 4, d] thiazole derivatives 6. The obtained pyrazolo [3.4, d]thiazole derivatives were studied as anti-HIV-1 NNRT inhibitors. It was found that these compounds might have potent RT inhibition activity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , HIV/enzimologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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